AG magazine (in print)
Online magazine (pdf)
Online articles (html)
Literature- and poster projects
of the real lizards, family Lacertidae
Gallotia BOULENGER, 1916
Abreu-Acosta, N. & Foronda Rodriguez, P. & Valladares, B. & Casanova, J.C. (2006) -
Raillietiella morenoi sp. n., a new cephalobae- nid pentastomid found in the lungs of Gallotia atlantica collected in the Canary Islands, is described. The new species belongs to the sharp-tipped posterior-hook type. The annulus number, morphology, and dimensions of copulatory spicules and the dimensions of anterior and posterior hooks separate Raillietiella sp. n. from the other raillietiedid sharp-tipped posterior-hook species of small lizard parasites in Africa. The host character of endemic protected species of G. atlantica in Alegranza Island posed great difficulty in obtaining more parasite materials. However, more studies are required to state the variability of this species and its possible distribution in other species in the Canary Islands, as well as in other Gallotia spp.
Acosta, P.F. & Molina-Borja, M. (2016) -
Se describe un comportamiento previamente no observado en el lagarto de Boettger (Gallotia caesaris). Varios ejemplares de la subespecie G. caesaris caesaris se subieron al dorso de un águila pescadora (Pandion haliaetus) y comieron allí moscas parásitas (Diptera, Hippoboscidae) que estaban sobre las plumas; el águila pescadora se hallaba en un nido situado en la costa del mar de las Calmas en la isla de El Hierro. Este comportamiento es otro caso de mutualismo (simbiosis de limpieza) ya que puede contribuir a mejorar la salud de las águilas pescadoras y, por otra parte, es un suplemento alimenticio para los lagartos.
Afonso, O. & Mateo, J.A. (2005) -
Afonso, O. & Mateo, J.A. (2009) -
Afonso, O.M. & Del Carmen Alfayate, M. & Mora, R. (2006) -
The critical state of the Gallotia bravoana species demands the use of hardware that helps its conservation. The analysis of its diet provides valuable information that can be used for this purpose, It is already improving the breeding program in captivity, fine-tuning the process of selection of future areas for releasing populations or helping in the search for new populations in other points of the island and allowing for an approach to the process of growth in freedom and, in short, its demography. The study of the diet of this species has been carried out through a micro-histological analysis of fecal samples. To achieve satisfactory identification a reference collection of epidermal tissues of stems, sheets, flowers (pollen) and fruits (seeds) has been used. The results clarify that it is a herbivorous animal in which very few species have significant importance. They also consume animal prey, and display a trophic plasticity that is justified by the scarcity of resources.
Albaladejo Robles, G. & Rodriguez Rodriguez, N. (2014) -
Gallotia, es un género endémico de lacértidos de Canarias representado por 7 especies actuales (Arnold, 1973; 2007; Arnold et al., 2007) y de 10 a 13 subespecies de lagartos (Bischoff, 1985; López-Jurado, 1991). Los lagartos gigantes de las islas
Albaladejo, G. (2014) -
Albaladejo, G. (2016) -
Albaladejo, G. & Martin, A. & Sämann, J. & Pfau, B. (2015) -
Die Gesprenkelte Kanareneidechse, Gallotia intermedia, ist eine für Teneriffa endemische Art. Sie kommt in zwei getrennten Populationen vor, eine im Nordwesten der Insel (in den Klippen von Los Gigantes) und eine in der Nähe der Südspitze (Klippen von Guaza). Die Populationen sind jeweils recht klein, 280-460 beziehungsweise ca. 900 Tiere. In beiden Fällen kommen die Tiere von Meereshöhe bis zum Gipfel der Klippen vor, und sie können auch in steilen Schluchten ein paar hundert Meter ins Inselinnere vordringen. Die Eidechsen gelten als vom Aussterben bedroht. Die Hauptbedrohung geht von verwilderten Katzen und Ratten aus.
Alfayate, M.C. & Mora, R. (2005) -
Alfayate, M.C. & Santos, E. & Yanes, C. & Casañas, N. & Viñoly, R. & del Mar Romero-Alemán, M. & Monzón-Mayor, M. (2011) -
Spontaneous regrowth of the axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) occurs after unilateral optic nerve transection (ONT) in the lizard Gallotia galloti. We have performed an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of the conus papillaris (CP) of this lizard during ontogeny and after ONT in order to characterize its cell subpopulations, innervation and putative blood-brain barrier (BBB) and to evaluate changes occurring throughout regeneration. Proliferating PCNA+ cells were abundant between embryonic stage 33 (E33) and hatching. From E33, we observed Pax2+/GS+ glial cells in the primitive CP, which became increasingly pigmented and vascularised from E35. Conal astrocytes coexpressing Pax2 with vimentin and/or GFAP were identified from E37-E38. GluT-1+/LEA+/Pax2- endothelial cells (ECs) formed a continuous endothelium with tight junctions and luminal and abluminal microfolds. In adults, the peripheral blood vessels showed a thinner calibre, stronger GluT-1 staining and more abundant microfolds than those of the central CP indicating the higher specialization involved during transport within the former. Occasional pericytes, abundant Pax2+ pigment cells, LEA+ microglia/macrophages, unmyelinated Tuj1+ nerve fibres and SV2+ synaptic vesicles were also observed in the perivascular zone. After ONT, the expression of GluT-1 and p75NTR persisted in ECs, suggesting the preservation/early recovery of the BBB. Relevant ultrastructural alterations were observed at 0.5 months postlesion, although, by 3 months, the CP had recovered the ultrastructure of controls indicating tissue recovery. Abnormal newly formed blood vessels had developed in the CP-optic nerve junction. Thus, the CP is a central nervous system structure whose regenerating capacity might be key for the nutritional support of regenerating RGCs in G. galloti.
Algar, A.C. & López-Darias, M. (2016) -
Identifying the factors generating ecomorphological diversity within species can provide a window into the nascent stages of ecological radiation. Sexual dimorphism is an obvious axis of intraspecific morphological diversity that could affect how environmental variation leads to ecological divergence among populations. In this paper we test for sex-specific responses in how environmental variation generates phenotypic diversity within species, using the generalist lizard Gallotia galloti on Tenerife (Canary Islands). We evaluate two hypotheses: the first proposes that different environments have different phenotypic optima, leading to shifts in the positions of populations in morphospace between environments; the second posits that the strength of trait-filtering differs between environments, predicting changes in the volume of morphospace occupied by populations in different environments. We found that intraspecific morphological diversity, provided it is adaptive, arises from both shifts in populations’ position in morphospace and differences in the strength of environmental filtering among environments, especially at high elevations. However, effects were found only in males; morphological diversity of females responded little to environmental variation. These results within G. galloti suggest natural selection is not the sole source of phenotypic diversity across environments, but rather that variation in the strength of, or response to, sexual selection may play an important role in generating morphological diversity in environmentally diverse settings. More generally, disparities in trait–environment relationships among males and females also suggest that ignoring sex differences in studies of trait dispersion and clustering may produce misleading inferences.
Alomar, M.N. (2015) -
Poikilothermic animals show a strong dependence on environmental temperature. However, they are able to adjust their body temperature through behavioral and partial physiological thermoregulatory adjustments. In this way, they optimize the heat loss and gains to keep the body within a range of thermal preference and to allow maximizing their physiological efficiency. A group of Gallotia galloti lizards were placed in a terrarium with a wide thermal variation in different regions. In this way, the animals were able to select the most thermally comfortable region. However, they should leave this region to get food, which was placed in a cold region, with a temperature far away from the comfort temperature. The time-lapse thermographic cinematography recordings allowed recording the environmental and body temperatures as well as the variations in different parts of the animal body in function to the temperature of the environment. In this way, it was found that the cephalic temperature was maintained within the 33 – 37 range in spite of occasional visits, the coldest spot in the terrarium at 13ºC to get food. Most frequently, the animals preferred to stay in 25-30ºC regions, while maintaining a cephalic temperature of up to 10ºC higher.
Amador, A.V. (1999) -
Ananjeva, N. & Borkin, L. & Darevsky, I. & Orlov, N. (1988) -
Anonymous (1900) -
Anonymous (1978) -
Anonymous (1994) -
Anonymous (1996) -
Anonymous (1997) -
Anonymous (2000) -
Anonymous (2002) -
Anonymous (2003) -
Anonymous (2013) -
Eine Forschungsgruppe der Universitäten La Laguna und Gran Canaria hat entdeckt, dass die kanarische Eidechsenart Gallotia galloti in der Lage ist, den Sehnerv zu reparieren, wenn er beschädigt wird.
Anonymous (2020) -
Arano, B. & Herrero, P. & Astudilla, G. (1999) -
Cytogenetic analysis and the patterns of alloenzyme migration were used to analyse the possible endogamic depression caused by the scarce number of specimens of the lizard still in existence. The karyotype of Gallotia simonyi has a chromosome pattern of 2N = 40 (38 accrocentric and 2 microchromosomes with a pair of NOR located in telomeric position at pair 19). There would appear to be no chromosomic definition for sex nor do variations appear in the layout of C bands over the various individuals. Protein electrophoresis has shown that all individuals are monomorphous over the 32 loci analysed. This fact reveals absence of heterocygosity and polymorphism. From the results, we discuss the possibility of total loss of genetic diversity and the application of other techniques towards confirming this extreme (analysis of mini- and macro-satellites). An optimisation of the present cross breeding system used for the specimens in captivity is proposed in order to palliate the high rates of endogamy.
Arechavaleta, M. & S. Rodríguez & N. Zurita & A. García (coord.) (2010) -
Armengol, I. & de Urioste, J.A. (2013) -
Arnold, E.N. (1973) -
Algyroides fitzingeri, Algyroides marchi, Algyroides moreoticus, Algyroides nigropunctatus, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta lepida, Lacerta princeps, Lacerta schreiberi, Lacerta strigata, Lacerta trilineata, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta andreanszkyi, Lacerta armeniaca, Lacerta bedriagae, Lacerta brandtii, Lacerta cappadocica, Lacerta caucasica, Lacerta chlorogaster, Lacerta cyanura, Lacerta danfordi, Lacerta derjugini, Lacerta dugesii, Lacerta fraasii, Lacerta graeca, Lacerta horvathi, Lacerta jayakari, Lacerta laevis, Lacerta monticola, Lacerta mosorensis, Lacerta oxycephala, Lacerta parva, Lacerta perspicillata, Lacerta praticola, Lacerta rudis, Lacerta saxicola, Lacerta vivipara, Gallotia atlantica, Gallotia galloti, Gallotia simonyi, Podarcis erhardii, Podarcis filfolensis, Podarcis hispanica, Podarcis lilfordi, Podarcis melisellensis, Podarcis milensis, Podarcis muralis, Podarcis peloponnesiaca, Podarcis pityusensis, Podarcis sicula, Podarcis taurica, Podarcis tiliguerta, Podarcis wagleriana, Psammodromus algirus, Psammodromus blanci, Psammodromus hispanicus, Psammodromus microdactylus.
Arnold, E.N. (1989) -
Relationships of lacertid lizards were assessed on the basis of 84 primary and 112 binary characters drawn mainly from morphology, including features of the skeleton, external anatomy, various internal soft part systems and two aspects of behaviour. Among features not previously used, or not fully investigated before, are structure of the septomaxilla and nasal passages, arranged of the xiphisternal cartilages, mite pockets, kidney position, ulnar nerve arragement, thoracic fascia, aspects of the hemipenis and its associated muscles, female genitalia and jaw muscles. On the basis of parsimony analysis and compatibilty treatment of this character set, the Lacertidae fall into two main portions: A paraphyletic Palaearctic and Oriental group of primitive forms, from which is derived a holophyletic assemblage of Ethiopian and advanced Saharan and Eurasian taxa.
The former group ist not fully resolvable, but Psammodromus and Gallotia appear to be sister groups and are probably related to Lacerta parva and L. fraasi and then L. brandtii, Podarcis appears to be related successively to L. andreanszkyi, the sister species L. dugesii and L. perspicillata, and perhaps L. danfordi and L. laevis. This assemblage may be related to archaeolacertas and Algyroides. The separation of Lacerta lepida, L. pater and L. princeps from the agilis group, based on chemical evidence, is weakly contradicted by morphology. Takydromus may be most closely related to L. vivipara, and L. jayakari and L. cyanura constitute the most likely sister group of the Ethiopian and advanced Saharo-Eurasian assemblage.
Taxe in the Ethiopian and advanced SaharoEuroasian assemblage form a long essentially pectinate tree with relatively change between the side branches, except for a strong disjunction separating the more primitive from the more advanced taxa. Most of the former fall on two main branches, with ´Lacerta` australis and ´L.` rupicola possibly basal to them. 1. the Equatorial forest group containing Gastropholis, Bedriagaia, ´Lacerta` echinata, Adolfus, ´Lacerta` jacksoni and Holaspis. The first three of these constitute a holophyletic group and the same is probably true of the remainder. 2. Tropidosaura, Poromera and Nucras, the latter being the sister group of the more advanced forms. These include successively the Ethiopian Philochortus, Latastia, Ichnotropis and Heliobolus, Pseuderemias, Meroles and Aporosaura, and Pedioplanis, and then the Saharo-Eurasian Eremias, Acanthodactylus, Mesalina and Ophisops-Cabrita.
It seems probable that the ancestors of modern Lacertidae arose in western Eurasia, where the family is known since the Palaeocene and is still represented there largely by quite primitive forms (89 species and seven nominal genera). The family later invaded Africa, perhaps first in the early or middle Miocene. Relatively primitive lacertids spread widely in largely mesic situations in the Ethiopian region, radiating to some extent (six present genera and 16 species) and producing Nucras and the related series of advaned groups (eight genera and 54 species) whoich show increasing adaptation to xeric environments. These genera tend to have heir most primitive species in the northeast and north of the Ethiopian region. The most advaned gave rise to the Saharo-Eurasian clade, now made up to Eremias, Acanthodactylus, Mesalina and Ophisops-Cabrita. This invaded the arid areas of North Africa and Eurasia, where it is presently represented by 70 species. Many morphological changes in increasingly advanced lacertids may be functionally related to the problems of survival in arid, hot, open environments. Considerable ecological parallelism exists in lacertids, with members of separate stocks occupying similar niches in different geographical areas. Morphological adaptations associated with these niches contribute significantly to the high levels of character homoplasy found in the family. There is also some correlation between the degree of niche differentiation in various groups and the quality of the phylogenies that can be produced from their physical characters. A number of morphological parallels exist between advaned lacertids and New World macroteiids. In the skull at least, advaned lacertids show a complex mixture of paedomorphosis and acceleration.
Nomenclatorial changes are as follows: Cabrita is synonymised with Ophisops, necessitating a new name, Ophisops nictans, for Cabrita jerdonii. Aporosaura is synonymised with Meroles, Platyplacopus with Takydromus, and Bedriagaia with Gastropholis. ´Lacerta` (or Centromastyx) echinata is also transferred to the latter genus and Lacerta jacksoni to Adolfus. ´Lacerta` australis and ´L.` rupicola are put in a new genus, Australolacerta. It is recommended that Lacerta dugesii and L. perspicillata should not be placed in the otherwise very uniform genus Podarcis. Although clearly paraphyletic, Lacerta s. lat. Should be retained at least for the present and, if necessary putative relationships within it indicated by informal groups or subgenera.
Arnold, E.N. (2002) -
Differences in surface structure (ober- hautchen) of body scales of lacertid lizards involve cell size, shape and surface profile, presence or absence of fine pitting, form of cell margins, and the occurrence of longitudinal ridges and pustular projections. Phylogenetic information indicates that the primitive pattern involved narrow strap-shaped cells, with low posteriorly overlapping edges and relatively smooth surfaces. Deviations from this condition produce a more sculptured surface and have developed many times, although subsequent overt reversals are uncommon. Like variations in scale shape, different patterns of dorsal body microornamentation appear to confer different and conflicting performance advantages. The primitive pattern may reduce friction during locomotion and also enhances dirt shedding, especially in ground-dwelling forms from moist habitats. However, this smooth microornamentation generates shine that may compromise cryptic coloration, especially when scales are large. Many derived features show correlation with such large scales and appear to suppress shine. They occur most frequently in forms from dry habitats or forms that climb in vegetation away from the ground, situations where dirt adhesion is less of a problem. Microornamentation differences involving other parts of the body and other squamate groups tend to corroborate this functional interpretation. Microornamentation features can develop on lineages in different orders and appear to act additively in reducing shine. In some cases different combinations may be optimal solutions in particular environments, but lineage effects, such as limited reversibility and different developmental proclivities, may also be important in their genesis. The fine pits often found on cell surfaces are unconnected with shine reduction, as they are smaller than the wavelengths of most visible light.
Arnold, E.N. & Arribas, O. & Carranza, S. (2007) -
DNA sequence indicates the Lacertidae contain two subfamilies, Gallotiinae and Lacertinae, the latter comprising two
monophyletic tribes, the Eremiadini of Africa and arid southwest and central Asia, and the Lacertini of Europe, northwest
Africa and southwest and east Asia. Relationships within the 108 species of Lacertini are explored using mtDNA
(291 bp cytochrome b; 329 bp 12S rRNA for 59 nominal species, and reanalysis of the data of Harris et al. 1998, and Fu
2000). The morphology of the tribe is reviewed and 64 of its characters (equivalent to 83 binary ones) also used to assess
relationships. The Lacertini are assigned to 19 monophyletic units of 1 to 27 species, recognised here as the following
genera (contents are indicated in brackets): Algyroides, Anatololacerta gen. nov. (L. danfordi group), Apathya (L. cappadocica
group), Archaeolacerta (L. bedriagae), Dalmatolacerta gen. nov. (L. oxycephala), Darevskia (L. saxicola group),
Dinarolacerta gen. nov. (L. mosorensis), Hellenolacerta gen. nov. (L. graeca), Iberolacerta (L. monticola group), Iranolacerta
gen. nov. (L. brandtii and L. zagrosica), Lacerta s. str. (sand and green lizards, L. agilis group), Parvilacerta gen.
nov. (L. parva and L. fraasii), Phoenicolacerta gen. nov. (L. laevis group), Podarcis (wall lizards), Scelarcis (L. perspicillata),
Takydromus (Asian grass lizards), Teira (L. dugesii), Timon (ocellated lizards, L. lepida group) and Zootoca (L.
vivipara). Both mtDNA and morphology indicate that Lacerta and Timon are sister taxa, and DNA suggests further possible
relationships among genera (Fig. 1, p. 6). Neither DNA nor morphology indicates that the archaeolacertas (sometimes
formalised as Archaeolacerta sens. lat.) form a clade. Instead, they are representatives of an ecomorph associated
with living on rock exposures and using the narrow crevices that these contain.
The Lacertidae probably arose in the European area, with the Gallotiinae later reaching Northwest Africa and the
Canary Islands, and the ancestor of the Eremiadini invading Africa in the mid-Miocene. The Lacertini spread through
much of their present European range and diversified, perhaps largely by repeated vicariance, around 12–16 My ago,
producing the ancestors of the present mainly small-bodied genera, which then underwent often modest speciation. Three
units spread more widely: the Lacerta-Timon clade of large-bodied lizards probably dispersed earliest, followed by Algyroides
and then Podarcis. Overall, European Lacertidae show a pattern of repeated spread, often accompanied by restriction
of previous groups. Expansion of Lacertini may have displaced earlier lacertid lineages from all or much of Europe;
while spread of Podarcis may have restricted many other genera of Lacertini. The earlier expansion of the Lacerta-Timon
clade probably did not have this effect, as difference in adult body size restricted competitive interaction with other
forms. Several invasions of more distant areas also occurred: of East Asia by Takydromus over 10 My ago, and more
recently of northwest Africa by Podarcis, Scelarcis and Timon, and Madeira by Teira.
Relationships within the Eremiadini estimated from both mtDNA, and nDNA differ considerably from those based
on morphology. They indicate relatively mesic forms may have diversified widely across Africa and given rise to at least
three independent invasions of arid habitats. MtDNA also indicates that Lacerta andreanskyi belongs in the Eremiadini
and may occupy a basal position there. It is assigned to a further new genus, Atlantolacerta gen. nov.
Arnold, N. (2004) -
Arribas, O.J. (2012) -
In this paper we deal on the ultraviolet color (invisible to us): where we can find it, the capability of animals to see it and the advantages that this color perception offers to them. As the simplest way to detect it is the photography, we describe and review how to photograph the UV, as a result of 15 years of amateur experience, searching
and testing nearly in complete blindness due to the lack of practical information about “how to do it”. We describe the different kinds of photography (chemical and digital); the cameras and objectives suitable (both astronomically expensive ones and cheap options); what are the best characteristics that the objectives should have for this purpose; the films suitable for their use in chemical photography; the different filters (current or discontinued) manufactured along the years; and the subtle combinations among the different materials to obtain pure UV photographs. This
kind of scientific photography is mainly used in forensics, forgery detection, art dermatology and less in Natural History, despite the fact that a great part of animals see this color and use it in important questions of their biology as the social behavior, mate choice or the food search.
Arribas, O.J. (2019) -
The microornamentation of the scales (oberhautchen) has been studied by means of enamel casts (in negative), or with detached skin pieces (positive cast in the upper face or negative in their lower face of the scales) and its observation by transparency with optical microscopy at 40x, 400x and 1000x. In this study we have found a remarkable uniformity in all genera of Lacertini studied (already known, although significantly expanding the number of species previously studied). In light of the results obtained, it seems that the use of the microornamentation of the scales in taxonomy is limited. There is a remarkable degree of variation and probably of homoplasy, as it happens in so many characters of Lacertini. Nor is it clearly linked to certain conditions of the environment, although it may have a certain importance in mechanisms such as evapotranspiration and perhaps in the crypsis through its influence on the reflectance of the scales. These scales can present protuberances (like small tubercles) on their surface (derived character) in Algyroides (the four species), and in the case of Algyroides marchi also seems to present small pits on its scale surface. In most lacertids the cells of the “oberhautchen” are usually narrow (or short anteroposteriorly, if preferred), between 1 and 4 μm, having the appearance of ribbons or transverse straps. Smaller sizes (derivated) appear more or less marked in Algyroides spp, Darevskia praticola complex, Parvilacerta spp and in Dinarolacerta mosorensis (although not in D. montenegrina) and is difficult to interpret. Except in Dinarolacerta, in the other species it coincides that they are ground or ground-rock interface species, and the coarser stripes could have to do with reflectance (imitating the vegetation or the medium between which they move, according to the hypothesis of Allam et al.). In the case of Dinarolacerta, very saxicolous, it is probably the sister group of Algyroides and the common morphology could have a phylogenetic origin linked to its relationship with Algyroides. There is also no relationship with moisture since some come from dry places and others are from very wet areas. The posterior flange of the cells may be slightly mounted in the next cell (primitive character) but appears quite raised (derived character) in Algyroides nigropunctatus (much less in A. moreoticus and A. marchi, and apparently little or nothing in A. fitzingeri). The rear flange of the cells can be smooth, corrugated or notched. In our samples, irregular (and even dentate) posterior ridges appear in numerous Darevskia such as D. derjugini, D. parvula, D. raddei complex [D. raddei raddei, D. r. vanensis and D. nairensis], in part of the group of D. rudis [D. rudis sspp. and D. bithynica sspp.], several Iberolacerta (I. bonnali, I. horvathi and I. monticola astur), as well as in Teira dugesii. The character appears, although less marked in Algyroides (more in A. moreoticus, but less marked or barely visible in the others), in Hellenolacerta graeca, and other Iberolacerta (I. aurelioi, I. martinezricai, and scarcely marked in I. cyreni). Very little marked in Darevskia mixta, somewhat more in D. dryada and none in D. clarkorum, and also appears in the group of D. saxicola (D. saxicola, D. brauneri brauneri, D. b. darevskii, D. lindholdmi, D. szczerbaki), Dalmatolacerta oxycephala, Dinarolacerta mosorensis (only in the Biokovo sample, and not in Durmitor or D. montenegrina), Apathya cappadocica, in some places of the scales of Parvilacerta fraasii (but not in P. parva) and very little in D. (p) hungarica; also in the remaining group of D. rudis (D. valentini valentini, D. v. lantzicyreni, D. rudis bolkardaghica, D. portschinskii), and some parthenogenetic species (D. armeniaca, D. dahli, D. rostombekowi) but not in D. unisexualis, D. uzzelli, D. sapphirina, D. bendimahiensis or in the triploid hybrid between D. unisexualis and D. nairensis. In these parthenogenetic species it seems a general rule that the character of the crenulation or irregularity of the posterior flange of the cells resembles that of the paternal rather than the maternal species. The exception is the triploid hybrid [arisen from the hybridization of D. unisexualis (parthenogenetic female, without the character) and a male of D. nairensis (with fairly developed character)] that lacks character, and in this case is more similar to the maternal species of which has two genetic sets compared to only one of the paternal one.
Astasio-Abriza, P. & Zapatero-Ramos, L.M. & Ojeda-Rosas, C. & Solera-Puertas, M.A. (1987) -
Atkins, J.D. & Franz-Odendaal, T.A. (2016) -
The sclerotic ring consists of several bones that form in the sclera of many reptiles. This element has not been well studied in squamates, a diverse order of reptiles with a rich fossil record but debated phylogeny. Squamates inhabit many environments, display a range of behaviours, and have evolved several different body plans. Most importantly, many species have secondarily lost their sclerotic rings. This research investigates the presence of sclerotic rings in squamates and traces the lineage of these bones across evolutionary time. We compiled a database on the presence/absence of the sclerotic ring in extinct and extant squamates and investigated the evolutionary history of the sclerotic ring and how its presence/absence and morphology is correlated with environment and behaviour within this clade. Of the 400 extant species examined (59 families, 214 genera), 69% have a sclerotic ring. Those species that do not are within Serpentes, Amphisbaenia, and Dibamidae. We find that three independent losses of the sclerotic ring in squamates are supported when considering both evolutionary and developmental evidence. We also show that squamate species that lack, or have a reduced, sclerotic ring, are fossorial and headfirst burrowers. Our dataset is the largest squamate dataset with measurements of sclerotic rings, and supports previous findings that size of the ring is related to both environment occupied and behaviour. Specifically, scotopic species tend to have both larger inner and outer sclerotic ring apertures, resulting in a narrower ring of bone than those found in photopic species. Non-fossorial species also have a larger sclerotic ring than fossorial species. This research expands our knowledge of these fascinating bones; with further phylogenetic analyses scleral ossicles could become an extremely useful character trait for inferring the behaviour of fossil squamates.
Ayllón, E. & Toledo, Y. & Santiago, J. (2020) -
Baeckens, S. & Edwards, S. & Huyghe, K. & Van Damme, R. (2015) -
Animals communicate via a variety of sensory channels and signals. Studies on acoustic and visual communication systems suggest that differences in the physical environment contribute to the variety of signalling behaviour, with species investing in those signals that are transmitted best under the local conditions. Whether or not environmental tuning also occurs in chemical communication systems has received much less attention. In the present study, we examined the effect of several aspects of the physical environment on the chemical communication system of lacertid lizards (family Lacertidae). The numbers of femoral pores are used as a proxy reflecting how much a particular species invests in and relies upon chemical signalling. Femoral pores are specialized epidermal structures that function as a secretion channel for the waxy substance produced by glands. In some lacertid species, the secretion carries infochemicals that play an important role in social communication. The number of femoral pores varies considerably among species. We have compiled data on femoral pore numbers for 162 species and tested for the effects of climate and substrate use. After correcting for body size and taking the phylogenetic relationships among the species into account, we found no effect of climate conditions or latitude on species pore numbers. Substrate use did affect pore numbers: shrub-climbing species tended to have fewer femoral pores than species inhabiting other substrates.
Báez Fumero, M. (2002) -
Báez, M. (1984) -
Báez, M. (1985) -
Die Thermoregulation von Gallotia galloti von Teneriffa wurde im Frühjahr und im Herbst untersucht. Die vorläufigen Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, daß die Art über ein hohes Maß an thermischer Unabhängigkeit verfügt in bezug auf Substrat- und Lufttemperatur.
Báez, M. (1987) -
Females of Gallotia galloti on the island of Tenerife usually produce 3 to 6 eggs, the exact number being correlated to the size of the female. The present data is based on the study of 39 egg bearing females captured over several years.
Baez, M. (1987) -
Baez, M. (1997) -
Báez, M. & Bravo, T. (1983) -
The study of two speimens of Gallotia simonyi, that were captured on Roque de Fuera (Anaga, Tenerife), has confirmed the presence, up to fairly recent times, of the last population of this species on the island of Tenerife. The mentioned population has been completely exterminated within the last 50 years by man.
Báez, M. & Thorpe, R.S. (1985) -
Die geographische Variation von 6 Schuppenmerkmalen der Gallotia galloti von 17 Fundstellen der Insel Teneriffa wurde mit Hilfe der Kanonischen Varianzanalyse untersucht. Es besteht ine signifikante Übereinstimmung in der geographischen Variation der Beschuppung von Männchen und Weibchen. Die Abgrenzung der multivariaten Felder zeigt, daß die geographische Variation der Beschuppung einem Nord-Süd-Klin folgt.
Bannert, B. (1992) -
Wild-caught specimens of the highly endangered giant lizard Gallotia simonyi, which is endemic to the Canary Island of Hierro, were examined for sarcosporidian parasites. One of the animals exhibited sarcocysts measutring 540 (range, 400-720) x 170 (range, 130-220) µm in the musculature of its tail. Feeding of these sarcocysts to a laboratory-reared G. simonyi resulted in the excretion of sporulated sporocysts measuring 8.8 (range, 7.8-9.4) x 6.9 (range, 6.2-7.8) µm. Following experimental transmission. I used light and electron microscopy and identified this parasite as Sarcocastis simonyi sp. No., which displays a dihomoxenous life cycle.
Bannert, B. (1993) -
Bannert, B. (1994) -
Lacertid lizards are known as hosts of coccidian parasites. The life cycles of some of these parasitic protozoa, particularly of the species of the genus Sarcocystis occurring in lizards from the Canary Islands, are presented. These Sarcosporidia exhibit an unusual mode of transmission, which is based on cannibalisrn.
Die vorliegende Arbeit befaßt sich mit der Morpholigie, Entwicklungsbiologie und Wirtspezifität der bereits beschriebenen Sarcocystis-Arten S. gallotiae, S. stehlinii und S. dugesii sowie neuer zystenbildenden Kokzidien von Halsbandeidechsen der Gattung Gallotia von den Kanarischen Inseln und der Art Podarcis dugesii von Madeira.
Die Untersuchung wildgefangener Lacertiden der Arten Gallotia atlantica von Lanzarote, G. simonyi und G. galloti caesaris von Hierro, G. g. gomerae von Gomera und G. g. palmae von La Palma zeigte, daß alle Arten bzw. Unterarten von Sorkosporidien parasitiert werden. Die Morphologie der drei beschriebenen Sarcocystis-Arten und der neuen zystenbildenden Kokzidien wurde licht- und elektronenmikroskopisch untersucht und verglichen. Trotz mehr oder weniger großer Ähnlichkeiten ließen sich die Sarkosporidienarten von G. atlantica und G. simonyi aufgrund morphologischer und weiterer Kriterien, insbesondere der Wirtspezifität, klar abgrenzen und als eigenständige Arten, Sarcocystis atlanticae n. sp. bzw. S. simonyi n. sp. beschreiben. Die Identität der Sarkosporidien aus den auf verschiedenen Inseln lebenden Wirtseidechsen dreier Unterarten von G. galloti, G. g. caesaris, G. g. gomerae und G. g. palmae, kann noch nicht abschließend beurteilt werden. Die in der Schwanzmuskulatur einer wildgefangenen Madeira-Mauereidechse, P. dugesii, gefundenen Gewebezysten, bei denen es sich nach den bisherigen Untersuchungen nicht um Sarkosporidien handelt, werden als zystenbildende Kokzidien der Gattung Besnoitia angesehen.
Hinsichtlich des Übertragungsweges dieser Parasiten konnte mit laborgezogenen, parasitenfreien Kanareneidechsen experimentell nachgewiesen werden, daß S. atlanticae, S. simonyi, S. sp. von G. g. caesaris, S. sp. von G. g. gomerae und S. sp. von G. g. palmae einen dihomoxenen Lebenszyklus haben.
Die Ergebnisse dieser Arbeit bezüglich der Entwicklung der dihomoxenen Sarkosporidien in der Muskulatur des jeweiligen Zwischenwirtes belegen ein langsames, kontinuierliches Wachstum der Gewebezysten über Jahre. Bei den um den 60. Tag p.i. untersuchten Arten S. gallotiae,S. dugesii und S. atlanticae wurden nur unreife, mit Metrozyten gefüllte Zysten gefunden. Bei allen Arten konnten erst etwa um den 100. Tag p.i. in den jeweils größten Zysten auch Bradyzoiten festgestellt werden. Bei S. gallotiae und S. stehlinii erreichten die Zysten erst nach ca. 3,5 Jahren (1225 bzw. 1231 Tagen p.i. etwa die Größe, wie sie auch aus Wildfängen beschrieben ist.
Die Untersuchungen, die zum Auffinden der Schizogonie von S. gallotiae im Zwischenwirt durchgeführt wurden, erbrachten nicht das gewünschte Ergebnis. Schizonten konnten bisher nicht nachgewiesen werden.
Von S. atlanticae und S. simonyi wurde die endogene Entwicklung im Endwirt beobachtet. Die Gamogonie beider Arten verläuft in Epithelzellen des Dünndarms ihrer Wirtseidechsen. Wahrend S. atlanticae besonders das vordere Drittel des Dünndarms befällt, konnte für S. simonyi kein bestimmter Dünndarmabschnitt als Infektionsort ermittelt werden.
In Übertragungsexperimenten mit parasitenfreien Nachzuchteidechsen verschiedener Arten der Gattungen Gallotia, Lacerta, Podarcis und Psammodromus wurde die Ende- und Zwischenwirtspezifität der dihomexenen Sarkosporidien überprüft. Die Verfütterung von Sarkozysten der acht Sarcocystis-Isolate aus experimentell infizierten Eidechsen führte bei allen getesteten Tieren zur Ausscheidung von Oozysten und Sporozysten. Für keine der untersuchten dihomoxenen Sarkosporidien konnte eine Endwirtspezifität innerhalb der Familie Lacertidae festgestellt werden. Echsen der Gattungen Chalcides und Tarentola, die mit Sarkozysten von S. gallotiae bzw. S. atlanticae gefüttert worden waren, erwiesen sich als unempfänglich für diese Infektionen und schieden keine Oozyten oder Sporozysten aus. Bezüglich der Zwischenwirtspezifität zeigten die einzelnen Sarcozystis-Isolate sehr unterschiedliche Ergebnisse. Die Inokulation verschiedener lacertider Eidechsen mit experimentell gewonnenen Sporozysten führte zum Teil zu sehr unterschiedlich intensiven Muskelzysteninfektionen. Die dihomoxenen Sarkosporidien erwiesen sich innerhalb ihrer eigenen Wirtstiergattung Gallotia im allgemeinen als nur sehr eingeschränkt übertragbar und zeigten die beste Entwicklung in ihrem jeweiligen eigenen natürlichen Zwischenwirt. Die beiden morphologisch sehr ähnlichen Arten S. gallotiae und S. atlanticae waren nur eingeschränkt kreuzübertragbar. Während letztere sich sowohl auf ihre eigene Wirtsart G. atlantica als auch auf G. galloti übertragen ließ, gelang es nicht, S. gallotiae auf G. atlantica zu übertragen.
Die elektrophoretische Proteinauftrennung der dihomoxenen Sarkosporidien zeigte hinsichtlich der Musterbildung relativ große Übereinstimmungen. Dennoch wurden auch deutliche Unterschiede sichtbar, die zur Abgrenzung dieser sehr nah miteinander verwandten Parasiten beitragen und im Einklang stehen mit den Ergebnissen der anderen Untersuchungen zu dieser Parasitengruppe. Im Falle der bisher nicht identifizierten Sarkosporidien aus den Unterarten G. galloti spiegelt sich die taxonomisch ebenfalls ungeklärte Situation der Wirtstiere wider. Die Frage nach der geographischen Verbreitung der dihomoxenen Sarkosporidien auf den Makaronesischen Inseln sowie die Frage nach dem sympatrischen Vorkommen dieser Sarkosporidienarten kann erst beantwortet werden, wenn sich die Parasiten von den verschiedenen Wirten und den unterschiedlichen Inseln taxonomisch zuordnen lassen.
Bannert, B. (1998) -
The longevity of several lacertid lizard species in captivity is reported. The conditions of keeping, which have been successful throughout many years, are briefly presented.
The lizard species Gallotia atlantica, G. caesaris, G. galloti eisentrauti, and G. stehlini from the Canary Islands and Teira dugesii from Madeira were kept and bred in captivity. Since ecological data concerning the breeding biology of these species are rare, the results of several years of captive breeding are presented. Data were collected from six pairs of G. atlantica during five years. The females laid 1-3 clutches of eggs each year between April and the beginning of September. The first egg clutches of a year contained 2.7 (1-5) eggs and the second egg clutches consisted of 2.5 (1-4) eggs. Third egg clutches were rare and consisted of only 1.7 (1-2) eggs. The baby lizards hatched after 73 (64-87) days. Three pairs of G. caesaris were observed during three years. Between the middle of May and the end of July the females of this species laid one clutch per year containing 3.8 (3-5) eggs. Only one female produced a second clutch during one season. The young hatched after 67 (64- 69) days. Eight pairs of G. g. eisentrauti were observed during seven years. Between the beginning of May and the end of August these females oviposited annually 1-2 clutches, which contained 4.7 (2-9) eggs in the first clutch of a year and 3.4 (2-6) eggs in the second annual clutch. The young hatched after 73 (62-89) days. One pair of G. stehlini was observed over a period of six years. Between June and August this female produced annually one clutch containing 9.8 (5-14) eggs. The young hatched after 80 (75-86) days. Two pairs of Teira dugesii were observed during one year and two pairs during four years. Between the end of April and the middle of August the females produced 1-2 clutches per year with 2.6 (2-3) eggs in the first and 2.1 (1-3) eggs in the second clutch of a year. The incubation period of the eggs was 72 (59-93) days. Furthermore, sizes of hatchlings of all species are presented. Colour patterns of hatchlings of G. g. eisentrauti, G. caesaris, and G. atlantica are described. Observations concerning the raising of the young in captivity are reported.
Bannert, B. & Lux, E. & Sedlaczek, J. (1995) -
The lizards of the genus Gallotia, which are endemic to the Canary Islands, are studied for their endo- and ectoparasites. The island-dwelling omnivorous lizards harbor protozoan parasites of the genus Sarcocystis which reveal an unusual cannibalistic mode of transmission. Haemogregarine blood parasites of as yet undetermined taxonomic status have recently been found in three Gallotia-species. An undescribed bloodsucking mite of the genus Ophionyssus, which was found on G. galloti from Tenerife, is suspected to be involved in the life cycle on the protozoan blood parasites. Further investigations on the presented parasites concerning their taxonomy, morphology, biology, and ecology are necessary.
Barahona, F. (1998) -
Barahona, F. & Barbadillo, L. J. (1998) -
Intra- und interspecific variation are analysed fpr the post-natal skull of the lacertid lizards Gallotia galloti, Actnhodactylus erythrurus, Algyroides marchi, Lacerta monticola, Lacerta vivipara, Podarcis bocagei, Podarcis hispanica, Podarcis muralis, Psammodromus algirus and Psammodromus hispanicus. Individual variations identified include: the prsence/absence, number and morphology of some structures, mainly in the lacrimal, sclerotic ossicles and macilla; the number and location of foramina and the degree of ossification of some processes in chondrocranial bones. No differences bones. No differences have been found between the sexes with respect to presence and morphology of the bones but some species show sexual dimorphism in the size and robustness of the head and this may be reflected in the individual. The most substantial variations seen are ontogenetic: the appearances of new traits; development of articulations; differences between species in the timing of the stages of development of a given structure; changes in the relative position of some cranial elements; and the degree of calcification or ossification of processes. A total of 63 characters showing interspecific variations are identified. Some have not previously been described while others used in previous studies are redefined here on the basis of new morphological information obtained.
Barahona, F. & Evans, S.E. & Mateo, J.A. & Garcia-Márquez, M. & López-Jurado, L.F. (2000) -
In the Canary Islands five extant and two extinct giant lacertid lizards belonging to the endemic genus Gallotia are known. A comparative study of the living and subfossil specimens from the Western Canary Islands demonstrates that the extinct giant species Gallotia goliath and Gallotia maxima are synonymous with the living Gallotia simonyi. Characters formerly used in the diagnosis of the extinct species and subspecies fall within the range of intraspecific variation (ontogenetic and individual) of the living species. The only significant difference between living and subfossil populations of G. simonyi is size, and there is strong evidence to suggest that the reduction in size in living populations reflects shorter life expectancy, a factor that should be taken into account in the current conservation projects on this species.
Barahona, F. & López-Jurado, L.F. & Mateo, J. A. (1998) -
We carried out a morphological study of the skeleton throughout the nastnatal ontogeny in Gallotia spp. With the aim of defining characteristics that could be used in the diagnosis and identification of the 5 species that make up this genus. A total of 19 osteological characters showing interspecific variation are identified, some of them have not been previously described, and fifiteen of them also vary during the ontogeny:
1) Arrangement of the posterior projections of the dentary. All juveniles with ventral process longer than dorsal one. Adults of G. caesaris and G. atlantica with projections almost the same size, but G. galloti, G. simonyi and G. stehlini with dorsal process longer than ventral.
2) Crown morphology in the premaxilla. Monocuspid teeth in adult and throughout ontogeny in G. atlantica, G. galloti and G. caesaris, but with some bicuspid/tricuspid teeth in adults of G. stehlini and G. simonyi.
3) Adult tooth number in the premaxilla. 7 in G. casesaris and G. atlantica, up to 8 in G. galloti and more than 8 in G. simonyi and G. stehlini.
4) Crown morphology in the dentary and maxilla. Teeth in juveniles of G. atlantica are monocuspid (a few teeth with an incipient anterior cuspule can appear in posterior positions), while in juveniles of G. galloti, G. caesaris and G. stehlini, only 2 or 3 anterior teeth are monocuspid and/or bicuspid and the remaining teeth are tricuspid. Adults of G. atlantica have more biscuspid teeth than monocuspid teeth, with some tricuspid teeth occasionally posteriorly. G. galloti and G. simonyi have a majority of tricuspid teeth, while G. caesaris has bi- or tricuspid teeth in almost the same proportions. G. stehlini has a majority of multicuspid teeth (4, 5 and 6 cusps) rather than mono-, bi- or tricuspid teeth.
5) Tooth crown with margins divergent in G. stehlini and G. simonyi and in parallel in the remaining species.
6) Margins of the posterodorsal process of the premaxilla parallel except in adult of G. atlantica where the process is an arrow shaped.
7) Frotals are usually paired in Gallotia spp., but there is a tendency towards fusion in adults of G. galloti, G. caesaris, G. atlantica laurae and G. stehlini.
8) Anteromedial process of the pterygoid is straight in all species except in adults of G. atlantica where it is stepped.
9) Pterygoid tooth number. Pterygoid teeth are absent in hatchlings but appear early in postnatal ontogeny. Numbers of pterygoids teeth vary as follows: G. atlantica (0-4), G. stehlini (0-25), G. galloti (0-8), G. caesaris (0-9) and G. simonyi (?-27).
10) Arrangement of the pterygoid teeth. In juveniles of all species pterygoid teeth starts in a row, a condition retained by adults of G. galloti, G. atlantica and G. caesaris. In G. stehlini, further teeth erupt laterally, producing a patch pattern on a bony concretion in the adult. In G. simonyi, a second row erupts in a lateral position, giving a tick-shaped pattern with the medial row longer than the lateral one.
11) Jugal shelf with a medium process in G. galloti, G. caesaris and G. atlantica. Variable in G. stehlini and absent in G. simonyi.
12) Quadratojugal process of jugal absent in G. atlantica and present in the remaining species, although in adults of G. caesaris and G. galloti this process has lost its posterior embayment.
13) Margins of the posterior process of palatine convergent except in G. stehlini where are in parallel.
14) Supratrigeminal process absent in juveniles and present in adults of all species except in G. atlantica and G. caesaris where this character is variable.
15) Retroartiucular process of the articular straight in adults of G. galloti, G. caesaris and G. atlantica but ventrally deflected in adults of G. simonyi and G. stehlini.
16) Infratemporal osteoderms present in subadults and adults of all species except in G. galloti and G. caesaris.
17) Posterolateral process of the clavicle expanded anteriorly in G. galloti and G. caesaris, absent in G. stehlini and variable in G. atlantica and G. simonyi.
18) Axis with a straight neural arch in G. atlantica and higher at the posterior end in adults of remaining species.
19) Depressed skull in large individuals of G. stehlini and G. simonyi, but flat inremaining species.
Barbadillo, L.J. & Lacomba, J.I. & Pérez-Mellado, V. & Sancho, V. & López-Jurado, L.F. (1999) -
Barone, R. & Hernandez, A. & Vizcaino, J. (2006) -
Barquin, E. & Nogales, M. & Wildpret, W. (1986) -
From the second author´s data it has arisen that Corvus corax tingitanus –a local raven- has an assorted diet, consuming fruits (and seeds) of Opuntia ficus-barbarica, Chamaecytisus proliferus, Rubia fruticosa, Phoenix canariensis and Plocama pendula. The closest populations of the two latter species live in lower biotopes, warmer than the sampled site which is probably unsuitable for the dispersed plants, despite the fact that the seeds are variable. Gallotia stehlini, an omnivorous lizard, has small territories and therefore eats just local fruits and/or seeds of Rubia fruticosa and Teline rosmarinifolia. Erinaceus algirus, a primarily insectivorous hedgehog, appears to roam to far populations of Plocama. The seed rain does not seem to be a restriction but the establishment of the plants, frequently blocked by the strong environmental contrasts among very close habitats.
Barquin, J. & Martin, A. (1982) -
Gallotia atlantica the endemic lacertid of the eastern Canary Islands Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, has been recorded on the island of Gran Canaria for the first time. From a consideration of the peculiar distribution of the reptile on the latter island together with its interactions with the much larger G. stehlini, the local endemic species, a new hypothesis is proposed to account for the disappearance of the giant lizards of the Canaries. This hypothesis is based on a phenomenum of competitive displacement between species of differing size in which the smaller benefits.
Bedriaga, J. von (1879) -
Bedriaga, J. von (1886) -
Bello, A.R. & Milan, J. & Anglade, I. & Martin, A. & Negrin, I. & Diaz, C. & Conlon, J.M. & Tramu, G. & Kah, O. (1994) -
The comparative distribution of peptidergic neural systems in the brain of the euryhaline, viviparous teleost Poecilia latipinna (green molly) was examined by immunohistochemistry. Topographically distinct, but often overlapping, systems of neurons and fibres displaying immunoreactivity (ir) related to a range of neuropeptides were found in most brain areas.
Neurosecretory and hypophysiotrophic hormones were localized to specific groups of neurons mostly within the preoptic and tuberal hypothalamus, giving fibre projections to the neurohypophysis, ventral telencephalon, thalamus, and brain stem. Separate vasotocin (AVT)-ir and isotocin (IST)-ir cells were located in the nucleus preopticus (nPO), but many AVT-ir nPO neurons also displayed growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF)-like-ir, and in some animals corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-like-ir. The main group of CRF-ir neurons was located in the nucleus recessus anterioris, where coexistence with galanin (GAL) was observed in some cells. Enkephalin (ENK)-like-ir was occasionally present in a few IST-ir cells of the nPO and was also found in small neurons in the posterior tuberal hypothalamus and in a cluster of large cells in the dorsal midbrain tegmentum. Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH)-ir cells were found near the rostromedial tip of the nucleus recessus lateralis. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-ir cells were present in the nucleus olfactoretinalis, ventral telencephalon, preoptic area, and dorsal midbrain tegmentum. Molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide (FMRF-amide)-ir was colocalized with GnRH-ir in the ganglion cells and central projections of the nervus terminalis. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-ir neurons were restricted to the tuberal hypothalamus, mostly within the nucleus lateralis tuberis pars lateralis, and somatostatin (SRIF)-ir neurons were numerous throughout the periventricular areas of the diencephalon.
A further group of SRIF-ir neurons extending from the ventral telencephalon into the dorsal telencephalon pars centralis also contained neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, peptide YY (PYY)-, and NPY flanking peptide (PSW)-like-ir. These immunoreactivities were, however, also observed in non-SRIF-ir cells and fibres, particularly in the mesencephalon. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-like-ir had a characteristic distribution in cells grouped in the isthmal region and fibre tracts running forward into the hypothalamus, most strikingly into the inferior lobes. Antisera to cholecystokinin (CCK) and neurokinin A (NK) or substance P (SP) stained very extensive, separate systems throughout the brain, with cells most consistently seen in the ventral telencephalon and periventricular hypothalamus. Broadly similar, but much more restricted, distributions of cells and fibres were seen with antisera to neurotensin (NT) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP).
Although in most cases the exact chemical natures of the immunoreactive substances are unknown, the results suggest that many peptides related to those proposed as neurotransmitters in the mammalian nervous system are present in specific neuronal systems in the teleost fish brain.
Bello, A.R. & Tramu, G. & Pérez-Batista, M.A. & Marti, E. & Lancha, A. (1989) -
Bender, C. (1999) -
Beyhl, F.E. (1997) -
Bings, W. (1980) -
The polymorphism exhibited by the Canarian lizard Lacerta galloti on Tenerife is described. Four different phenotypes are distinguished the distribution of which can be correlated with the occurrence of old basaltic lavas. These basaltic areas are the most ancient parts of the island and presumably have been four independent islands before the birth of Teide volcano.
Older and new evidence is presented and discussed with regard to the possible recent existence of a giant Lacerta (L. simonyi ! goliath group) on Tenerife. lt is demonstrated that all evidence concerning giant lizards fits with the distributional pattern stated for L. galloti.
The possibility is discussed that the giant lizards of Tenerife have become extinct not before the turn of the century, or that they even might have survived until the present.
One main objective of this paper is to stimulate future research.
Bings, W. (1985) -
The cliff of Fuga de Gorreta on Hierro ist the last retreat of Gallotia simonyi. During a visit of the island in 1982 the author followefd old and new hints at the present and former occurrence of the lizard. However, it was not possible to document the present existence of the species outside the Fuga de Gorreta. In addition caves and concheros of the Guanches were investigated with respect to skeletal material. Several remains of lizards were found, some dentalia indicating a considerable size of the lizards. The findings also indicate that the lizards were eaten by the aboriginals. – Past and present records (woth one exception) are restricted to regions of old basaltic rocks. – From this understanding I propose to favour the following regions for re-introduction programs of Gallotia simonyi, especially in the case of successful captive breeding: 1) Southern slope Bco Los Cardones, 2) Southern slope Risci de los Herrenos, 3) Southern slope Bco of Tinor, 4) Smaller Zalmor Rock, and 5) Southern slope Bahia de los Reyes.
Bischoff, W. (1971) -
Bischoff, W. (1973) -
Bischoff, W. (1974) -
The systematic position of Lacerta simonyi stehlini is shordy reviewed. Same obser- vations concerning nutrition and behaviour, also mating behaviour, are described. Two clusters containing seven and eleven eggs were produced. Eight juveniles hatched from the second duster. Their morphology, growth and behaviour during the first four months are described.
Bischoff, W. (1982) -
Die Insel Teneriffa (Kanarischer Archipel) wird von zwei Unterarten von Gallotia galloti bewohnt, von denen die Nominatform im Zentrum und im Süden lebt. Für sie wird ein Lectotypus designiert, und die terra typica wird auf das Tal von Güimar restringiert. Die größere und buntgefärbte Form der Anaga-Halbinsel und der Nordküste wird als Gallotia galloti eisentrauti ssp.n. (terra typica Bajamar) beschrieben. Das Vorkommen zweiter distinkter Unterarten, die auch sekundäre Kontaktzonen ausbilden, wird historisch diskutiert und stützt die Hypothese, daß Teneriffa ursprünglich aus mindestens zwei getrennten Teilen bestanden hat. Die Verbreitung von G. galloti auf den vier westlichen Kanaren-Inseln Teneriffa, Gomera, Hierro und La Palma wird mit derjenigen anderer Echsenarten dieser Inseln vergleichend diskutiert.
Bischoff, W. (1985) -
Die Beziehungen der beiden rezenten kanarischen Rieseneidechsenarten Gallotia simonyi und G. stehlini werden diskutiert. Der Lebensraum und, soweit bekannt, die Lebensweise werden beschrieben. Es folgen einige Bemerkungen über die vom Aussterben bedrohte G. simonyi und abschließend einige Hinweise zur Haltung von G. stehlini im Terrarium.
Variability of biometric characters and colour patterns was studies in 287 specimens of Gallotia atlantica from all parts of its range. Results indicate a hierarchial system of infraspecific groups. With regard to historical and topographical aspects (isolation time jedged from isobates) two different population groups (Lanzarote and surrounding islets; Fuertenventura and Lobos) are distinguished. They represent two subspecies, Gallotia atlantica atlantica and Gallotia atlantica mahoratae. Furthermore, it is argued that the observed differences in colouration have an adaptive value.
The Lacertid lizard of Fuerteventura (Canary Islands) in described as Gallotia atlantica mahoratae ssp n. . Despite some minor differences this subspecies also icludes the lizards of the Jandia peninsula and those of the small island of Lobos.
Die Beziehungen der kanarischen Eidechsen der Gattung Gallotia zu den anderen Lacertiden werden diskutiert. Die äußerlich klar zu erkennende Gallotia atlantica gliedert sich in 2 Unterarten G. a. atlantica und G. atlantica mahoratae. Der Lebensraum und die derzeit bekannten Daten über die Lebensweise werden beschrieben. Hinweise zur Haltung dieser Art im terrarium schließen den Beitrag ab.
Gallotia galloti gliedert sich in 6 Unterarten (G. g. galloti, G.g. caesaris, G. g. eisentrauti, G. g. gomerae, G. g. insulanagae und G. g. palmae) deren Beziehungen diskutiert und deren Lebensraum und Lebensweise beschrieben werden. Es folgen kurze Hinweise zur Terrarienhaltung. Abschließend wird auf neueste Forschungsergebnisse zur kanarischen Herpetofauna hingewiesen.
Dieser Beitrag ist der erste Teil einer Serie über die Herpetofauna der Kanarischen Inseln, in dem es zunächst auf die Lage, das Alter und die Entstehung des Archipels eingegangen wird. Bemerkungen zur Topographie, zum Klima und zur Vegetation geben Hinweise auf die Umweltbedingungen für die hier lebenden Amphibien und Reptilia. Herkunft und gegenwärtige Situation der endemischen Arten werden diskutiert, und es folgen Bemerkungen zu den nur fossil bekannten Arten Testudo burchardi, Gallotia goliath und G. maxima: Folgende Arten wurden auf den Inseln eingeschleppt: Hyla meridionalis, Rana perezi, Chamaeleo chamaeleon, Hemidactylus turcicus und Tarentola mauritanica. Den Abschluß dieses Beitrages bildet ein Schlüssel zum Bestimmen aller gegenwärtig von den Kanarischen Inseln bekannten Arten und Unterarten.
Bischoff, W. (1991) -
Bischoff, W. (1996) -
Bischoff, W. (1997) -
Bischoff, W. (1998) -
Das kleine »Galapagos vor der europäischen Haustür« ist Gegenstand dieses in sich geschlossenen Bandes. Er gibt erstmalig einen Überblick über die Herpetofauna dieser Inselgruppen.
Bischoff, W. (1999) -
Bischoff, W. (2000) -
Bischoff, W. (2001) -
Bischoff, W. (2002) -
Bischoff, W. (2005) -
Bischoff, W. (2006) -
Bischoff, W. (2007) -
Bischoff, W. (2008) -
Kurzer Bericht über den Fund einer Rieseneidechse auf der Insel La Palma (Kanarische Inseln). Das Tier ist wahrscheinlich mit der bisher nur subfossil bekannten Gallotia simonyi auaritae identisch.
Bischoff, W. (2010) -
Bischoff, W. (2015) -
Bischoff, W. & Bannert, B. (2001) -
Se informa acerca de un viaje que los autores hicieron entre el 8 y el 18 de Junio de 2001 hacia las islas Tenerife, La Gomera y El Hierro en el archipiélago de las Canarias. La meta principal era la estación de crianza y de investigación del Lagarto Gigante de La Gomera. La gran ayuda de los señores MIGUEL MOLINA BORJA de la Universidad de La Laguna, JUAN CARLOS MORENO, Director de la Consejería de Política territorial y Medio Ambiente en Tenerife, y JOSÉ ANTONIO MATEO, Director del Lagartario de La Gomera en Antoncojo abrió el camino a los autores para informarse ampliamente sobre la situación del Lagarto Gigante de La Gomera, sobre el trabajo en la estación y sobre la utilización
que se le dió al dinero reunido por los miembros del DGHT. La impresión fue muy positiva. Por eso aprovechan esta oportunidad de alentar a los miembros de la Asociación Alemana de Herpetología y Terrarística para que sigan cooperando en el financiamiento de las actividades para la proteción del Lagarto Gigante de La Gomera.
Bischoff, W. & Bannert, B. (2002) -
Bischoff, W. & Nettmann, H.-K. & Rykena, S. (1979) -
Review of the herpetofauna of the island of Hierro, where the following species
occur: Hyla meridionalis, Rana perezi, Tarentola delalandii ssp., Chalcides viridanus
ssp., Gallotia simonyi, and Gallotia galloti caesaris. T. delalandii, C. viridanus, and
G. galloti caesaris were captured. Data concerning habits and distribution are presented.
It is likely that T. delalandii and C. viridanus represent subspecies characteristic for
Hierro. Variation of certain characters in G. galloti caesaris is correlated with its vertical distribution. In some localities this species is extremely abundant. Unfortunately, the large and endangered G. simonyi was not observed. Chances of its survival are
discussed. Activities to preserve this lizard from extinction are suggested.
Bloor, P. & Brown, R. (2005) -
A detailed uni- and multivariate analysis of within-island geographical variation in scalation and body dimensions of the lacertid lizard, Gallotia atlantica, from Lanzarote (and two neighbouring offshore islets) was carried out. Twomain morphological groupings were detected: four populations clustered within a putative malpaís group, i.e. from relatively recent volcanic lava fields (seven populations were sampled from these areas), while the other 19 populations (including the three remaining malpaís populations, and those from the offshore islets of Montaña Clara and Alegranza) also clustered together. Thus, while there is a tendency for occupation of malpaís areas to be related to morphological variation, this model does have some inconsistencies. The differentiated malpaís group comprises populations from two geographically isolated areas, one from the central-western part of the island (Timanfaya) and the other from the north (Malpaís de la Corona). The divergence of these populations is considered to have arisen recently, rather than their being relicts of an ancient, formerly widespread, lineage. The morphological variation partially supports the previous use of two different subspecies to describe the within-island variation. However, if such a scheme were applied then one of the subspecies would need to encompass populations from the geographically separated southern Timanfaya and Malpaís de la Corona areas, as opposed to just the latter. We reject previous observations that either malpaís individuals in general, or those corresponding to the north-eastern subspecies, are larger than individuals from other areas. The pattern of morphological variation of G. atlantica within Lanzarote is less pronounced but shows some similarities with patterns of morphological variation in lizards from neighbouring islands.
Bloor, P. & De Laguna, H.-B. & Kemp, S.J. (2006) -
We describe 10 polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellite loci from the eastern Canary Island lacertid lizard, Gallotia atlantica. Loci were isolated from a partial genomic library that had been enriched for AAAG repeat sequence. All loci were highly polymorphic (eight alleles or more) with observed heterozygosities from 0.75 to 1.00. At least four loci were successfully amplified and polymorphic in the Gran Canarian lacertid, Gallotia stehlini. These loci will be used to examine correlations between patterns of gene flow and recent volcanism on the island of Lanzarote.
Bloor, P. & Kemp, S.J. & Brown, R.P. (2008) -
The phylogeography of the lacertid lizard Gallotia atlantica from the small volcanic island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands) was analysed based on 1075 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence (partial cytochrome b and ND2) for 157 individuals from 27 sites (including three sites from neighbouring islets). Levels of sequence divergence were generally low, with the most distant haplotypes separated by only 14 mutational steps. MtDNA divergence appears to coincide with formation of the middle Pleistocene lowland that united formerly separate ancient islands to form the current island of Lanzarote, allowing rejection of a two-island model of phylogeographical structure. There was evidence of large-scale population expansion after island unification, consistent with the colonization of new areas. A nested clade phylogeographical analysis (NCPA) revealed significant phylogeographical structuring. Two-step and higher-level clades each had disjunct distributions, being found to the east and west of a common area with a north-south orientation that extends between coasts in the centre-east of the island (El Jable). Other clades were almost entirely restricted to the El Jable region alone. Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analyses were used to separate ongoing gene flow from historical associations. These supported the NCPA by indicating recent (75 000-150 000 years ago) east-west vicariance across the El Jable region. Lava flows covered El Jable and other parts of the central lowland at this time and likely led to population extinctions and temporary dispersal barriers, although present-day evidence suggests some populations would have survived in small refugia. Expansion of the latter appears to explain the presence of a clade located between the eastern and western components of the disjunct clades. Direct relationships between mtDNA lineages and morphology were not found, although one of two morphological forms on the island has a disjunct distribution that is broadly concordant with east-west components of the phylogeographical pattern. This work demonstrates how recent volcanic activity can cause population fragmentation and thus shape genetic diversity on microgeographical scales.
Boettger, C.R. & Müller, L. (1914) -
Boettger, O. (1893) -
Böhme, W. (2010) -
In the herpetological collection of ZFMK 528 scientific species group names are represented by type materi- al. Of these, 304 names are documented by primary type specimens (onomatophores) while for 224 further names sec- ondary type specimens (typoids) are available, ranging chronologically from 1801 to 2010. The list is a shortened pred- ecessor of a comprehensive type catalogue in progress. It lists name bearing types with their catalogue numbers includ- ing information on further type series members also in other institutions, while secondary types are listed only by pres- ence, both in ZFMK and other collections including holotype repositories. Geographic origin and currently valid names are also provided.
Böhme, W. & Bings, W. (1975) -
A journey to Hierro, Canary Islands, made by W. BINGS had the intention to search
for the lizard Lacerta s. simonyi, which already was believed tobe extinct.
1. Informations by the natives on this animal are extensively reproduced and thus
2. The finding of an about two years old skeleton demonstrates the survival of the lizard
3. The capture of a living couple is reported, which unfortunately could not be brought
4. Some factors seemingly important for the survival of the lizard also in future are
discussed; especially the following key-words: Interspecific competition, commen- salism with seabirds (coprophagy), predators (esp. Tangier raven) and factors caused by human influcnce (e. g. decimation of seabirds, tourism).
5. The urgent necessity for ecological investigations in the field as well as in captivity is pointed out. An appeal for protecting this unique and still poorly known reptile is formulated.
Böhme, W. & Bings, W. (1977) -
Our former paper (BÖHME & BINGS 1975) on the status of Lacerta s. simonyi and the paper by KLEMMER (1976) on the Canarian herpetofauna make the following addi- tional points necessary:
1. The current existence of L. s. simonyi can be documented for the first time by a photograph of a living specimen.
2. This extremely endangered lizard has been protected by the Spanish Natural Protection .Institution (ICONA), and will be listed in the Red Data Book by the IUCN. 3. Specimens from the Salmor rocks and from Hierro are identical in colour pattern
.4. The temporal scalation has been shown to be variable, thus it is useless for
distinguishing L. s. simonyi and stehlini.
5. As in the other Canarian lacertids stehlini also shows a tendency towards melanism. 6. L. s. stehlini reaches a maximum total length of 800 mm, whereas L. s. simonyi
grows remarkably larger. Male specimens from up to one meter can occur.
Böhme, W. & Bischoff, W. (1976) -
1. The mating-bite of the Canarian Lacerta-species L. atlantica, L. galloti and L. simonyi carried out in the neck region represents no function of ehe different size between ehe sexes. lt is a character distinguishing these species from most other lacertids, especially from L. lepida.
2. The different types of mating-bite are intraspecifically constant and atelic characters, thus of taxonomic value. They are suitable for defining bundles of closely related species.
3. They cannot be recorded only by observing living animals, but also be concluded from bive scars in preserved females.
4. Preserved material shows that the species incertae sedis L. princeps and L. jayakari likely mate by means of neck-bite.
5. Phylogenetically ehe neck-bite is considered to be the primitive, the flank-bite ehe derived condicion.
6. The occurence of neck-bite in Mesalina shows, that the derived f!ank-bite must have evolved independently several times, thus representing no synapomorphy for the whole family.
7. The character mating-bite is not yet able to support generic diagnoses (Gallotia sensu ARNOLD 1973), as in other genera (Psammodromus) both types occur. Either one doubts, from this point of view, the monophyly of the latter, or one could also advocate a genus Timon containing besides L. lepida and the Canarian species also L. princeps and L. jayakari. Within this disjunct group with primitive mating-bite pattern, then, only L. lepida would have passed through a progressive development, also in respect of its maving behaviour.
8. To solve this dilemma, further investigations of lacertid mating behaviour, espe- cially courtship, will be necessary. They must be extended also to other lizard families. For this purpose the aid of terrarists is requested.
Böhme, W. & Bischoff, W. (1984) -
Böhme, W. & Bischoff, W. & Nettmann, H.-K. & Rykena, S. & Freundlich, J. (1981) -
Bericht über einen Knochenfund auf Hierro, Kanarische Inseln, der einem frühmittelalterlichen Abfallplatz der Ureinwohner entstammt. Bemerkenswert sind zahlreiche Eidechsenknochen, unter denen sich auch Reste der heute fast ausgestorbenen Gallotia simonyi befinden, und die die einst weitere Verbreitung dieser Art auf der Insel belegen. Dies ging bisher nur aus mittelalterlicher Berichten hervor.
Böhme, W. & Hutterer, R. & Bings, W. (1985) -
Vocalizations of the Iberian lacertids Psammodromus algirus and P. hispanicus as well as of the Canarian endemic Gallotia atlantica, G. galloti galloti, g. eisentrauti, G. caesaris, g. gomerae, g. palmae and G. stehlini were analyzed sonagraphically. The structure of the calls resembles those known from the families Pygopodidae (Lialis, Delma) and Iguanidae (Anolis) rather than those of Gekkonidae. The vocal repertoire of the lacertids is rather simple; it consists of clicks and various combinations of tonal and noisy components. Duration and frequency range of the sounds are variable; at least frequency range seems to vary with individual size, body temperature and the level of excitement.
Most lizards vocalized when handled, but vocalization was also heard in free-ranging animals kept in cages and observed in the field. Sounds are uttered by inferior individuals defending a hide but also by dominant animals pursuing a rival. Field observations indicate that vocal activity is most intensive after sunset and may last until midnight.
It is argued that vocalization in the highly territorial lizards of genus Gallotia may help regulate the high population densities, especially in the dark when optical signals do not work. The subtropical climate and the heat-gathering lava of the Canary islands make a nocturnal activity possible.
The systematic significance of vocalization in Gallotia is discussed. Vocalization may be a synapomorphic character defining the genus Gallotia, but it is also present in Psammodromus and has been mentioned for Podarcis, Lacerta and Ichnotropis. From this, a multiple evolution can also not be excluded. Therefore, the common derived karyotype of the Gallotia species is the only established synapomorphic character justifying a separate generic but not at all familial rank for the Canary lizards.
Bohórquez Alonso, M.L. (2014) -
Bohórquez-Alonso, M. & Font, E. & Molina-Borja, M. (2011) -
In lizards, site selection is related to the acquisition of resources such as refuges, mates or prey, but also to the exploitation of sites suitable for thermoregulation. The latter process may be affected by lizard posture and body axis orientation in relation to the sun as a way to optimize heat exchange throughout the day. Specific postures and body orientations could also contribute to more efficient signal transmission in social contexts. In this paper we analyze activity and body axis orientation of adult males and females of the lacertid Gallotia galloti in two localities of Tenerife with different structural habitats. We performed transects at both sampling localities in the morning and at midday during May and June of three years (2002-2004). The numbers of lizards detected per unit time during transects at both localities were similar; however, significantly more males than females were detected. Moreover, more lizards were found oriented parallel or perpendicular to the sun than in alternative (oblique) orientations. Heating rates were not different for copper lizard models oriented parallel or perpendicular to the sun, neither in the morning nor at midday, and there was no significant relationship between air temperature and lizard body orientation. This suggests that lizard body orientation is not constrained by thermoregulatory requirements. We discuss alternative hypotheses and conclude that body axis orientation in G. galloti lizards may reflect a compromise between the conflicting demands imposed by thermoregulation and social communication.
Bohórquez-Alonso, M.L. & Mesa-Avila, G. & Suárez-Rancel, M. & Font, E. & Molina-Borja, M. (2018) -
In many species, male coloration signals aggressiveness and/or fighting ability. Males of the Tenerife lizard (Gallotia galloti) have conspicuous ultraviolet (UV)-blue cheek and lateral color patches that are brighter in the breeding season and larger than those of females. We analyzed experimentally the effect of morphological and behavioral traits, including spectral variables from UV-reflecting color patches, on the outcome of staged dyadic contests between males of two subspecies of G. galloti. We performed two experiments: (1) using pairs of unmanipulated males and (2) reducing the UV reflectance of the UV-blue patches of one of the contestants with sunscreen lotion. Results from experiment 1 showed no significant difference between subspecies in the effect of any variable on contest outcome. Overall, winners had larger body mass, head width, and fore-limb length and showed a higher rate of aggressive behavior patterns than losers, whereas losers showed a higher rate of “tail shake,” which is considered a submissive behavior. Winners also had lateral UV-blue patches with higher (more blue-biased) hue than losers, but no other spectral trait had a significant effect on contest outcome. Results from experiment 2 showed that reducing patch reflectance in the UV range had no effect in one subspecies but significantly increased fighting success in the other. The probability of winning was positively associated with the frequency of bites (irrespective of whether individuals had manipulated patches or not). Results from both experiments suggest that while multiple traits (morphometric, coloration, and behavioral) may influence the outcome of male contests in G. galloti, behavioral traits take prevalence over morphological, including coloration, traits.
Bohórquez-Alonso, M.L. & Molina Borja, M. (2003) -
We present preliminary results on the application of the observational ethological method to the study of activity of lizards from Tenerife in two habitats of the island with different ecological characteristics: Malpaís de Güimar (SE of the island) and the periphery of Teide National Park (centre of the island), and in two daily times. We counted the number of animals of each sex and category while walking in transects with hazardously chosen directions. The behaviour pattern performed by each observed animal was also scored. The results show that there were always more active males than females or juveniles in both zones. The number of total active animals per unit area and time was inversely related to the environmental temperature in Teide National Park. In Malpaís de Güimar the higher number of animals was recorded in intermediate temperatures between maximum and minimum ones. The number of observed animals was greater at midday than in the morning in Malpaís de Güimar, but the contrary occurred at Teide N.P. The results support the finding in other species of a higher activity level in males and also suggest a differential activity pattern in relation to environmental temperature in both zones studied.
Bohórquez-Alonso, M.L. & Molina-Borja, M. (2014) -
Body coloration is sexually dimorphic in many vertebrate species, including lizards, in which males are often more conspicuous than females. A detailed analysis of the relative size of coloured patches and their reflectance, including the ultraviolet (UV) range, has rarely been performed. In the present work we quantified sexual dimorphism in body traits and surface area of all lateral patches from adult females and males of two subspecies of Gallotia galloti (G. g. galloti and G. g. eisentrauti). We also analysed the magnitude of sexual dichromatism in the UV-visible reflectance of such patches and the changes in patch size and brightness during the reproductive season (April–July). Males had significantly larger patch areas (relative to their snout-vent length) and higher brightness (mainly in the UV-blue range) than did females in both subspecies. The comparison of relative patch areas among months did not reach statistical significance. However, patch brightness significantly changed during the breeding season: that of the UV-blue (300–495 nm) range from lizards of the two subspecies was significantly larger in June than in April, while brightness in the 495–700 nm range in G. g. galloti was larger in May, June, and July than in April. A different pattern of dichromatism was also detected in the two populations, with G. g. eisentrauti being more sexually dichromatic than G. g. galloti. We discuss the results in terms of possible evolutionary causes for the sexual dichromatism related to different ecological characteristics of the habitats where each subspecies live.
Börner, A.-R. (2017) -
The emerald lizard reaches the northern limit of its distribution in the upper Middle Rhine Valley and has stringent, narrow requirements for its habitat. In the last years, habitats, populations, and the number of individuals have been in decline, mainly because of eutrophy and suboptimal grazing in the protected areas as well as an increasing civilization pressure (including domestic cats, tourists, and presumably poachers), less by the rationalized viticulture. The mere protection of the few remaining habitats is not sufficient. It is necessary to restore the historical habitats and to release captive-bred specimens there. A special initiative for the protection of the green lizards in the upper Middle Rhine Valley is required.
Bosch, H.A.J. in den (1994) -
The only known recent locality of Gallotia simonyi near Frontera on Hierro, Canary Islands, was visited at the end of March. At this time of the year the vegetation has only just started to develop. A list is provided of recognized and potential food plants for this mainly vegetarian species. Remarkably, most of these are ligneous and seem to have a low nutritional value. However, recent work indicates that later in the year the herbaceous plant Psoralea bituminosa is the major food item in the diet of adults. The leguminosid plant was only just budding on the rock face in March.
A strong sea wind combined with frequently overcast skies made the area inhabited by this species, 300-500 m on the south-west facing exposed cliff, although ambient temperature there ranged between 12 and 32°C. The annual active period of G. simonyi extends from the end of March to early autumn, when the lizards gradually start hibernating. Peak activity occurs in early summer. Ever at this time the animals appear lethargic and they are very shy; this may be an energy saving tactic due to the harsh conditions.
Mating lasts a few minutes with the male biting in the side of the female´s neck, as is common in Gallotia. Oviposition in the study area occurs between 29 May and 30 July. On only one occasion did a female produce two clutches in one year, the second of which did not survive long. The first clutch of young females typically usually lay twelve eggs on average, fifteen being the maximum recorded. Soon after the moment of laying, the size of the eggs ranges between 19-21x26-31 mm. Incubation takes 60-70 days at 29°C. A constraint on population growth could be the scarcity of suitable oviposition sites.
Der einzige bekannte rezente Standort von Gallotia simonyi, nahe Frontera auf Hierro, Kanarische Inseln, wurde Ende März besucht. Zu dieser Jahreszeit hat die Vegetation gerade begonnen, sich zu entwickeln. Eine Liste der erkannten hauptsächlichen Futterpflanzen dieser überwiegend vegetarischen Art wird vorgestellt. Außergewöhnlich ist, daß die meisten von ihnen verholzt sind und scheinbar einen geringen Nährwert haben. Neuere Arbeiten belegen jedoch, daß später im Jahr die krautige Pflanze Psoralea bituminosa der bedeutendste Nahrungsposten der erwachsenen Tiere ist. Dieser Hülsenfrüchter war im März in der Felswand nur knospend. Strenger Seewind, kombiniert mit häufig bewölktem Himmel, ist charakteristisch für den Lebensraum dieser Art, 300-500 m hoch gelegen an einer nach Südwesten exponierten offenen Felswand, mit kühlen Umgebungstemperaturen zwischen 12 und 32°C. Die jährliche Aktivitätsperiode von G. simonyi erstreckt sich von Ende März bis zum frühen Herbst, wo die Eidechsen allmählich mit der Winterruhe beginnen. Der Höhepunkt der Aktivität liegt im Sommer. In dieser Zeit erscheinen die Tiere of lethargisch, und sie sind sehr scheu. Dies scheint eine energiesparende Taktik gegenüber der rauhen Umwelt zu sein.
Die Paarung, mit einem seitlichen Biß des Männchens in den Nacken des Weibchens, dauert einige Minuten und ist Gallotia-typisch. Die Eiablage findet in der untersuchten Gegend zwischen dem 29. Mai und 30. Juli statt. Ein Weibchen zeitigte zwei Gelege in einem Jahr, wovon das 2. Gelege nicht lange überlebte. Das 1. Gelege von jungen Weibchen besteht normalerweise aus 4 Eiern, während ältere Weibchen üblicherweise durchschnittlich 12 Eier legen; 15 Eier sind als Maximum dokumentiert. Kurz nach der Ablage sind die Eier 19-21x26-31 mm groß. Die Inkubation dauert 60-70 Tage bei 29°C. Eine Beschränkung des Populationswachstums kann die Knappheit geeigneter Eiablageplätze sein.
Bosch, H.A.J. in den (1995) -
An as yet undiagnosed illness of lacertid lizards of the genera Algyroides, Gallotia, Lacerta, and Algyroides is described. The main symptoms are runny eyes, apathy, food und water refusal. The illness is almost always fatal. Antibiotics like tetracyclines and sulphathiazole had no effect. It is not known whether the disease is contagious. Some species like green lizards seem to be more susceptible. Stress is thought to possibly play an important role in this disease.
Bosch, H.A.J. in den (2000) -
Tenacious courtship attempts by a male Algyroides moreoticus resulted in the female arching her body, with her back concave, then flipping over onto her back, with legs outstretched. She appeared apathetic and limp; only her pronounced respiration indicated she was still alive. The male abandoned his courtship efforts and left the vicinity. The female remained on her back for a few minutes, and responded normally to extemal stimuli only after approximately three hours. Her behavior, which resulted in her escaping attention, may have been submissive or death-feigning in its meaning. This behaviour pattern has not been previously reported in lacertids.
Bosch, H.A.J. in den (2004) -
n response to two previously published accounts, it is pointed out that successful incubation of lizard eggs does not primarily depend on the medium on or in which the eggs rest, nor on the incubator. Successful incubation is solely based on the two physi- cal variables of humidity (measured as water potential in kPa) and temperature. When these variables are within the proper range (-400/-150 kPa and 25-30°C) then the chief criteria are met. The inaccurate suggestion that the sex of lacertids is re- lated to incubation temperature is rejected because the gender of the young in this group of reptiles is determined genetically. The single report cited in the scientific literature that discussed TSD in a lacertid (Podarcis pityusensis) is refuted by consid- ering larger samples of incubated eggs. Similarly, reports that water potential of the substrate affects sex determination have also been discredited in the scientific lit- erature.
The sometimes in hobby literature propa- gated short, artificially induced additional hibernation soon after the summer to bring on an additional reproductive period with egg production in November/December, is objectionable. The stress on the animals is such that the health of the lizards is com- promised. Moreover, among serious reptile enthusiasts there is only a limited demand for lacertids, discounting the need for so many offspring.
Bosch, H.A.J. in den & Bout, R.G. (1998) -
The interspecific relationships among female size, clutch size, egg size, and hatchling size were examined for 64 European lacertids. The eggs of all species increased linearly in both linear dimensions and mass during incubation. Across species initial egg mass was positively correlated with juvenile mass, with an allometric relationship exponent of 0.87. Initial egg mass across species increased proportionally with female mass to the power of 0.57. Moreover, an increase in maternal mass was also accompanied by an increase in clutch size. The number of eggs per clutch across species scaled with female mass to the power of 0.39. Removing the effect of female mass resulted in a negative correlation between egg mass and clutch size. Species for which the average egg size was lower than expected on the basis of female mass, tended to have larger relative clutch size. The total egg mass per clutch was about one third of female mass (exponent 0.94).
Boulenger, G.A. (1881) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1887) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1891) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1920) -
Bravo, T. (1953) -
Bravo, T. (1954) -
Bringsøe, H. (1993) -
During the nineteenth century, single individuals of Gallotia galloti (OUDART 1839) have been reported from Madeira, believed to have been introduced by man. A small group has now (February 1992) been recorded in the botanical garden in the northeastern part of Funchal, assumed to be due to a recent introduction. It is speculated whether the species will be able to survive on Madeira. The climate of southern Madeira is quite similar to that of parts of the Canary Islands inhabited by G. galloti. But on the other hand, G. galloti has apparently not been able to survive on Madeira after previous introductions.
Broadley, D.G. (1967) -
Broschinski, A. (2005) -
Brown, R.P. (2008) -
Brown, R.P. (2010) -
Brown, R.P. & Hoskisson, P.A. & Welton, J.A. & Báez, M. (2006) -
Brown, R.P. & Paterson, S. & Risse, J. (2016) -
Geographical variation among contiguous populations is frequently attributed to ecological divergence or historical isolation followed by secondary contact. Distinguishing between these effects is key to studies of incipient speciation and could be revealed by different genomic signatures. We used RAD-seq analyses to examine morphologically divergent populations of the endemic lizard (Gallotia galloti) from the volcanic island of Tenerife. Previous analyses have suggested ecological and historical causes to explain the morphological diversity. Analyses of 276483 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from >20 Mbp of the genome revealed one genetically divergent population from Anaga, a region associated with divergent mtDNA lineages in other Tenerife endemics. This population also has a high number of private alleles, and its divergence can be explained by historical isolation. Bayesian outlier analyses identified a small proportion of SNPs as candidates for selection (0.04%) which were strongly differentiated between xeric and mesic habitat types. Individual testing for specific xeric-mesic selection using an alternative approach also supported ecological divergence in a similarly small proportion of SNPs. The study indicates the roles of both historical isolation and ecological divergence in shaping genomic diversity in G. galloti. However, north-south morphological divergence appears solely associated with the latter and likely involves a relatively small proportion of the genome.
Caetano, A. & Cejudo, D. & Garcia-Marquez, M. & Orrit, N. & Romero, M. (1997) -
Caetano, A. & Garcia-Márquez,M. & Mateo, J.A. & López-Jurado, L.F. (1999) -
Since 1986, the insular, endangered Hierro Giant Lizard (Gallotia simonyi machadoi: Lacertidae) has been subjected to captive breeding for conservation purposes at El Hierro (Canary Islands). Due to the lack of a reintroduction plan, presently the captive stock probably outnumbers the wild population of the species, which only occurs at a steep cliff within the island. For the first time, two adult males, fitted with radiocollars, were freed in the wild. The lizards were released at La Dehesa, a pre-selected sit devoid of current populations of the species, but belonging to its historic range as evidenced by plenty of subfossil remains. The study was aimed to test whether the captive reared lizards are good subjects for a reintroduction program, and whether the selected area still suits well their ecological requirements. For months, both lizards stayed close to the release plot, dug burrows and found food. Body weight losses during the dry season were overcome in the following humid seasons, as food availabity improved. Activity cycles and feeding were favoured by better thermal conditions than those experienced by the wild and captive populations. Adter 140 days, one of the lizards was killed by a feral cat, as has been shown to happen in the wild population. Our results shows that the extant wild population of G. simonyi bears sub-optimal ecological conditions. A reintroduction of captive reared lizards in well preserved habitats of the islands in both recommendable and feasible, provided that a feral cat control program is undertaken.
Cano, J. & Baez, M. & Lopez-Jurado, L.F. & Ortega, G. (1984) -
Capriglione, T. & Olmo, E. & Odierna, G. & Kupriyanova, L.A. (1994) -
Cytological and molecular evidence is provided to characterize the sex chromosomes of several species of Lacertidae. Observations on pachytene and lampbrush stages show that sex chromosomes have different condensation cycles and are only partially paired during meiosis. Bkm probe hybridization to Pst I-treated genomic DNA of Podarcis sicula and Lacerta vivipara shows the same pattern both in males and females. In situ hybridization of the same probe to Lacerta vivipara chromosomes shows no preferential localization of this DNA sequence. The results obtained clearly exclude the possible involvement of Bkm in sex-chromosome differentiation in the species investigated.
Carnero Hernandez, A. (1980) -
Carnero, A. & Perez Padron, F. (1977) -
Carracedo, J.C. & Soler, V. (1982) -
Carranza, S. & Arnold, E.N. & Thomas, R.H. & Mateo, J.A. & López-Jurado, L.F. (1999) -
Carretero, M.A. (2004) -
Lacertids are the dominant group of lizards throughout the Mediterranean Basin. Their role in food web transfer of matter and energy from arthropods and other small invertebrates to birds and mammals constitutes a major function within Mediterranean ecosystems. For many years, prey consumption by lacertids was thought to be almost indiscriminate, not much more than a byproduct of habitat use. However, increasing evidence does not support this passive view. Analyses of prey availability have revealed active prey selection/avoidance in several species. Others show an internal tendency (i.e., historical constraints) to consume specific animal items (ants, clumped prey) or plant matter (seeds, nectar, pollen, leaves). Behavioural experiments showed that lacertids not only identify different prey types by both visual and chemical cues but also modify their feeding behaviour integrating past experiences. Furthermore, size, sex, reproductive state, body condition, tail loss and probably other lizard features are relevant for feeding ecology. However, less attention has been devoted to abiotic factors such as temperature and humidity. More experimental studies of the influences of competitors, predators and parasites on diet are needed. Even though it is controversial, optimal foraging theory provides a conceptual background for future studies. The evolutionary history of the various lacertid lineages, which constrains their morphology and physiology and eventually produces exaptative traits, is to be considered as well. Finally, methodology in field sampling, lab work and statistical analysis needs to be developed. Recommendations are given as to when and where to sample, which compartment should be analysed, which is the appropriate sample size, how to assess trophic availability, which statistical descriptors should be used and how they should be compared.
Carretero, M.A. & Jorge, F. & Llorente, G.A. & Roca, V. (2014) -
Diet and helminth fauna were analysed in the lizard Gallotia atlantica (Squamata: Lacertidae), the smallest species of this genus endemic to Lanzarote and Fuerteventura (Canary Islands), in an attempt to confirm previous claims of rela- tionships between these ecological traits in this genus. A total of 70 lizards belonging to the subspecies atlantica (central southern Lanzarote), laurae (northern Lanzarote) and mahoratae (Fuerteventura) were examined. Compared with other Gallotia, the helminth fauna was impoverished, particularly in Fuerteventura, where the absence of larval cestodes suggests low predation pressure. Diet was omnivor- ous, the plant fraction (73.03–84.26%) included seeds and fruits while the animal fraction was quite diverse, at least in Lanzarote. Contrary to other Gallotia, the intestinal Pharyngodonidae nematodes were all typical of carnivorous reptiles. An individual association between the complexities of helminth communities and diet reinforces previous findings in other Gallotia species suggesting functional relation- ships between parasites and prey items inside the digestive tract.
Carretero, M.A. & Martínez-Solano, Í. & Ayllón, E. & Llorente, G. (2018) -
Carretero, M.A. & Roca, V. & Martin, J.E. & Llorente, G.A. & Montori, A. & Santos, X. & Mateos, J. (2006) -
Diet and helminth fauna were analysed in Gallotia stehlini (Schenkel, 1901), a giant lacertid
lizard endemic to Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) in order to explore eventual relationships
between both traits. This species is mainly herbivorous, eating a large proportion of plant matter
(occurrence 97.1%) including not only seeds but also leaves and other vegetative parts. Helminth fauna
included many helminth species typical of herbivorous reptiles, and intestinal helminth diversity was
high. A comparison with other lacertids suggests that both traits, diet and helminth fauna, result from an
adaptation to insular conditions. Canarian Gallotia, a separate lineage evolving for a long time in
insularity, constitutes the most modified lacertid group in this sense.
Carrillo-Hidalgo, J. & González-Dávila, E. & Molina-Borja, M. & Fernández-Lugo, S. (2020) -
Parental provisioning and breeding success of Eurasian Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) has been widely studied in some continental populations but not in their island-dwelling counterparts. We studied breeding success of kestrels nesting in natural rocky cavities in southern xerophytic scrub of the oceanic island of Tenerife during eight breeding seasons and its relationships with the endemic Gallot`s Lizard (Gallotia galloti). We examined lizard provisioning to assess some hypotheses regarding parental provisioning (e.g. central place foraging, parental investment and territory quality). Kestrels nesting in better quality territories (i.e. better habitats for lizards) advanced laying date and increased clutch and brood size at hatching. This did not result in higher number of fledglings. Lizard biomass provided to the chicks did not decrease with increasing nestling age and was correlated positively with the number of nestlings and chick age. These findings support the hypothesis of parental investment. On considering nestling-rearing period in three 10-day phases, we found significantly lower mean mass of lizards delivered in the first phase than in the other two phases together, with no differences between the last two phases. We suggest that kestrels respond to enhance breeding success and fitness keeping a stable number and quality of fledglings.
Casanas, M.N. & Santos, E. & Yanes, C. & Romero-Aleman, M.M. & Vinoly, R. & Alfayate, M.C. & Monzon-Mayor, M. (2011) -
The successful regrowth of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons after optic nerve (ON) axotomy in Gallotia galloti indicates a permissive role of the glial environment. We have characterised the astroglial lineage of the lizard optic pathway throughout its ontogeny (embryonic stage 30 [E30] to adults) by using electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry to detect the proliferation marker PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), the transcription factor Pax2 and the gliofilament proteins vimentin (Vim) and GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein). PCNA+ cells were abundant until E39, with GFAP+/PCNA+ astrocytes being observed between E37 and hatching. Proliferation diminished markedly afterwards, being undetectable in the adult optic pathway. Müller glia of the central retina expressed Pax2 from E37 and their endfeet accumulated Vim from E33 and GFAP from E37 onwards. Astrocytes were absent in the avascular lizard retina, whereas abundant Pax2+ astrocytes were observed in the ON from E30. A major subpopulation of these astrocytes coexpressed Vim from E35 and also GFAP from E37 onwards; thus the majority of mature astrocytes coexpressed Pax2/Vim/GFAP. The astrocytes were ultrastructurally identified by their gliofilaments, microtubules, dense bodies, desmosomes and glycogen granules, which preferentially accumulated in cell processes. Astrocytes in the adult ON coexpressed both gliofilaments and presented desmosomes indicating a reinforcement of the ON structure; this is physiologically necessary for local adaptation to mechanical forces linked to eye movement. We suggest that astrocytes forming this structural scaffold facilitate the regrowth of RGCs after ON transection.
Castanet, J. & Báez, M. (1988) -
Femurs of 73 Gallotia galloti caught in different localities and belonging to two subspecies living in Tenerife (Canary Islands) were analysed by skeletochronology. The bones possessed annual rings like in many other lizards. For a high percentage of individuals, a remnant of the embryonic bone and a birth line of arrested growth remained present throughout life because cortical resorption never completely removed the first annual rings. Thus the age of an individual can be directly calculated from the number of lines of arrested growth. In the sample studies here, the oldest lizards were at least 8 or 9 years old. They reached sexual maturity during their second or third year of life.
Castanet, J. & Báez, M. (1991) -
A sub-fossil deposit located in Hierro Island (“Playa de la Arena”) at the beginning of the Middle Ages, displays among other animals, bones of lizards. According to bone histological criteria, it can be determined that two species of lizards are present in this deposit. Bones of various sizes come from a large sized species, probably Gallotia simonyi. The oldest specimen observed in our sample was at least 14 years old. Other bones come from lizards of little size, probably G. g. caesaris. The oldest specimen collected was 6 or 7 years old.
Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of histological data recorded from growing bone from seven extant and extinct taxa of Gallotia show that these lizards do not have the same longevity, reach sexual maturity at various ages and probably have different growth rates which are in reverse proportion to the specific size of individuals in each taxon. In term of relative growth, the highest rate is seen in the smallest taxon (G. atlantica) and the lowest in the largest taxon (G. goliath). It appears that differences between the maximum size reached, irrespective of the size of hatchlings, are only the consequence of changes in longevity allowing a more or less protracted growth; they are not due to differences in growth rates. On the basis of these data we discuss some points relating to adaptive strategies and evolutionary features of these lizards.
Castanet, J. & Vernet, R. & Báez, M. (1997) -
Castilla, A.M. & Van Damme, R. & Bauwens, D. (1999) -
We discuss three aspects of the thermal biology of lacertid lizards. First, we provide an overview
of the available data on field body temperatures (Tb), the thermal sensitivity of various performance
functions and selected body temperatures in different species of lacertid lizards. We also
briefly summarise information on the mechanisms of thermoregulation. Second, we discuss recent
developments to estimate the »precision« of thermoregulation, and the contribution of distinct behavioural
mechanisms. Finally, we revise available evidence for the existence of evolutionary adjustments
of thermal characteristics in lacertid lizards. Existing studies have mainly dealt with
within- and among-species differences in thermoregulatory behaviour (selected temperatures) and
thermal physiology of adults (optimal temperatures, heating rates). Available data provide only
limited evidence for clear-cut evolutionary shifts in thermal physiology characteristics along climatic
Castillo Ruiz, C. & Alfayate Casanas, M.d.C. & Ahijado Quintillán, A. & Cruzado-Caballero, P. & Fortuny, J. & Bernardini, F. (2018) -
The Paleontology Area of La Laguna University has been developing a collection of digital models of fossils in order to use them in education and divulgation. It has been shown that the use of digital models are effective in getting closer the general public to the results obtained in scientific research. Based on the experience gained in previous work where multimedia contents were created from fossil invertebrate materials, the Paleontology Area has started a new project with present and fossils remains of endemic giant lizards from the Canary Islands belonging to the Ga- llotia genus. The project consists of two stages: firstly, scientific information will be obtained and secondly in which the results will be adapted to generate multimedia contents. The first results of the project were microtomographies, modeling and impressions of specimens under study. This stage has been successfully carried out. Moreover, the study and acquisition of paleobiological information that will be used in both phases has begun.
Castillo, C. & Coello, J.J. & Martin González, E. (2011) -
Castillo, C. & Coello, J.J. & Martin, Y. (2001) -
Castillo, C. & Rando, J. C. & Zamora, J. F. (1994) -
Two mummified specimens of the extinct giant lizard Gallotia goliath have recently been discovered in the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands). For the first time they allow the study of the species` external morphology. It is characterized by its large size (estimated length >1,5 m) and a low number of temporal scales. Pholidotic characteristics and the dentition provide evidence for a closer relationships between G. goliath and G. simonyi, a species which has recently disappeared from the Roque Chico de Salmor but has survived on the island of El Hierro. Gallotia goliath probably became extinct in Tenerife as a consequence of habitat perturbations resulting from human impact and the introduction of new predators. Also, competition between juvenile giant lizards and adults of the smaller species G. galloti may have contributed to the decline of the giant lizard.
Castroviejo, J. & Mateo, J.A. & Collado, E. (1985) -
Cei, J.M. & Böhme, W. & Corti, C. & Albano-Barragan, M. (1996) -
The tongue shape and its epidermal structure was examined in a stock of palearctic and paleotropical lizards from Europe, Africa, the Middle East and south eastern Asia. The results of this preliminary report clearly point out the systematic importance of this morphological feature in providing valuable generic and specific characters. The fundamental pattern described for the genera Podarcis, Lacerta sensu stricto and Gallotia, e.g., is very distinctive despite several features in common, likely due to ancient phyletic relationships. A number of similar morphological trends stress the reciprocal affinities between Lacerta (Archaeolacerta) and the widely spread genus Podarcis which is still undergoing speciation. Another case is the minor but significant affinities linking the genera Lacerta sensu stricto and Gallotia, the latter also undergoing more complicated speciation due to its insular isolation. The interspecific differences in the taxa belonging to the so-called `species groups` such as Podarcis, are scanty or insignificant. Instead there are striking differences in the generic patterns of the tongue morphology in Afro-Asian lacertid lizards. However, a similar pattern was found in the African genera Adolfus and Holaspis or Centromastix (= Gastropholis according to Arnold, 1989) and Ichnotropis.
Cejudo, D. & Bowker, R.G. & Márquez, R. (1999) -
One of the numerous factors suggested for the decline of the giant lizard of El Hierro (Gallotia simonyi) is the competition with the smaller congener, G. caesaris, ubiquitous throughout El Hierro. Experiments were conducted to determine the potential for interference competition amongst G. caesaris and adults and juveniles of G. simonyi. Movement patterns and activity levels of individuals were quantified. No interspecific aggressive interactions were observed, however, distance moved and activity of G. simonyi changed as a result of the addition of conspecifics and of individuals of the smaller,more active, species. These results suggest that the presence of G. caesaris has the potential to influence behavior and energetics of G. simonyi. Interestingly, a similar species association exists on the nearby island of Gran Canaria, in which a large and numerous lizard G. stehlini is geographically sympatric with a smaller species, G. atlantica. Interspecific aggressive interactions (including predation!) were observed in G. stehlini towards G. atlantica, and distance moved and activity of G. stehlini did not change in presence of G. atlantica.
Cejudo, D. & Márquez, R. (2001) -
We studied the thermal sensitivity of sprint speed in the captive population of the endangered lizard Gallotia simonyi (Lacertidae) on El Hierro island and in G. stehlini, an abundant, large-sized lizard from the nearby island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). Among adults, lizards of both species were faster than adults of other lacertids. The sprint performance curves for both species had a flat upper plateau, and the obtained values for performance breadth were high, indicating that species attained near maximum sprint speeds over a wide range of body temperatures. Gallotia stehlini was significantly faster than G. simonyi both in absolute (cm/s) and relative speed (SVL/s). Juveniles of G. simonyi were significantly slower than juveniles of G. stehlini only in absolute speed. The lower sprint speed of G. simonyi is consistent with the hypothesis that higher vulnerability of this species to introduced predators may have played a role in its near extinction. Juveniles rather than adults from the captive population of G. simonyi should be used for reintroduction to establish wild populations, because the sprint performance of adults may have been compromised by prolonged captivity.
Cejudo, D. & Márquez, R. & Orrit, N. & Garcia-Márquez, M. & Romero-Bevia, M. & Caetano, A. & Mateo, J.A. & Pérez-Mellado, V. & López-Jurado, L.F. (1999) -
Avian predation is likely to be a relevant pressure on the populations of lizards of El Hierro (Canary Islands), particularly if we consider that kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) is extremely abundant on the island. We investigate the potential predation pressure on G. simonyi by studying the diet of F. tinnunculus estimated through the analysis of pellets, and by measuring predation pressure estimated by attacks to plasticine models. We also address the question of wheather there is a size refugium for large lizards in relation to avian predators. F. tinnunculus appears to be the only potential avian predator of G. simonyi. Lizards are a substantial portion of the diet of the kestrel although predation pressure upon models was not high. The only site where high predation pressure was detected in the plasticine models is the natural habitat of the relictual extant population of G. simonyi. In this habitat however, models of large lizards were attacked significantly less than models of small lizards. A study of the diet of F. tinnunculus from the Iberian Peninsula in a habitat with a dense population of Lacerta lepida – a lizard of similar size as G. simonyi – shows that adult lizards are not predated by kestrels either.
Cejudo, D. & Márquez, R. & Pérez-Mellado, V. (1999) -
We report selected body temperatures (Tb) and thermal set-points ranges (Tset) of males, females and juveniles of Gallotia simonyi. This information may contribute to improving captive population conditions and to select reintroduction areas of this endangered species. We also report thermal requirements of sympatric G. caesaris and of two other species of this endemic genus from the Canary Islands: G. stehlini and G. atlantica. Mean body temperature of G. simonyi is 35.6°C (Tset: 32.4 – 38.3°C), similar to those other Gallotia species studies. Juveniles of G. simonyi selected higher temperatures than adults, and G. stehlini had no intraspecific differences, juveniles of G. caesaris selected lower temperatures than adults. The lizards from the Island of El Hierro appear to be more thermophylous than the other two species.
Cejudo, D. & Rafael, M. & Garcia Márquez, M. & Bowker, R.G. (1997) -
The giant lizard of El Hierro, Gallotia simonyi, is perilously close to extinction. Here we describe 51 categories of resenzia for this endangered species grouped in five classes; maintenance, locomotory, feeding, social and reproductive. Reproductive behaviour showed peculiar patterns involved on plant material consumption. However, even under resenzia conditions, Gallotia simonyi exhibited low levels of lovomotor activity and decreased levels of aggressiveness compared to other Gallotia species in the Canary archipelago. Agonistic behaviour was only observed in juvenile individuals. These observations are consistent with the mild temperament of Gallotia simonyi, which may be related to the prolongued captivity of the adults.
Cernansky, A. & Bolet, A. & Müller, J. & Rage, J.-C. & Augé, M. & Herrel, A. (2017) -
The best-preserved material of Dracaenosaurus croizeti, an almost complete and previously unpublished skull with a few associated postcranial bones (stylopodium, zeugopodium, and cervical vertebra), is described. The material comes from the locality of Cournon, a late Oligocene site in south-central France. Micro-computed tomography applied to this specimen revealed previously unknown internal osteological characters. Among lacertids, this taxon represents a notable phenomenon: it is an extreme durophagous specialist. Many of the newly observed cranial character states reflect the lifestyle of this lizard, because animals with a hard-shelled diet display a specialized cranial morphology associated with more massive cranial muscles. One unique character for Lacertidae is observed: the parietal-supraoccipital contact is formed by a ventrally deep parietal crest that fits into a bifurcate ascending process of the supraoccipital. In fact, such a connection represents the opposite to the connection in modern members of Lacertidae. Phylogenetic analysis recovered Dracaenosaurus inside Gallotiinae, a clade that would consist of the mainly Oligocene genera Pseudeumeces and Dracaenosaurus, the Miocene genus Janosikia, and the extant Psammodromus and Gallotia. Our study supports previous phylogenetic results and provides an example of the achievement of large size in mainland members of the stem of Gallotia, previously exemplified by Janosikia and Pseudeumeces. The extreme amblyodonty of Dracaenosaurus also confirms the view that herbivory in Gallotia is derived and may be the result of insularity.
Čerňanský, A. & Klembara, J. & Smith, K.T. (2015) -
The endemic Canary Island lizard clade Gallotia, which includes the largest members of Europe`s dominant reptile group, Lacertidae, is one of the classic examples of insular gigantism. For the first time we use fossil data to test the evolutionary reasons for the association between gigantism and herbivory. We describe an almost completely preserved skeleton of Janosikia ulmensis comb. nov. from the early Miocene of Ulm, Germany (MN 2a, ∼ 22 Mya). We show that this species and Oligocene Pseudeumeces cadurcensis (Filhol, 1877) are in fact crown lacertids, and the first known pre-Quaternary record of the total clade of Gallotia. Pseudeumeces confirms the early origin of crown Lacertidae in the Palaeogene of Europe. More importantly, these fossil taxa show that large body size was already achieved on the European mainland by the early Miocene. Furthermore, Pseudeumeces and Janosikia were faunivorous, thus demonstrating that insularity, not large body size, was crucial to the evolution of herbivory in this lineage. Body size change in Gallotia was more complex than previously thought, encompassing size increase [e.g. in the extinct Gallotia goliath (Mertens, 1942)], but more commonly involving miniaturization. The physical environment may play a crucial role in modulating the evolution of body size in this natural laboratory. © 2015 The Linnean Society of London
Cheylan, M. (1999) -
Conde Lázaro, S. (2016) -
Cooper Jr., W.E. & Caldwell, J.P. & Vitt, L.J. & Pérez-Mellado, V. & Baird, T.A. (2002) -
Lizards use chemical cues to locate and identify prey and plant food, assess the nutritional quality of food, and detect plant toxins. Among insectivorous lizards, all actively foraging species studied respond strongly to prey chemicals sampled lingually, but ambush foragers do not. Much recent research has been devoted to assessing differential responses to food and nonfood chemicals (i.e., food-chemical discrimination) by omnivorous and herbivorous species and determining whether correlated evolution has occurred between plant diet and plant-chemical discrimination. We conducted experimental studies of food-chemical discrimination by two species of teiid lizards, the omnivorous Cnemidophorus murinus and the actively foraging insectivorous Ameiva ameiva. The omnivore distinguished both prey and plant chemicals from control substances. The insectivore exhibited prey-chemical, but not plant-chemical, discrimination, as indicated by tongue-flicking and biting. A comparative analysis using concentrated-changes tests showed that correlated evolution has occurred between plant consumption and plant-chemical discrimination in a major lizard taxon, Lacertiformes. These results extend and strengthen previous findings of similar correlated evolution to a new group and add to a growing database indicating that omnivorous lizards use chemical cues to assess both prey and plant foods.
Cooper Jr., W.E. & Pérez-Mellado, V. (2001) -
We studied lingual and biting responses to food chemicals by two species of omnivorous lacertid lizards, the Canary Island endemics Gallotia simonyi (the giant lizard of El Hierro) and Gallotia caesaris (Boettger`s lizard), to ascertain their ability to discriminate between prey and plant food chemicals on the one hand and control stimuli on the other. We recorded frequencies of tongue-flicking and latency to bite in 60-s trials in which chemical stimuli on cotton-tipped applicators were presented to the lizards. Both species exhibited prey-chemical discrimination, as indicated by elevated tongue-flick rates and higher proportions of individuals biting in response to surface chemicals from crickets. Both species exhibited plant-chemical discrimination, as indicated by significantly greater tongue-flick rates and biting frequency in response to chemicals from tomato fruit than to the control stimuli. Juvenile G. simonyi responded much more strongly to chemical stimuli from tomato fruit than from leaves of Psoralea bituminosa, which is not a preferred food for juveniles. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that chemosensory discrimination evolves in omnivorous lizards to permit evaluation of food quality, resulting in correspondence between plant diet and plant-chemical discrimination, both being absent in insectivores. The results are also consistent with the hypothesis that prey-chemical discrimination is retained and plant-chemical discrimination evolves in the omnivorous lizards derived from actively foraging insectivores.
Many lizards can identify food using only chemical cues, as indicated by tongue-flicking for chemical sampling and biting, but the effectiveness of the chemical components of food are unknown, as is the relationship between response strength and concentration. We investigated responses by the omnivorous lizard Gallotia caesaris to representatives of two major categories of organic food chemicals, lipids and carbohydrates. The stimuli, pork fat and sucrose solutions of varying concentration, were presented to lizards on cotton swabs and their lingual and biting behaviors were observed during 60-s tests. In the first experiment, fat elicited more tongue-flicks and bites than saturated sucrose or water (odorless control), biting being limited to the fat condition. Lizards licked at high rates, but exclusively in response to sucrose. A lick was a lingual protrusion in which the dorsal surface of the tongue contacted the swab, in contrast to the anteroventral contact made during tongue-flicks. In a second experiment, the number of licks, but not the number of tongue-flicks, increased with the concentration of sucrose. The results indicate that lipids contribute to prey chemical discrimination and are adequate to release some attacks, but are not as effective as releasers of attack as mixtures of prey chemicals obtained from prey surfaces. The findings with respect to licking are novel, and suggest that licking may be a response to gustatory stimulation by sugar, in contrast to previously observed prey chemical discriminations shown to require vomerolfaction.
Corbett, K.F. (1999) -
Corti, C. (1999) -
Corti, C. & Bruschi, S. & Spano, G. & Putzu, M. & Luiselli, L. & Lo Cascio, P. & Navone, A. (2008) -
Corti, C. & Lo Cascio, P. & Razzett,i E. (2006) -
Although it was obvious to us that it would be useful to include a list of the herpetofauna found on the Italian islands, it immediately became clear that this would be no easy task: the information in the literature is often incomplete, inaccurate and difficult to check, and precise data are available only for the circum-Sardinian islands (POGGESI et al., 1996), the circum-Sicilian islands (L ANZA, 1973; CORTI et al., 1998) and the Tuscan Archipelago (HOTZ, 1973; COR- TI et al., 1991; VANNI & NISTRI, 1999, 2000). In order to form as complete a picture as possible, we also consulted numerous works on single islands or groups of islands, e.g. the Handbuch der Rep- tilien und Amphibien Europas. Finally, we had access to a large vol- ume of as yet unpublished data from the Progetto Atlante, including reports for the Ligurian and Apulian islands, gathered by the region- al chapters of the Societas Herpetologica Italica.
For the sake of brevity, lacustrian and riverine populations and those of delta bars, beaches and island lakes have been omitted. Apart from the fact that few data are available, these populations are not actually separate from those of adjoining coasts. We do make an important exception to this rule in mentioning the taxon Lacerta muralis borromeica Mertens, 1932, described for the Isola Madre on Lago Maggiore and later declared invalid by the author.
The subspecies status of many island populations of lacertids of the Podarcis genus remains open to debate, and is discussed in more detail in the chapter “Checklist of the Italian herpetofauna with tax- onomic remarks”. These populations can present far greater variabil- ity in patterning than continental populations [e.g. Podarcis sicula caporiaccoi (Taddei, 1949) see HOTZ (1973)] or unusual colouring (e.g. melanotic) which, although they make island and archipelago populations easier to identify, are considered by modern taxono- mists to be of doubtful systematic validity.
It was decided to include the description of a species or sub- species for an island as a note, with the type locality in square brack- ets, and with the name supplied by the author without commenting on its validity.
Corti, C. & Lo Cascio, P. & Vanni, S. & Turrisi, G.F. & Vaccaro, A. (1997) -
Cox, N. & Chanson, J. & Stuart, S. (2006) -
Cox, S.C. & Carranza, S. & Brown, R.P. (2010) -
The Canary Islands have become a model region for evolutionary studies. We obtained 1.8 Kbp of mtDNA sequence from all known island forms of the endemic lizard genus Gallotia and from its sister taxon Psammodromus in order to reanalyze phylogenetic relationships within the archipelago, estimate lineage divergence times, and reconstruct the colonization history of this group. Well-supported phylogenies were obtained using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. Previous studies have been unable to establish the branching pattern at the base of the tree. We found evidence that G. stehlini (Gran Canaria) originated from the most basal Gallotia node and G. atlantica from the subsequent node. Divergence times were estimated under a global clock using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods implemented by three different programs: BEAST, MCMCTREE, MULTIDIVTIME. Node constraints were derived from subaerial island appearance data and were incorporated into the analyses as soft or hard maximal bounds. Posterior node ages differed slightly between programs, possibly due to different priors on divergence times. The most eastern Canary Islands first emerged just over 20 mya and their colonization appears to have taken place relatively quickly, around 17–20 mya. The subsequent node is consistent with cladogenesis due to colonization of Gran Canaria from the eastern islands about 11–13 mya. The western islands appear to have been colonized by a dispersal event from Lanzarote/Fuerteventura in the east to either La Gomera or one of the ancient edifices that subsequently formed Tenerife in the west, about 9–10 mya. Within the western islands, the most recent node that is ancestral to both the G. intermedia/G. gomerana/G. simonyi and the G. galloti/G. caesaris clades is dated at about 5–6 mya. Subsequent dispersal events between ancient Tenerife islands and La Gomera are dated at around 3 mya in both clades, although the direction of dispersal cannot be determined. Finally, we show that G. galloti is likely to have colonized La Palma more than 0.5 Ma after emergence of the island 1.77 mya, while G. caesaris from the same clade may have colonized El Hierro very soon after it emerged 1.12 mya. There are tentative indications that the large-bodied endangered G. simonyi colonized El Hierro around the same time or even later than the smaller-bodied G. caesaris. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of Bayesian dating of a phylogeny in helping reconstruct the historical pattern of dispersal across an oceanic archipelago.
Crowley, B.E. & Yanes, Y. & Mosher, S.G. & Rando, J.C. (2019) -
We used carbon (_13C) and nitrogen (_15N) isotopes to examine the foraging ecology of Tenerife giant rats (Canariomys bravoi) and lizards (Gallotia goliath) in northwestern Tenerife, which until recently, were the island’s largest terrestrial vertebrates. We combined new isotope data for 28 C. bravoi and 14 G. goliath with published regional data for both species and then compared these with data for co-occurring extant taxa and modern C3 plants. Isotope data suggest both extinct species relied primarily on C3 resources and were trophic omnivores. However, the two species appear to have partitioned their resources when living in sympatry. Isotopic overlap between C. bravoi and Rattus spp., and between G. goliath, extant Gallotia galloti, and introduced rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) suggests reliance on similar foods. We radiocarbon dated four C. bravoi and two G. goliath with the most extreme isotope values. These new dates do not settle the question of what triggered the demise of either species. Nevertheless, the data are most consistent with anthropogenically-induced extinction. Temporal isotopic trends contradict expectations if regional climate were responsible, and confidence intervals for radiocarbon dates suggest it is highly likely that both species were present when humans first settled the island.
Cruzado-Caballero, P. & Castillo Ruiz, C. & Bolet, A. & Colmenero, J.R. & De la Nuez, J. & Casillas, R. & Llacer, S. & Bernardini, F., & Fortuny, J. (2019) -
The Canary Islands are an Atlantic archipelago known for its high number of endemic species. Among the most known endemic vertebrate species are the giant lizards of the genus Gallotia. We describe the cranial osteology of the first almost complete and articulated fossil skull of the taxon Gallotia auaritae, recovered from the lower-middle Pleistocene of the La Palma island. In this work, X-ray computed microtomography images were used to perform an exhaustive phylogenetic analysis where most of the extant and fossil species of the genus Gallotia were included for first time. This analysis recovered a monophyletic Gallotia clade with similar topology to that of molecular analyses. The newly described specimen shares some characters with the group formed by G. bravoana, G. intermedia and G. simonyi, G. auaritae, and its position is compatible with a referral to the latter. Our study adds new important data to the poorly known cranial morphology of G. auaritae, and the phylogenetic analysis reveals an unexpected power of resolution to obtain a morphology-based phylogeny for the genus Gallotia, for inferring the phylogenetic position of extinct species and for helping in the identification of fossil specimens.
Davies, R.S. (1984) -
Delgado Castro, G. (2007) -
Delgado Garcia, J.D. & Arevalo, J.R. & Fernandez-Palacios, J.M. (2007) -
Transportation infrastructure is a main cause of environmental change in forest landscapes worldwide. In the Canary Islands, a dense road system fragment the native Canarian pine and laurel forests causing potential changes in population densities of endemic lacertid lizards (genus Gallotia). Our aim was to assess road edge effects on relative abundance patterns of the endemic Gallotia galloti in both forests. We also explored the species–habitat relationships in this road-fragmentation context. We found that lizard relative density in relation to road edges differed between forests. Lizards were more abundant along edges and leeward interior, but virtually absent from the interior of the windward laurel forest. In the pine forest, lizards were present at three distances from edge, with a net decrease in abundance from edge to interior. These patterns may be explained partly by differences in vegetation structure regarding road proximity in each forest that potentially affect the helio- and thigmothermic character of G. galloti, and thus its habitat use. A general suggestion of this study is that road margins create corridors that may be used by native lizards for dispersal through inhospitable forest matrix. The high road density in Tenerife may have negative implications for the conservation of the genetic variability of G. galloti. At the island scale, increased communication between lizard populations through road corridors might increase homogenization of the gene pool. Ecological processes in which this lizard plays important roles may also experience changes along road edges.
Delgado-Gonzalez, F.J. & Alonso-Fuentes, A. & Delgado-Fumero, A. & Garcia-Verdugo, J.M. & Gonzalez-Granero, S. & Trujillo-Trujillo, C.M. & Damas-Hernandez, M.C. (2008) -
Lizards present neuronal production throughout the telencephalon in their adult state, both naturally and after experimentally induced brain lesions. As in birds, lizards present seasonal behavioural variations. In birds, such variations have been shown to alter neuronal production. In birds and mammals, lack of stimuli or exposure to stress interferes with adult neurogenetic capacity. The effect of this type of study has not been performed with lizards. In the present study we used bromodeoxyuridine to label dividing cells in the ventricular walls of Gallotia galloti lizards during all four seasons and we investigated the effect of captivity on such proliferation. We found that G. galloti presented a particular distribution that differed from that previously described in other reptiles with respect to regions of greater or lesser proliferative rate. In addition, proliferative rate varied seasonally, with greater production of cells in Spring and low production in Autumn and Winter. Proliferative rate was significantly lower throughout the telencephalon and during all seasons in those lizards kept in captivity as compared with wild animals, even though photoperiod and temperature were similar to natural conditions. Our results indicate that cell production in lizards is species-dependent, varies with seasons and is significantly reduced in captive animals.
Diaz Herrero, E. (1980) -
Diaz, J.A. (1994) -
I studies the thermoregulatory behavior of a field population of the Canarian lizard Gallotia galloti, using null hypothesis based on (1) the measurement of operative temperatures available in full sun and in the shade (Te), and (2) the distribution of randomly positioned models with respect to sun and shade. The activity curve of the lizard population was unimodal, with a pronounced peak in the morning and lower (though roughly constant) levels at later times of day. Activity levels were positively correlated with the difference between Te in the sund and Te in the shade, but negatively correlated with Te in the shade. The distribution of lizards into sun-shade categories was highly selective relative to paper models, with an overall daily selectivity pattern that was symmetrical around midday (selection of sunlit perches early and late in the day, shade seeking at midday, and random distribution at intermediate hours). The low dispersion of hourly mean operative temperatures at lizard perching sites relative to random locations of models (average values calculated weighting mean Tes with frequencies of sun-shade use and sun-shade availability) suggested a high degree of thermoregulatory precision. Dark, adult males basked for longer periods than juveniles, whereas subadults/Females showed intermediate basking times, which suggests that body size and color differences may play a role in behavioral thermoregulation by these lizards.
Diaz, M. (1990) -
Diaz, M. & Lorenzo, A. (1992) -
Plasma concentrations of aldosterone, sodium and potassium were measured in the lizard Gallotia galloti. Aldosterone concentrations in control animals were 29.48 ± 8.65 ng/dl, which falls within the range reported for this hormone in mammals. Peripheral sodium and postassium concentrations were 132.81 ± 2.28 and 5.77 ± 0.32 meq/l, respectively. Plasma aldosterone and sodium were negatively correlated. A positive relationship could be established between potassium concentration and aldosterone levels. Acute or chronic administration of exogenous aldosterone increased the circulating levels of this hormone, being maximal in chronically treated animals. However, although plasma concentrations of aldosterone were augmented by acute administration, the sodium concentration in the plasma was only elevated by chronic treatment. No further changes to potassium concentration could be observed under primary hyperaldosteronism conditions. The extent to which aldosterone may be implicated in the regulation of sodium and potassium transport in reptiles and its possible action on postrenal structures of electrolyte transport are discussed.
Diaz, M.& Lorenzo, A. & Badia, A. & Gomez, T. (1988) -
1. The effects of D-aldosterone on the electrical properties and ionic transport have been analysed (in vitro) in the colonic epithelium of the lizard, Gallotia galloti. 2. The injection of 30 g of D-aldosterone induced a significant rise of plasma aldosterone concentration, sustained for 4 hr after administration. 3. Intraperitoneal injections of D-aldosterone caused a slight reduction of transmural potential difference (PD) and short-circuit current (Isc). 4. Net absorption of Na+ across the colon from aldosterone-treated lizards did not increase when compared to colon from normal lizards. Cl- absorption was increased in treated lizards. 5. Addition of mucosal barium to treated tissues brought about a sustained increase of PD and Isc. 6. The absorption of fluid in normal lizards was reversed to fluid secretion in treated lizards. 7. The effects of D-aldosterone on lizard colon are compared with those reported for the colon of mammals and birds.
Dieckmann, M. (2011) -
Divers, S.J. & Lafortune, M. & Martinez Silvestre, A. & Pether, J. (2003) -
In June 1999, a species of lizard previously considered extinct was rediscovered on the island of La Gomera, Spain. The giant gomeran lizard, Gallotia bravoana, is highly endangered and at risk of extinction by the feral cat population. A conservation effort to save the species was initiatived by the regional and central Spanish government and six lizards were captured and brought into captivity. This paper describes the results of the initial assessment of the health of the animals, by a physical examination and by haematological, biochemical, radiographical and coprological investigations. The methods used to maintain the animals in captivity are described and the first captive breeding success is reported.
Dubois, A. (1984) -
Contrary to what is usually believed, the specific name Lacerta galloti must be credited to Oudart (1839) instead of Duméril & Bibron (1839). The two specimens MNHN 2744 and 2744 A, collected in Tenerife by Webb & Berthelot, and figured by Oudart (1839), are the only syntypes of this species. Therefore, the designation by Boulenger (1920) of a third specimen (MNHN 2743) as lectotype of the species is not valid, and the designation by Bischoff (1982) of the specimen MNHN 2744 as lectotype, although posterior to that of Boulenger (1920), is valid.
Duméril, A.M.C. & Bibron, G. (1839) -
Dunjó Arribas, A. (2019) -
Circadian rhythms are the oscillations of biological variables at regular intervals of time. Natural selection has favored the evolution of circadian rhythms and animals that adjust to the activity according to the most favorable environmental circumstances. However, the circadian rhythms persist demonstrating their endogenous character, but enter the rhythm of the free course “free running rhythm”. The parietal eye is part of the epithalamus, it is a photoreceptor organ and is associated with the pineal gland, regulating the circadian rhythm and hormonal production for thermoregulation. In reference to the circadian system, the pineal organ plays an important role in the regulation of rhythms. It has been shown that, through pinealectomy, marked changes have occurred in the periods of free course and arrhythmias in lizards. The hypothesis of this study is based on the effect of covering the parietal eye, blocking the arrival of the environmental light estimation to the pineal gland, which would cause a pronounced imbalance in the activity-inactivity rhythm. In the event that this pronounced desynchronization does not occur, it will be necessary to consider that there are other or other ways that synchronize the activity-inactivity rhythm in this species. The function of the pineal organ in the regulation of the circadian rhythm of the lancet Gallotia galloti. The experiment consisted in recording the circadian rhythm of the lizards in 3 different cycles. A first cycle consisted of 12 hours of light and dark, in the second cycle they were maintained in 24 hours of constant light and in the third cycle they returned to the conditions of the first cycle. The second part of the experiment consisted of performing the same procedure, but this time the parietal organ of the animal. For the analysis of the data, statistical analyzes, actograms and the cosinor method are used. The results indicate that the parietal eye in the Gallotia galloti species is not the main mechanism by which the pineal gland receives light information from the environment. If not, it could be assumed that there are signaling pathways in these animals.
Dupoué, A. & Blaimont, P. & Rozen-Rechels, D. & Richard, M. & Meylan, S. & Clobert, J. & Miless, D.B. & Martin, R. & Decencières, B. & Agostini, S. & Galliard, J.F. le (2019) -
1. Reproduction involves considerable reorganization in an organism`s physiology that incurs potential toxicity for cells (e.g., oxidative stress) and decrease in fitness. This framework has been the cornerstone of the so-called ‘oxidative cost of reproduction’, a theory that remains controversial and relatively overlooked in non-model ectotherms. 2. Here, we used two complementary approaches in natural and controlled conditions to test whether altered access to climate conditions (water and temperature resources) alters oxidative status and mediates reproductive trade-offs in viviparous populations of the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara). 3. First, we examined whether access to free-standing water and differences in ambient temperature across 12 natural populations could be related to variation in oxidative status, reproductive effort and reproductive success. Second, we determined whether an experimental restriction to water triggers higher oxidative cost of reproduction and correlates with fitness measures (reproductive success, future survival rate and probability of future reproduction). 4. Pregnant females exhibited higher sensitivity than males to natural or experimental limitations in temperature and water access. That is, in restricted environments, pregnant females with higher reproductive effort exhibited stronger oxidative damage despite enhanced non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity. 5. Enhanced antioxidant defensive capacity in pregnant females was positively correlated with higher reproductive success, whereas elevated oxidative damage negatively correlated with offspring annual survival. 6. Altogether, our results revealed a context-dependent oxidative cost of reproduction that was concomitant with a conflict in water demand from offspring. These new insights should be critical for understanding ectotherm responses to heat waves and summer droughts that are increasing in frequency and duration.
Escoriza Abril, E. (2005) -
Evenhuis, T. (2006) -
Herpetological observations on La Gomera in November 2005
The author visited La Gomera (the Canaries) in November 2005. This is the second smallest island of the archipelago, which consists of islands that arose from volcanic actions. The age and the isolated location gave rise to several endemic species. The species occurring most often on La Gomera is Gallotia caesaris (males up to 30 cm), which was found in several biotopes. This animal is found on El Hierro too.
Gallotia gomerana is a large lizard (50-60 cm), that until recently was thought of as being extinct. After its rediscovery in 1999 the animals are kept and bred in a breeding-centre on the island. It is an endemic species.
Chalcides viridanus is a skink that was observed in several habitats too. This species can be found on other islands (El Hierro and Tenerife).
Tarentola gomerensis is a widespread gecko, found in many biotopes. This species is found only on La Gomera.
Hyla meridionalis is a more recent immigrant, which arrived on the archipelago from southern Europe, probably by human interference.
The only possible other species that could perhaps be found on the island is Rana perezi This animal was not observed.
Fain, A. & Bannert, B. (2000) -
Two new species of the genus Ophionyssus Mgnin, 1884 (Acari: Macronyssidae) are described, O. galloticolus spec. nov. parasitizing the lacertid lizard Gallotia galloti eisentrauti from Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, and O. setosus spec. nov. parasitic on Gallotia stehlini from Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.
Farina Trujillo, B. & Arechavaleta Hernandez, M. (2014) -
Fariña, B. & Aguilar, N. (2003) -
Farina, B. & Albaladejo, G. & Arechavaleta, M. (2014) -
Gallotia galloti insulanagae is a subspecies inhabiting exclusively the islet of “Roque de Fuera de Anaga” (Tenerife, Canary Islands). Here we provide data on biometry, population dynamics and abundance. We also include a description of the environment where it lives and trophic resources available. This subespecies was described in 1985. It differs from that of northern Tenerife because of its melanism and larger size. Ist habitat presents a low floral diversity and an abundant presence of marine birds. We have conducted census to estimate the population size in several campaigns. The population size is estimated in 350 specimens on the whole “Roque”, with an approximate density of 200 individuals per hectare. This density is higher than that observed for other lizards inhabiting similar environments. In spite of its isolation and apparent resource scarcity, the general status of the population is adequate. Furthermore, the sex ratio is close to one.
Fariña, B. & Arechavaleta, M. (2002) -
Farina, B. & Martin, A. (2013) -
Fariña, B. & Rodríguez, L. & López, M.R. & Moreno, J.E. (2011) -
Fejervary, G.F. (1914) -
Fejervaryi, G.J. v. (1914) -
Fernández-Galiano, E. (1999) -
Ficetola, G.F. & Falaschi, M. & Bonardi, A. & Padoa-Schioppa, E. & Sindaco, R. (2018) -
The analysis of biogeographical structure and patterns of endemism are central topics of biogeography, but require exhaustive distribution data. A lack of accurate broad-scale information on the distribution of reptiles has so far limited the analyses of biogeographical structure. Here we analysed the distribution of reptiles within the broad-sense Western Palearctic to assess biogeographical regionalization using phylogenetic and non-phylogenetic approaches, identified areas of endemism and evaluated the environmental factors pro- moting community uniqueness and endemism. We gathered distributional records from the literature and from the field, mapping the distribution of all the Western Palearctic reptiles on a 1-degree resolution grid. bsim dissimilarity and hierarchical clustering was used to identify bioregions, analysing data both at the species and at the genus level, and considering phylogenetic dissimilarity. Consensus areas of endemism were identified on the basis of the optimality criterion. We then assessed whether biogeographical structure is related to present-day climate, insularity, orography and velocity of climate change during the Late Qua- ternary. The genus-level analysis identified five main biogeographical regions within the Western Palearctic, in partial agreement with previous proposals, while the species-level analysis identified more bioregions, largely by dividing the ones identified by genera. Phylogenetic bioregions were generally consistent with the non- phylogenetic ones. The strongest community uniqueness was observed in subtropical warm climates with seasonal precipitation and low productivity. We found nine consensus areas of endemism, mostly in regions with limited velocity of Quaternary climate change and warm subtropical climates. The biogeographical structure of Western Palearctic reptiles is comparable to what has been observed in other vertebrates, with a clear distinction between the Saharo-Arabian-Sindian and Euro-Mediterranean herpetofaunas. Unlike other vertebrates, in reptiles the highest uniqueness and endemism is observed in dry climates, but the velocity of climate change during the Quaternary remains a major driver of endemism across all the vertebrates.
Filson, R.P. (2004) -
Fitzinger, L.I. (1843) -
Font, E. & Carazo, P. & Pérez i de Lanuza, G. & Barbosa, D. (2010) -
Font, E. & Molina-Borja, M. (2001) -
Font, E. & Molina-Borja, M. (2004) -
Bright colors and conspicuous visual displays have been described in many lacertid species. However, previous studies of lacertid coloration and behavior have largely ignored differences between the lizards´ and our own visual perception, including the possibility that the visual range of lacertids extends into the near ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum. In this study we use UV photography and reflectance spectrophotometry to document the presence and distribution of UV reflectance in color patches of Gallotia lizards from the Canary Islands. We found considerable reflection of UV light in blue, yellow, and green color patches of different Gallotia species. Fore example, the lateral and ventro-lateral blue patches of G. galloti from Tenerife show a single peak of reflectance with a maximum in the near UV waveband, close to the peak sensitivity of UV retinal cones in lizards with known UV vision. The blue, UV-reflecting patches are present in lizards of either sex. However, These are differences in the spectral shape of blue patches from male and female lizards, particularly in the UV range. We conclude that G. galloti are sexually dichromatic in their own visual world. Furthermore, we found large interindividual differences in the reflectance of blue patches in lizards from the same sex and population. These differences are again most marked in the UV region of the spectrum. We discuss possible functions of UV-reflecting patches in sex recognition, male-male contests, and mutual mate choice.
Foronda, P. & Abreu-Acosta, N. & Casanova, J.C. & Ribas, A. & Valladares, B. (2009) -
A new species of anoplocephalid cestode is described from Gallotia atlantica (Reptilia, Lacertidae) on the Canary Islands, Spain. Oochoristica feliui n. sp. belongs to the group of Oochoristica spp. having circular suckers and fewer than 25 testes in a single cluster: O. lygosomae Burt, 1933; O. lygosomatis Skinker, 1935; O. elongata Dupouy et Kechemir, 1973; O. jonnesi Bursey, McAllister and Freed, 1997; O. junkea Johri, 1950; O. macallisteri Bursey and Goldberg, 1996; O. novaezelandae Schmidt and Allison, 1985; O. parvogenitalis Dupouy and Kechemir, 1973; and O. sobolevi (Spasskii, 1948) Spaskii, 1951. Oochoristica feliui n. sp. differs from these species in a variety of characters such as the number of proglottids, size of the scolex and suckers, presence of a neck, size and shape of the ovary (divided into 5-6 lobules), ovoid shape of the vitelline gland, a spined cirrus, size of eggs, oncosphere and oncosphere hooks, and the presence of 2 osmoregulatory canals. Gallotia spp. are endemic to the Canary Islands. This is the first report of an adult cestode species in this lizard.
Foronda, P. & Santana Morales, M. & Oros, J. & Abreu-Costa, N. & Ortega Arivas, A. & Lorenzo Morales, J. & Valladares, B. (2007) -
Intestinal helminths and blood protozoa are common parasites of lizards. In captivity they can be a serious problem, but no information on treatments is available. In this study, several antiparasitic drugs were studied in Gallotia caesaris (Lacertida) from La Gomera, the Canary Islands, Spain. A lack of efficacy of chloroquine, and a decrease in haemogregarine (Apicomplexa) infection by atovaquone-proguanil was demonstrated. Furthermore, a positive effect of fenbendazole against intestinal nematode infection was observed. In the Canary Islands, Gallotia bravoana and Gallotia simonyi (Lacertida) are included in a captive breading recovery plan. The present results are useful in order to keep these animals in good condition and to control their parasites. Moreover, these results are important for reptiles kept as pets, due to the previous lack of knowledge of parasite management.
Fossi, M.C. & Sanchez-Hernandez,J.C. Diaz-Diaz, R. & Garcia-Hernandez, J. & Gaggi, C. (1994) -
Franzen, M. (2000) -
Presently, the lacertid fauna of Turkey consists of 67 species and subspecies. Since 1990 one species has been recorded as new for Turkey (Acanthodactylus schreiberi), and four species (Darevskia dryada, D. `bendimahiensis`, D. `sapphirina`, Lacerta cyanisparsa) and two subspecies (D. valentini spitzenbergerae, D. raddei vanensis) were newly described. Contrastingly, the formerly listed D. r. raddei does not occur in Turkey. Furthermore it is proposed to reject Parvilacerta parva from the fauna of the European part of Turkey until its presence there has been confirmed, and to reject Darevskia mixta from the Turkish herpetofauna until the record has been confirmed or the material has been re-examined. In addition, an overview on taxonomical changes and new distributional data regarding Turkish lacertids since 1990 is given. Finally, a checklist of all taxa currently known from Turkey is presented.
Fu, J. (1998) -
A phylogeny of the family Lacertidae was derived from mtDNA gene sequence data. Seventeen species, representing 16 currently recognized genera and subgenera, were included in the analysis. A total of 954 bp was obtained and aligned from 12S and 16S partial gene sequences. A preferred tree was selected based on weighted parsimony and functional ingroup and outgroup analyses. Decay analysis, bootstrapping, and permutation tail probability were used to evaluate support for the recovered nodes. The genus Gallotia was resolved as the basal taxon and the sister group of all remaining lacertids.Takydromus branched off next. All African lacertids grouped together and formed a monophyletic clade with the Eurasian genera Eremiasand Ophisops. The remaining Eurasian lacertids sequentially branched off near the base of the tree in a “comb-like” fashion. The basal position of Gallotia and the monophyly of African lacertids are consistent with previous hypotheses. The European-origin hypothesis of lacertids is favored, and the distribution of lacertids in Africa is likely a Miocene dispersal event. Most of the extant European lacertids probably arose after the Eocene. The classification of the family needs to be revised.
Fu, J. (2000) -
A phylogeny of the family Lacertidae was derived from DNA sequences of six mitochondrial genes. Only a few nodes were confidently resolved using maximum parsimony, although the data yielded a total of 1664 phylogenetically informative characters. The lacertids grouped into two subfamilies, the Gallotiinae which includes genera Gallotia and Psammodromus, and the Lacertinae which includes the remaining lacertids. The Lacertinae split into two additional groups. The African group included all African and Arabian lacertids and two Eurasian genera, Eremias and Ophisops; the remaining Eurasian lacertids were included in the Eurasian group. Most of the relationships within the African and Eurasian groups cannot be confidently resolved. A permutation tail probability test suggested that there is very little character covariance in the data to support these unresolved relationships. A recent explosive speciation hypothesis was invoked to explain the lack of structure of the data. The common ancestor of the Eurasian group, as well as the ancestor of the African group, experienced simultaneous, or almost simultaneous, multiple speciation events, which left none or very few characters fixed on the internodes. The phylogenetic reconstruction at the family level will be very difficult, if not impossible. Future phylogenetic research should focus on lower levels.
Garcia Cruz, C.M. & Marrero, C.M. & Hernandez, A. (1980) -
Garcia da Vila, A. (2019) -
Circadian rhythms can be defined as specific adaptations of the various cycles presented by organisms to daily environmental oscillations. Evidence has been presented that most of the studied rhythms are endogenous, meaning that they are maintained despite the absence of environmental signals. In spite of their endogenous nature, these rhythms can suffer alterations by means of the modification of the environmental conditions. Over time a number of techniques have been developed for the study of different biological rhythms and in particular circadian rhythms. Although the sleep-wake rhythm is recognized as the most studied within circadian rhythms, it is comparable to the activity-inactivity rhythm, which will be understood as the basis of this work. This project will study the behaviour of a population of 14 organisms of the Gallotia galloti species in different light-dark cycles of 9 days duration (light-dark, constant light and constant dark) by recording their movements by a series of photoreceptor infrared sensors located on each side of an individual cage for each lizard. With the objective of observing the changes produced in the circadian rhythm of the individuals under study during the different cycles with different lighting conditions and to have more information on the functioning of the circadian system in reptiles. The results obtained show obvious variations in rhythm as different lighting periods are applied. It can therefore be said that the application of the different light-dark cycles involves significant changes in the regulation of the endogenous circadian rhythm of the lizard Gallotia galloti.
Garcia Marquez, M. & Mateo-Miras, J.A. & Lopez Jurado, L.F. (1998) -
Garcia-Diaz, C. & Molina-Borja, M. & Gonzalez-Gonzalez, J. (1989) -
Motor activity of lacertid lizards (Gallotia galloti) was continuously recorded through sensitive platforms during some days in LD and later for up to 20 days in LL. Light intensity was 4.6 μE.s‐1.m2, both during light period of LD and in LL and temperature was maintained constant (28°C ±0.5). The circadian periods, calculated through periodogram analysis, were less than 24 h except in two lizards (out of 8) having a period somewhat longer than 24 h. Ultradian frequencies, obtained by means of a Fast Fourier Transform, were calculated for two consecutive segments of 64 data points (`morning”; and “afternoon”;, respectively) of each lizard and day. The ultradian peaks mainly fell into two bands: 9–36 c/day (= 160–40 min. period range) and 45–90 c/day (32–16 min). In most of the animals, the mean power of the first band was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than that of the second one, both in “morning”; and “afternoon”; segments, but for two lizards the mean power of the second band was significantly greater also in both data segments. These results are compared with those obtained in previous analyses of ultradian bands in LD.
Garcia-Márquez, M. & Caetano, A. & Bello, I. & López-Jurado, L.F. & Mateo, J.A. (1999) -
Feral cats are introduced predators spread all over the canary archipelago. Their possible role in the extinction processes undergone by the endemic fauna was investigated by comparing the impact of cat predation on Gallotia simonyi, a big sized, endemic lacertid lizard close to extinction, whith that experienced by other native and introduced species at two sites on El Hierro island. The sympatric, small and widespread G. caesaris, with different life history traits, sourced a good control for comparisons. A general approach to food habits, spatial patterns and activity patterns of feral cats was devised to achieve conclusions. Ecological and social adjustments were similar to those described in other feral populations previously studied. Cats showed a strong dependence on the availability of rabbits. Evidence was found that cats also selected Gallotia lizards as preferred prey, irrespective of their aboundance. Nearly extinction of G. simonyi seems resenzia o largely in terms of predation pressure exerted by cats, and the present day known population is certainly threatened by cats. Hence, feral cat control is invoked as a necessary measure to save the giant lizard from extinction, and recover its former island-wide range.
Garcia-Márquez, M. & J.A. Mateo (2002) -
Garcia-Márquez, M. & López-Jurado, L.F. & Mateo, J.A. (1997) -
Garcia-Márquez, M. & López-Jurado, L.F. & Mateo, J.A. (1999) -
In islands, small sized lizard species are less vulnerbale to mammalian predators introduced by man than big sized species. Since this might be relatied to how the life history traits of the lizards covariate with body size, eco-demographic studies on the small, extinction resistant insular species have value for conservation science. In the small G. caesaris from El Hierro island, early maturity (which involves big hatchling size but small adult size) and multiple broods per season compensate for high mortality rates in a population subjected to kestrel and introduced feral cat predation. A severe drought increased slightly the mortality of the adults, but the population density dropped by a factor of three as the result of a reduction in the reproductive performance of the lizards. Bigger size meant enhanced fitness and fecundity but, since size is limited by asymptotic growth, size is poorly correlated with age, and life expectancy is short, natural selection should favour the younger breeders in this species.
Garcia-Porta, J. & Irisarri, I. & Kirchner, M. & Rodríguez, A. & Kirchhof, S. & Brown, J.L. & MacLeod, A. & Turner, A.P. & Ahmadzadeh, F. & Albaladejo, G. & Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J. & Riva, I. de la & Fawzi, A. & Galán, P. & Göçmen, B. & Harris, D.J. & Jiménez-Robles, O. & Joger, U. & Jovanović Glavaš, O. & Karış, M. & Koziel, G. & Künzel, S. & Lyra, M. & Miles, D. & Nogales, M. & Oğuz, M.A. & Paf (2019) -
Climatic conditions changing over time and space shape the evolution of organisms at multiple levels, including temperate lizards in the family Lacertidae. Here we reconstruct a dated phylogenetic tree of 262 lacertid species based on a supermatrix relying on novel phylogenomic datasets and fossil calibrations. Diversification of lacertids was accompanied by an increasing disparity among occupied bioclimatic niches, especially in the last 10 Ma, during a period of progressive global cooling. Temperate species also underwent a genome- wide slowdown in molecular substitution rates compared to tropical and desert-adapted lacertids. Evaporative water loss and preferred temperature are correlated with bioclimatic parameters, indicating physiological adaptations to climate. Tropical, but also some popu- lations of cool-adapted species experience maximum temperatures close to their preferred temperatures. We hypothesize these species-specific physiological preferences may con- stitute a handicap to prevail under rapid global warming, and contribute to explaining local lizard extinctions in cool and humid climates.
Garcia-Ramirez, A. & Delgado-Garcia, J.D. & Foronda-Rodriguez, P. & Abreu-Acosta, N. (2005) -
We studied relationships among blood haemogregarines (Apicomplexa), ectoparasitic mites (Ophyonissus; Acari: Trombiculidae) and an endemic lizard host (Gallotia atlantica, Lacertidae) on an oceanic islet (Alegranza, Canary Islands). We asked whether blood infection, mite load and body condition were related in lizard subpopulations at two contrasting habitats. Both haemogregarine prevalence (100%) and intensity of parasitism (>1) were strikingly higher than values found for congeneric lizards from the other Canary Islands. There were few differences between habitats in infection levels, suggesting low influence of habitat on parasite performance. Both mite prevalence and intensity were very high, though only prevalence differed between habitats (higher in the richest and climatically more sheltered site). Body condition in lizards did not differ significantly between habitats. We found no association among blood parasite load, mite infection and lizard body condition. Results are discussed in the context of parasite‐host relationships on small islands as compared to larger areas such as continents.
Garcia-Roa, R. & Megia-Palma, R. & Ortega, J. & Jara, M. & López, P. & Martin, J. (2017) -
Communicative traits are strikingly diverse and may vary among populations of the same species. Within a population, these traits may also display seasonal variation. Chemical signals play a key role in the communication of many taxa. However, we still know far too little about chemical communication in some vertebrate groups. In lizards, only a fewstudies have examined interpopulational variation in the composition of chemical cues and signals and only one study has explored the seasonal effects. Here we sampled three subspecies of the Tenerife lizards (Gallotia galloti) and analyze the lipophilic fraction of their femoral gland secretions to characterize the potential interpopulational variation in the chemical signals. In addition, we assessed whether composition of these secretions differed between the reproductive and the nonreproductive season. We analyzed variations in both the overall chemical profile and the abundance of the two main compounds (cholesterol and vitamin E). Our results show interpopulational and seasonal differences in G. gallotia chemical profiles. These findings are in accordance with the high interpopulational variability of compounds observed in lizard chemical signals and show that their composition is not only shaped by selective factors linked to reproductive season.
García, M. & Martín, S. (2001) -
Gasc, J.P. (1971) -
Ginovés, J. & Betoret, A. & Martin, A. (2005) -
Girard, F. (2003) -
Glandt, D. (2010) -
Glandt, D. (2011) -
Göçmen, B. & Tok, V. & Kaya, U. & Tosunoglu, M. (1996) -
Gomez, T. & Bolanos, A. & Lopez-Garcia, J.A. & Nicolau, M.C. & Rial, R.V. (1990) -
1. In the search for properties of the Kindling effect in the lizard Gallotia galloti and after testing about 400 animals, one of them produced a very high density of recurrent electrographic seizures without previous application of any epileptogenic treatment.2. Ten percent of the recorded time (four days, continuous recording) was spent in seizures of variable morphology.3. Oral administration of 3 mg/kg of diphenylhydantoin every 24 h completely abolished the seizures.
Gonzales, J. & Porcell, L.V. (1986) -
1. The Canary Island lizard Gallotia galloti, tested in still air between 5 and 35°C, heated faster than it cooled. The ratio between heating and cooling thermal time constants shows no dependence on body weight and its value was 0.50 on average. 2. Regression equations for the relationship between the thermal time constant (τ) and body weight (W) during heating (h) and cooling (c) are: 3. During heating the core and subcutaneous body regions heat at the same rate, while during cooling the core cools more slowly than the subcutaneous area. 4. Heart activity differences during heating and cooling were restricted at body temperature range 7–20°C. The increased heart activity during heating appears to be a physiologically controlled response, as opposed to the decreased heart activity during cooling, which appears to be a passive response.
Gonzáles, P. & Pinto, F. & Nogales, M. & Jiménez-Asensio, J. & Hernández, M. & Cabrera, V.M. (1996) -
Phylogenetic relationships among species and subspecies of the Canary Island endemic lizard genus Gallotia are inferred base on nucleotide sequence of fragments of 12S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome b mitochondrial genes. The four morphologically established species have also been recognized at the molecular level. Relative affinities among species follow an eatsern-western geographic transect. The nearly extinct species Galloti simonyi from the most western island of El Hierro is closely related to the common western species Gallotia galloti. The nearest branch to this pair is Gallotia stehlini from the central island of Gran Canaria, and finally, Gallotia atlantica from the two eastern and geologically oldest islands appears as the most distantly related species of the group. At the statistical level, four subspecies can be recognized in G. galloti, but only two in G. atlantica.
González-González, J. & Molina-Borja, M. (1991) -
1.1. The heart rate and motor activity of lizards (Gallotia galloti) maintained in a light-dark cycle (12:12 hr) and with changing cyclic temperature were recorded. Both variables showed a circadian pattern, motor activity variations leading heart rate by approximately 110 min.2.2. Results from cross spectral analysis showed that heart rate was highly correlated with temperature and both variables were changing practically in phase. However, motor activity and temperature were less correlated and in this case motor activity led temperature by approximately 100 min.3.3. In the ultradian range, two periodicities could be distinguished in the power spectra of motor activity and heart rate variations during the day: one between 0.019 and 3.9 × 10−3 cycles/min (central peak around 85 min period) and another, of lower power, between 0.05 and 0.02 cycles/min (central peak around 34 min period). During the night, only the heart rate showed both periodicities but with a lower amplitude.4.4. The presence of ultradian oscillations in heart rate during the night suggested that they do not depend on motor activity which was almost absent during that daily period.5.5. Motor activity and heart rate were also highly correlated in the ultradian range, motor activity leading heart rate by around 5 min at the 85 min main peak.
González-Ortega, C. & Rodriguez Doninguez, M.Á. & Bohórquez Alonso, M.L. & Molina Borja, M. (2005) -
Gonzalez, E.G. & Cerón-Souza, I. & Mateo, J.A. & Zardoya, R. (2014) -
Background: The giant lizard of La Gomera (Gallotia bravoana), is an endemic lacertid of this Canary Island that lives confined to a very restricted area of occupancy in a steep cliff, and is catalogued as Critically Endangered by IUCN. We present the first population genetic analysis of the wild population as well as of captive-born individuals (for which paternity data are available) from a recovery center. Current genetic variability, and inferred past demographic changes were determined in order to discern the relative contribution of natural versus human-mediated effects on the observed decline in population size.
Results: Genetic analyses indicate that the only known natural population of the species shows low genetic diversity and acts as a single evolutionary unit. Demographic analyses inferred a prolonged decline of the species for at least 230 generations. Depending on the assumed generation time, the onset of the decline was dated between 1200–13000 years ago. Pedigree analyses of captive individuals suggest that reproductive behavior of the giant lizard of La Gomera may include polyandry, multiple paternity and female long-term sperm retention.
Conclusions: The current low genetic diversity of G. bravoana is the result of a long-term gradual decline. Because generation time is unknown in this lizard and estimates had large credibility intervals, it is not possible to determine the relative contribution of humans in the collapse of the population. Shorter generation times would favor a stronger influence of human pressure whereas longer generation times would favor a climate-induced origin of the decline. In any case, our analyses show that the wild population has survived for a long period of time with low levels of genetic diversity and a small effective population size. Reproductive behavior may have acted as an important inbreeding avoidance mechanism allowing the species to elude extinction. Overall, our results suggest that the species retains its adaptive potential and could restore its ancient genetic diversity under favorable conditions. Therefore, management of the giant lizard of La Gomera should concentrate efforts on enhancing population growth rates through captive breeding of the species as well as on restoring the carrying capacity of its natural habitat.
Gonzalez, J. & Gamundi, A. & Rial, R. & Nicolau, M.C. & Vera, L. de & Pereda, E. (1999) -
Electroencephalogram (EEG) from dorsal cortex of lizard Gallotia galloti was analyzed at different temperatures to test the presence of fractal or nonlinear structure during open (OE) and closed eyes (CE), with the aim of comparing these results with those reported for human slow-wave sleep (SWS). Two nonlinear parameters characterizing EEG complexity [correlation dimension (D2)] and predictability [largest Lyapunov exponent (l1)] were calculated, and EEG spectrum and fractal exponent b were determined via coarse graining spectral analysis. At 25°C, evidence of nonlinear structure was obtained by the surrogate data test, with EEG phase space structure suggesting the presence of deterministic chaos (D2 ,6, l1 ,1.5). Both nonlinear parameters were greater in OE than in CE and for the right hemisphere in both situations. At 35°C the evidence of nonlinearity was not conclusive and differences between states disappeared, whereas interhemispheric differences remained for l1. Harmonic power always increased with temperature within the band 8–30 Hz, but only with OE within the band 0.3–7.5 Hz. Qualitative similarities found between lizard and human SWS EEG support the hypothesis that reptilian waking could evolve into mammalian SWS.
Großhans, J. (1993) -
Großhans, R. (2017) -
Grossmann, W. (2008) -
Syntopic colonies of Gallot`s lizard and the Canary wall gecko were observed basking on a lava rock demarca- tion wall at a tourist resort on Teneriffe Island. While the lizards showed a reduced escape distance of about 40 cm towards humans, dogs, and pigeons, the geckos had assumed a nearly black colouration, matching that of the lava rock, and could be approached and picked up without their responding defensively. When a cat came strolling down the crown of the wall, the lizards suddenly reverted to escape distances of 5+ metres. Adults re- sponded first, triggering the flight of younger specimens. The geckos did not take notice of the passing cat, even though it walked by some as close as 25 cm. It would thus appear a.) that local lizards have learnt to differentiate between `harmless` (tourists, dogs, pigeons) and `potentially dangerous` (cats) passers-by; and b.) that younger generations learn appropriate defensive responses from older specimens. The lack of any defensive response by the geckos might have to do with a.) their being blinded by the bright sun, or b.) total reliance on camouflage. Comparative observations on Tarentola mauritanica on Gozo Island (Malta) seem to disprove the former expla- nation, as these would maintain escape distances of 5-10 m even in bright sunlight. These observation comple- ment, and in part contradict, previous summaries of these species` defensive behavioural patterns.
Grossmann, W. (2009) -
Grossmann, W. (2014) -
Es wird über die Sichtung einer in einem schlechten körperlichern Zustand befindlichen, aber dennoch agilen Gallotia galloti eisentrauti im Norden Teneriffas berichtet. Über die Bedeutung dieser Beobachtung für die Terrarist wird diskutiert.
Hamilton, R. & Mateo, J.A. & Hernández-Acosta, C.N. & López-Jurado, L.F. (2016) -
Harris, D.J. (1999) -
In recent years there has been an exponential increase in the amount of published DNA sequences, as it has become one of the most popular sources of data for reconstructing phylogenies. A number of studies have attempted to resolve the relationships of groups of lacertids using mitochondrial DNA sequence data, in particular Podarcis and Gallotia (e.g. THORPE et al., 1994; 1996; GONZALEZ et al., 1996; FU et al., 1997; HARRIS, 1997; HARRIS et al., 1998a; 1999; CASTILLA et al., 1999a,b). Reassessment of these data suggest some alternative phylogenies to those previously published, and also highlight possible problems.
Two studies have attempted to unravel the phylogeny of the whole family using mitochondrial DNA sequences (FU, 1998; HARRIS et al., 1998b). By combining these essentially congruent data sets, and reanalysing levels of support for the phylogenies produced, a more complete estimate of relationships across the family is produced. This is then compared to alternative sources of evidence, primarily morphological (ARNOLD, 1989), biochemical (MAYER & BENYR, 1994) and karyological (OLMO et al., 1993). Reasons for discrepencies are discussed, as are the relative advantages and disadvantages of the different sources of phylogenetic inference.
Harris, D.J. & Arnold, E.N. & Thomas, R.H. (1998) -
DNA sequences from parts of the 12S, 16S and cytochrome b mitochondrial genes, which totalled 1049 aligned base pairs, were used to estimate the relationships of 49 species of Lacertidae, including representatives of 19 out of the 23 recognized genera and 23 species of the paraphyletic genus Lacerta. These data were used, together with morphological information, to estimate the relationships within the family. Molecular evidence corroborates the monophyletic status of many genera and species groups originally based on morphology. It indicates that Psammodromus forms a clade with Gallotia, which is the sister taxon of all other lacertids. These comprise three units: the primarily Afrotropical armatured group; the largely Oriental Takydromus; and the west Palaearctic Lacerta and its derivatives, Podarcis and Algyroides. Morphology also supports the first three assemblages, but suggests that they are derived from a paraphyletic Lacerta. Within Lacerta and its allies, DNA sequence analysis corroborates the affinity of some members of each of the subgenera Lacerta s. str. and Timon, and of the L. saxicola group. It also supports the relationship of L. monticola, L. bonnali and L. horvathi, and suggests that the L. parva–L. fraasi clade and L. brandti are not related to Psammodromus–Gallotia, as morphology indicates, but instead are associated respectively with the L. danfordi and L. saxicola groups. DNA sequence data provide additional evidence that the eastern Arabian `Lacerta` jayakari and `L.` cyanura are members of the armatured clade and also sister species. Our analysis supports an origin for present lacertids in west Eurasia. The armatured clade invaded Africa, probably in the mid-Miocene, spreading widely and evolving increasingly xeric-adapted forms, one lineage of which later moved back into the Palaearctic. `Lacerta` jayakari and `L.` cyanura are assigned to Omanosaura, Lutz and Mayer 1986. The name Gallotiinae Cano, Baez, Lopez-Jurado and Ortega, 1984 is available for the Gallotia–Psammodromus clade, Eremiainae Shcherbak 1975 for the armatured clade and Lacertinae for Lacerta, Podarcis and Algyroides. Two new subgenera of Lacerta are proposed here: Caucasilacerta for L. saxicola and its allies, and Parvilacerta for L. parva and L. fraasi.
Hecke, A. van (1975) -
Hegner, D. (1994) -
Helmdag, A. (1991) -
Helmdag, A. (1992) -
Helmdag, A. (1993) -
Helmdag, A. (1994) -
Fighting against mite-infestion by means of a perimethrin-containing spray. Bigger growing lizards (Gallotia galloti, G. stehlini, Lacerta lepida) survived a treatment without any problem whereas smaller lizards (Latastia longicaudata, Platysaurus intermedius) showed obvious signs of intoxination and died.
Helmdag, A. (1995) -
Report on subrecent osteological material of Gallotia stehlini in the collections of two ethnographic museurns and in the field near Santa Lucia on Grau Canaria island.
Helmdag, A. (2000) -
Henle, K. & Dick, D. & Harpke, A. & Kühn, I. & Schweiger, O. & Settele, J. (2008) -
Hernández-Acosta, C.N. & Bisbal-Chinnesta, J.F. & Betancort-Lozano, J.F. (2017) -
Desde el principio del Cuaternario, la fauna de las Islas Canarias se ha caracterizado por la presencia de grandes lagartos. Todos estos lagartos se han incluido dentro del género Gallotia, y son endemismos insulares de los que se han descrito tanto especies como subespecies en islas e islotes. Desde el Pleistoceno hasta el Holoceno se han hallado fósiles y subfósiles, y algunas de estas formas, ya extintas, presentaban tallas muy superiores a las actuales. En el presente trabajo se pretende dar a conocer de forma preliminar las variedades de lagartos gigantes identificadas en las Islas Canarias.
Hernández-Agüero, J.A. & Megia-Palma, R. (2020) -
Hernandez-Agüero, J.A. & Plasencia, S. (2016) -
Hernández, E. & Bischoff, W. & Bannert, B. & Siverio, M. (1997) -
In June of 1996 the senior author discovered a new form of lizard in the Teno Massif, the westernmost part of Tenerife Island, which is very similar to the Giant lizard of El Hierro (Gallotia simonyi). The new lizard differs from the latter by its smaller size, morphological characters, and its very different pattern of coloration. To the present, only G. galloti, a smaller sized lizard, which is widely distributed on Tenerife, was known from this island. In this article, the recently discovered lizards and their habitat are briefly presented. Furthermore, the present knowledge of the status of the population and problems concerning the endangerment of these extremely rare reptiles are discussed.
Hernández, E. & Nogales, M. & Aurelio, M. (2000) -
We describe a new species of Gallotia from Tenerife (Canary Islands). This lizard is intermediate in size between the two smaller (G. atlantica and G. galloti) and the two larger (G. simonyi and G. stehlini) species. Furthermore, it differs from the two similar larger Gallotia in the number of supratemporal scales (mode 4 instead of mode 2), usually 16 longitudinal ventral scale rows, and having distinctive dorsal yellow spots, and small lateral yellow or blue spots. Individuals from a small population located in La Hábiga show a pale gray reticulation on dorsum and absence of ocelli in the lateral region. Univariate and multivariate analyses of nine meristic variables of each extant species within the genus Gallotia revealed significant variation. Principal component analyses support the existence of three main morphological closters within the genus, the new lizard being nearest to G. simonyi and G. stehlini. Molecular data from mtDNA sequences (cytechrome b and 12S ribosomal RNA) indicate that G. intermedius is closely related to G. simonyi.
Hernández, M. & Maca-Meyer, N. & Rando, J.C. & Valido, A. & Nogales, M. (2001) -
Herrel, A. & Spithoven, L. & Van Damme, R. & De Vree, F. (1999) -
Herrera-Bravo de Laguna, I. & Barahona, F. (1999) -
Heselhaus, R. (1981) -
Hipsley, C. (2012) -
The evolutionary diversification of many terrestrial vertebrate groups is strongly linked to climatic events in the Cenozoic, the period from 65 Million years ago to today when modern animals first appeared. I investigated the effects of Cenozoic climate change on the taxonomic and morphological diversification of the Old World lizard family Lacertidae, with particular emphasis on the African radiation. African lacertids exhibit an unusual pattern of diversification, in which their highest species richness occurs in deserts north and south of the equator, despite being spread throughout the continent. This disparity is particularly surprising given that desert lacertids are thought to be evolutionarily younger than their mesic-dwelling relatives, suggesting increased diversification rates in arid habitats. To identify the evolutionary factors underlying this pattern, I use a combination of phylogenetic, morphological and ecological techniques. In Chapter 1, I apply Bayesian methods and fossil-based calibrations to molecular sequence data to construct a time-calibrated phylogeny for Lacertidae. I estimate that the family arose in the early Cenozoic, with the majority of their African radiation occurring in the Eocene and Oligocene. In Chapter 2, I describe changes in lacertid body shape across biomes and substrates, and find widespread morphological convergence in similar habitat types. I suggest that in addition to foraging demands, fluctuating and extreme climatic conditions, largely driven by precipitation and temperature, contribute to morphological convergence across independent arid-dwelling clades. Finally, I test if ancestral transitions in ecology, morphology, and rates of diversification temporally coincide with paleoclimatic events in the Cenozoic. I use High Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography to characterize changes in the skull related to life in arid habitats, and apply maximum likelihood methods to test if the origins of those traits temporally coincide with significant shifts in habitat, diversification rates and climatic changes. My results show that African lacertids experienced three major peaks in diversification, accompanied by the evolution of suites of arid-adapted morphological traits. These changes coincide with climatic shifts in Africa, including the transition from closed forests to open grasslands and savanna in the late Oligocene, prior to the peak temperatures of the mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, and following the formation of the Benguela current leading to hyper-aridity in southern Africa. I conclude that deserts are important centers for reptile evolution, but that expected changes in climate due to global warming may outpace the ability of arid-dwelling species to adapt and persist in the future.
Hipsley, C. & Himmelmann L. & Metzler D. & Müller J. (2009) -
Background: Although current molecular clock methods offer greater flexibility in modelling
evolutionary events, calibration of the clock with dates from the fossil record is still problematic
for many groups. Here we implement several new approaches in molecular dating to estimate the
evolutionary ages of Lacertidae, an Old World family of lizards with a poor fossil record and
uncertain phylogeny. Four different models of rate variation are tested in a new program for
Bayesian phylogenetic analysis called TreeTime, based on a combination of mitochondrial and
nuclear gene sequences. We incorporate paleontological uncertainty into divergence estimates by
expressing multiple calibration dates as a range of probabilistic distributions. We also test the
reliability of our proposed calibrations by exploring effects of individual priors on posterior
Results: According to the most reliable model, as indicated by Bayes factor comparison, modern
lacertids arose shortly after the K/T transition and entered Africa about 45 million years ago, with
the majority of their African radiation occurring in the Eocene and Oligocene. Our findings indicate
much earlier origins for these clades than previously reported, and we discuss our results in light
of paleogeographic trends during the Cenozoic.
Conclusion: This study represents the first attempt to estimate evolutionary ages of a specific
group of reptiles exhibiting uncertain phylogenetic relationships, molecular rate variation and a
poor fossil record. Our results emphasize the sensitivity of molecular divergence dates to fossil
calibrations, and support the use of combined molecular data sets and multiple, well-spaced dates
from the fossil record as minimum node constraints. The bioinformatics program used here,
TreeTime, is publicly available, and we recommend its use for molecular dating of taxa faced with
Hipsley, C.A. & Miles, D.B. & Müller, J. (2014) -
While global variation in taxonomic diversity is strongly linked to latitude, the extent to which morphological disparity follows geographical gradients is less well known. We estimated patterns of lineage diversification, morphological disparity and rates of phenotypic evolution in the Old World lizard family Lacertidae, which displays a nearly inverse latitudinal diversity gradient with decreasing species richness towards the tropics. We found that lacertids exhibit relatively constant rates of lineage accumulation over time, although the majority of morphological variation appears to have originated during recent divergence events, resulting in increased partitioning of disparity within subclades. Among subclades, tropical arboreal taxa exhibited the fastest rates of shape change while temperate European taxa were the slowest, resulting in an inverse relationship between latitudinal diversity and rates of phenotypic evolution. This pattern demonstrates a compelling counterexample to the ecological opportunity theory of diversification, suggesting an uncoupling of the processes generating species diversity and morphological differentiation across spatial scales.
Howard, C.J. (1980) -
Howard, C.J. (1995) -
Hutterer, R. (1985) -
To date little is known about Gigant lizards from Gomera. Old reports that had partly been incorrectly by subsequent authors, have been studies and are critically discussed here. – The author collected new fossil material on Gomera since 1981. He discovered several sites of presumably Pleistocene age one about 500 years old prehispanic site. Comparative material was collected on Hierro and Tenerife and was also available from various collections. – The lizard genus Gallotia is reviewed with regard to osteological characters useful for the identification of species. Six species, galloti, atlantica, simonyi, stehlini, goliath and maxima are treated. – The fossil remains of lizards from Gomera are described. They represent three species assigned to Gallotia goliath (Mertens, 1942; type locality Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife), Gallotia simonyi (Steindachner, 1889; type locality Zalmor Rock, Hierro) and Gallotia galloti (Oudart, 1839; type locality Güimar, Tenerife). However, they differ from the known forms in size or characters. Therefore two new subspecies are described from Gomera: Gallotia goliath bravoana subsp. n. and Gallotia simonyi gomerana subsp. n. – The new materal proves sympatry and contemporaneous existence of three Gallotia species on Gomera during the Pleistocene. G. simonyi was also found in a prehispanic site documenting its existence 500 years ago. This record supports the statement by v. Fritsch (1870), who reported sight records of large lizards, possible G. simonyi, in the 19th century, also on Gomera. It is therefore possible that the large G. simonyi, too, has survived and may be still alive somewhere on Gomera today.
Huyghe, K. & Husak, J.F. & Moore, I.T. & Vanhooydonck, B. & Van Damme, R. & Molina-Borja, M. & Herrel, A. (2010) -
Because sexual selection pressures are high in sexually dimorphic organisms, morphological, physiological and performance traits are often studied in a sexual selection context. The proximate mechanisms underlying evolutionary change in these traits, however, remain largely unstudied. Here, we examined the role of steroids in shaping morphology and physiological performance in males of a sexually dimorphic lizard (Gallotia galloti). We compared morphology and physiological performance of males with experimentally elevated testosterone levels to sham-operated males. Before surgery, inter-individual variation in plasma testosterone levels correlated positively with bite force capacity. Administration of exogenous testosterone resulted in an increase of the mass of both jaw closing and locomotory muscles compared with sham-operated individuals, but the responsiveness varied considerably among muscle groups. In contrast to our expectations, the dramatic testosterone-induced changes in muscle masses did not result in concordant changes in bite force performance or sprint speed.
Huyghe, K. & Vanhooydonck, B. & Scheers, H. & Molina Borja, M. & Van Damme, R. (2005) -
1. Morphological characteristics (snout–vent length, badge area, mass, limb and head measures) and whole-animal performance capacities (sprint speed, acceleration capacity, stamina and bite force) were measured in male lizards, Gallotia galloti. These males were also tested in paired staged contests to assess relative fighting capacity and to link these results to morphology and performance.
2. A multivariate analysis of the four performance features revealed a clear difference between the physiological capacities of winners vs losers, with bite force being the most important predictor of the outcome of fights.
3. The finding that bite performance is linked to dominance fits in with the high sexual dimorphism in head size in this species, as head size is a predictor of bite force performance.
4. Winners of contests also tended to have larger total areas of blue patches on their sides, suggesting that these badges convey information on the social status of the males. However, since no correlation was found between bite force and badge size, the patches seem to contain information on a component of fighting capacity other than bite force.
Izquierdo, I. & Medina, A.L. & Hernández, J.J. (1989) -
A new deposit of giant lacertids is described from a volcanic cave in the western part of El Hierro island. On the basis of an analysis of the 388 pieces found in this deposit, using both the literature and osteological material from Tenerife and El Hierro, it is concluded that three different species are represented: Gallotia goliath (Mertens), now extinct in the Canary Islands, Gallotia simonyi (Stein.) and Gallotia galloti caesaris (Lehrs). The two last species are still present on the island. The presence of G. goliath in this deposit represents the first record of this species in the island of El Hierro.
Jaca, J. & Nogales, M. & Traveset, A. (2018) -
Background and Aims Oceanic island ecosystems favor the appearance of novel interactions as a consequence of their depauperate and disharmonic flora and fauna. Echium simplex, endemic to the Anaga Biosphere Reserve in NE Tenerife, Canary Islands, belongs to the Canarian bird–flower element. Methods Along two flowering seasons, we studied its breeding system, identified the floral visitors, and compared the pollination effectiveness of different animal guilds (insects vs. vertebrates) by means of selective exclosures. Key Results The plant showed to be self‐compatible but selfing significantly reduced fruit set. The flowers were visited by five bird species (mostly Phylloscopus canariensis and Serinus canarius, but also Cyanistes teneriffae, Sylvia atricapilla and Sylvia melanocephala), a lizard species (Gallotia galloti), and over a hundred insect species (mainly hymenopterans and coleopterans). Flying insects increased fruit set whereas small flower dwellers (mostly beetles) decreased both fruit and seed set; by contrast, vertebrates had a negligible effect on reproductive success. Conclusions We conclude that despite the floral resources provided by E. simplex may be important to some vertebrate species, these do not appear to notably contribute to increase the fitness of the plant, which show to be more dependent upon flying insects to set fruits and seeds. We additionally found that plant reproductive structures are heavily damaged by feral goats, which threaten the maintenance of this Canarian endemic species.
Jorge, F. & Carretero, M.A. & Roca, V. & Poulin, R. & Perera, A. (2013) -
Parasitological analyses are often based on invasive methodologies, involving host sacrifice, raising ethical and conservation issues. However, alternative non-invasive approaches may not be always applicable due to the location of the parasite in the host tissue or the quality and reliability of the non-invasive sample per se. In this study, we compare the differences in detectability of intestinal parasites in reptiles using the classical invasive approach (intestine dissection), versus a non-invasive procedure (faecal examination), collected from the same individual host. Our results showed significantly lower detectability of helminths in faeces versus the intestine. Moreover, the number of parasites found in faeces was not explained either by the intensities found in the respective intestine or by the host identity. Several factors may explain the lack of association between the two types of samples, but more importantly, our results highlight the randomness of the presence of parasites in faeces. Even if it is not recommended that comparative studies of either parasite abundance or parasite communities be conducted on the basis of faecal samples, there are other types of studies (i.e. genetic) that can be performed with this source of information, thus avoiding the sacrifice of the host. Due to their wide spectrum of life stages and localization in the host tissue, parasites are challenging candidates for non-invasive sampling and consequently, parasitological methodologies should be carefully selected according to the objective of the study.
Jorge, F. & Perera, A. & Carretero, M.A. (2013) -
The implementation of molecular tools in parasitology has led to the discovery of numerous cryptic species. However, detailed morphological studies are needed to evaluate the cryptic nature of such species, as well as to provide an appropriate and formal description. Recent phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial and nuclear genes have revealed that the nematode Spauligodon atlanticus, parasite of lizards of the genus Gallotia endemic to the Canary Islands, consists of two highly divergent and unrelated lineages, one in the eastern islands and the other in the western ones. This study provides a detailed morphological analysis of the two S. atlanticus lineages characterized genetically, based on body measurements and scanning electron microscopy. This integrative approach revealed phenotypic differences between them, despite their overall morphological resemblance. As a result, the new species Spauligodon occidentalis sp. nov., from the formerly western lineage, is described. The morphological similarity between the two Spauligodon species is better explained on the basis of evolutionary convergence, since both species parasitize Gallotia lizards. In addition to delimiting the new nematode species, this study highlights the importance of combining genetic and morphological data with taxonomy to uncover the nature of cryptic species and decrease taxonomic uncertainty.
Jorge, F. & Perera, A. & Poulin, R. & Roca, V. & Carretero, M.A. (2018) -
Episodes of expansion and isolation in geographic range over space and time, during which parasites have the opportunity to expand their host range, are linked to the development of host–parasite mosaic assemblages and parasite diversification. In this study, we investigated whether island colonization events lead to host range oscillations in a taxon of host-specific parasitic nematodes of the genus Spauligodon in the Canary Islands. We further investigated whether range oscillations also resulted in shifts in host breadth (i.e., specialization), as expected for parasites on islands. Parasite phylogeny and divergence time estimates were inferred from molecular data with Bayesian methods. Host divergence times were set as calibration priors after a priori evaluation with a global-fit method of which individual host–parasite associations likely represent cospeciation links. Parasite colonization history was reconstructed, followed by an estimation of oscillation events and specificity level. The results indicate the presence of four Spauligodon clades in the Canary Islands, which originated from at least three different colonization events. We found evidence of host range oscillations to truly novel hosts, which in one case led to higher diversification. Contemporary host–parasite associations show strong host specificity, suggesting that changes in host breadth were limited to the shift period. Lineages with more frequent and wider taxonomic host range oscillations prior to the initial colonization event showed wider range oscillations during colonization and diversification within the archipelago. Our results suggest that a lineage’s evolutionary past may be the best indicator of a parasite’s potential for future range expansions.
Jorge, F. & Roca, V. & Perera, A. & Harris, D.J. & Carretero, M.A. (2010) -
Parasites are still playing a small role in the analysis of evolutionary events of their hosts, even so there are already some examples where parasites have been successfully used as an additional marker, highlighting undetected phylogenetic patters within their hosts. However, parasite taxonomy still mostly relies on morphoanatomic characteristics and differences in life cycles to distinguish between different species, which can hide more complex phylogenetic relationships between similar parasites. Also, genetic analyses frequently reveal cryptic species. In this study, we analysed the phylogenetic variation within the nematode Spauligodon atlanticus, parasite of the Canarian lizards genus Gallotia inferring about its phylogeographic pattern. We also attempt to determine its relationships to other Spauligodon species parasitising others lacertids. We use the mitochondrial Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 to estimate the genetic variation within these nematodes. Even though S. atlanticus presents a direct life cycle, with its dispersion completely dependent on the host, and has been described as specific to Gallotia, results suggest that its phylogeography does not completely parallel that of the lacertid host. Namely, the shallow phylogeny of S. atlanticus mostly track the process of island colonization by the host. However, the apparent similarity of the deep phylogeny separating Eastern from Western lineages disappeared when others Spauligodon species are included in the analysis; the phylogeographic pattern becomes more complicated. Parasites, hence, may provide an additional element for inferring the phylogenetic and phylogeographic patterns of the hosts but can no longer be seen as mere spectators of their hosts’ life.
Jorge, F. & Roca, V. & Perera, A. & Harris, D.J. & Carretero, M.A. (2011) -
Parasite taxonomy traditionally relies on morphometric and life-cycle characteristics which may not reflect complex phylogenetic relationships. However, genetic analyses can reveal cryptic species within morphologically described parasite taxa. We analysed the phylogenetic variation within the nematode Spauligodon atlanticus Astasio-Arbiza, Zapatero- Ramos, Ojeda-Rosas & Solera-Puertas, 1987, a parasite of the Canarian lizard genus Gallotia Boulenger, inferring the origin of their current association.Wealso attempted to determine its relationship with other Spauligodon spp. Three different markers, mitochondrial COI plus nuclear 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA, were used to estimate the evolutionary relationships between these nematodes. S. atlanticus was found to be paraphyletic, suggesting that Gallotia spp. were colonised by two independent lineages of Spauligodon. Additional analyses of other Spauligodon spp. Are required for a more complete interpretation of the evolution of this genus from the Canarian archipelago and its closest taxa. Our results emphasise the importance of extensive sampling and phylogenetic studies at the intrageneric level, and highlight the limitations of a morphologically based taxonomy in these parasites.
Kapli, P. & Poulakakis, N. & Lymberakis, P. & Mylonas, M. (2011) -
the Lacertidae is one of the most diverse and widespread lizard families throughout Eurasia and Africa. Several studies so far have attempted to unravel the phylogeny of Lacertidae using morphological and mole- cular data. However, the intra-family relationships remain unclear. in an effort to explore the phylogenetic relationships within the family Lacertidae, a concatenated dataset of 5727 bp from six genes (two nuclear and four mitochondrial) and 40 genera was assembled based on GenBank database. Phylogenetic inference analy- ses were conducted using Maximum Parsimony (MP), Bayesian inference (Bi) and Maximum Likelihood (ML), revealing that even a combined dataset of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes is not able to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of the Lacertidae family under the tribe level.
Klemmer, K. (1957) -
Knauer, F. (1915) -
Kober, I. (1989) -
Kober, I. (2005) -
Krefft, G. (1949) -
Kretzschmar, K.G. (1995) -
The dangers of helminth infestations for lizards, particularly infestations with nematodes und cestodes, are reported. Infection routes, diagnoses, und treatments are described.
Kroniger, M. (1994) -
An easy method for incubating soft-shelled lizard eggs is described.
Kroniger, M. & Zawadzki, M. (2005) -
Laforgia, V. & Capaldo, A. & Varano, L. & Putti, R. & Cavagnuolo, A. (1993) -
Laforgia, V. & Varano, L. & Capaldo, A. & Cavagnuolo, A. & Putti, R. (1990) -
The distribution and the ratios between noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) cells in eight species belonging to the family Lacertidae were studied. There are variations in the distribution of the two cell types within the gland and a wide range of variation in the NA/A cell ratio. Comparing their data with palaeontological, anatomical and biochemical evidence, the authors are inclined to consider G. galloti and L. graeca as the most ancient lizards among those studied and to ascribe L. graeca to the group Lacerta part II together with L. dugesii. P. pityusensis should also be ascribed to the same group on the basis of the result, of this study. The other four species studied (L. lepida, L. trilineata, L. viridis and L. schreiberi) appear to be of fairly recent origin and should be ascribed to the group Lacerta part I, on the basis of the homogeneous distribution of the chromaffin cells inside the adrenal gland and their low NA/A cell ratios.
Lang, D. & Monzon-Nayor, M. & Romero-Aleman, M. de Mar & Yanes, C. & Santos, E. & Pesheva, P. (2008) -
It is currently unclear whether retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon regeneration depends on down‐regulation of axon growth‐inhibitory proteins, and to what extent outgrowth‐promoting substrates contribute to RGC axon regeneration in reptiles. We performed an immunohistochemical study of the regulation of the axon growth‐inhibiting extracellular matrix molecules tenascin‐R and chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSPG), the axon outgrowth‐promoting extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin and laminin, and the axonal tenascin‐R receptor protein F3/contactin during RGC axon regeneration in the lizard, Gallotia galloti. Tenascin‐R and CSPG were expressed in an extracellular matrix‐, oligodendrocyte/myelin‐ and neuron‐associated pattern and up‐regulated in the regenerating optic pathway. The expression pattern of tenascin‐R was not indicative of a role in channeling or restriction of re‐growing RGC axons. Up‐regulation of fibronectin, laminin, and F3/contactin occurred in spatiotemporal patterns corresponding to tenascin‐R expression. Moreover, we analyzed the influence of substrates containing tenascin‐R, fibronectin, and laminin on outgrowth of regenerating lizard RGC axons. In vitro regeneration of RGC axons was not inhibited by tenascin‐R, and further improved on mixed substrates containing tenascin‐R together with fibronectin or laminin. These results indicate that RGC axon regeneration in Gallotia galloti does not require down‐regulation of tenascin‐R or CSPG. Presence of tenascin‐R is insufficient to prevent RGC axon growth, and concomitant up‐regulation of axon growth‐promoting molecules like fibronectin and laminin may override the effects of neurite growth inhibitors on RGC axon regeneration. Up‐regulation of contactin in RGCs suggests that tenascin‐R may have an instructive function during axon regeneration in the lizard optic pathway.
Lang, D.M. & Del Mar Romero-Aleman, M. & Arbelo-Galvan, J.-M. & Stuermer, C.A.O. & Monzon-Mayor, M. (2002) -
Using anterograde tracing with HRP and antibodies (ABs) against neurofilaments, we show that regrowth of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons in the lizard Gallotia galloti commences only 2 months after optic nerve transection (ONS) and continues over at least 9 months. This is unusually long when compared to RGC axon regeneration in fish or amphibians. Following ONS, lizard RGCs up-regulate the immediate early gene C-JUN for 9 months or longer, indicating their reactive state. In keeping with the in vivo data, axon outgrowth from lizard retinal explants is increased above control levels from 6 weeks, reaches its maximum as late as 3 months, and remains elevated for at least 1 year after ONS. By means of BrdU incorporation assays and antiproliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry, we show that the late axon outgrowth is not derived from new RGCs that might have arisen in reaction to ONS: no labeled cells were detected in lizard retinas at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 months after ONS. Conversely, numbers of RGCs undergoing apoptosis were too low to be detectable in TUNEL assays at any time after ONS. These results demonstrate that retinal axon regeneration in G. galloti is due to axon regrowth from the resident population of RGCs, which remain in a reactive state over an extended time interval. Neurogenesis does not appear to be involved in RGC axon regrowth in G. galloti.
Lang, D.M. & Monzon-Mayor, M. & Bandtlow, C.E. & Stuermer, C.A.O. (1998) -
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons in lizards (reptiles) were found to regenerate after optic nerve injury. To determine whether regeneration occurs because the visual pathway has growth-supporting glia cells or whether RGC axons regrow despite the presence of neurite growth-inhibitory components, the substrate properties of lizard optic nerve myelin and of oligodendrocytes were analyzed in vitro, using rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. In addition, the response of lizard RGC axons upon contact with rat and reptilian oligodendrocytes or with myelin proteins from the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) was monitored. Lizard optic nerve myelin inhibited extension of rat DRG neurites, and lizard oligodendrocytes elicited DRG growth cone collapse. Both effects were partially reversed by antibody IN-1 against mammalian 35/250 kD neurite growth inhibitors, and IN-1 stained myelinated fiber tracts in the lizard CNS. However, lizard RGC growth cones grew freely across oligodendrocytes from the rat and the reptilian CNS. Mammalian CNS myelin proteins reconstituted into liposomes and added to elongating lizard RGC axons caused at most a transient collapse reaction. Growth cones always recovered within an hour and regrew. Thus, lizard CNS myelin and oligodendrocytes possess nonpermissive substrate properties for DRG neurons—like corresponding structures and cells in the mammalian CNS, including mammalian-like neurite growth inhibitors. Lizard RGC axons, however, appear to be far less sensitive to these inhibitory substrate components and therefore may be able to regenerate through the visual pathway despite the presence of myelin and oligodendrocytes that block growth of DRG neurites.
Lehrs, P. (1902) -
Lehrs, P. (1909) -
Lehrs, P. (1914) -
Leptien, R. (2020) -
Lindner, L. (2010) -
Lindner, L. (2016) -
Lindner, L. (2017) -
Während einer Reise im Juni 2016 nach Fuerteventura und eines Ausflugs auf die Insel Lobos wurde die Herpetofauna und Flora beobachtet und fotografiert. Es wurden die hier lebende Unterart der Atlantischen Eidechse, Gallotia atlantica mahoratae sowie die von teneriffa nach Esquinzo verschleppte Gallotia galloti eisentrauti gefunden. Der Purpurarienskink, Chalcides simonyi und die ebenfalls nach Fuerteventura verschleppte Gran-Canatria-Eidechse, Gallotia stehlini wurden leider nicht gefunden.
Llorente, G.A. & Cejudo, D. & Orrit, N. & López-Jurado, L.F. (1999) -
In the frame of the project “Recovering of the El Hierro Giant Lizard, Gallotia simonyi” (Life Program no. B4-3200/94/743)” the possibility of expanding the present range of distribution has been foreseen. The place chosen (la Dehesa) is situated in the west of El Hierro island. The vegetation is composed of Juniperus forest not much affected by human influence. Although the El Hierro Giant Lizard (Gallotia simonyi) is mainly a herbivorous species, its diet is completed by consuming preys, mainly arthropods. Monitoring throughout an annual cycle was carried out in order to evaluate in a reliable way the suitability of the area as a possible place for releasing lizards. The evolution of trophic resources (animal) was analyzed by means of monthly biocenometers. The results obtained show that the resources consumed by the natural population of El Hierro Giant Lizard are represented. Both, prey number and biomass available are scarce throughout the year but they are considered enough for fulfilling the trophic requirements of an introduced populations since they play a complementary role in its diet. On the other hand, the size classes of the arthropods present fall within the range consumed by the lacertids of such body size.
Lo Cascio, P. & Pasta, S. (2007) -
The results of some investigations on the Podarcis wagleriana population of La Scuola Islet (Stagnone Lagoon Archipelago, W Sicily) are here presented. Adult mean SVL was 69.5 mm and 61.6 mm for males and females respectively. The analysis of faecal pellets showed that the most important prey types were Formicidae (32%), Coleoptera (15%), and other Hymenoptera (13%). The proportion of vegetal matter (occurring in 35% of the examined pellets) was higher than in Sicilian populations, suggesting that plant consumption in this micro-insular environment may play a more significant role in the diet of the species.
Lo Cascio, P. & Rivière, V. (2014) -
The present paper provides the results of the herpetological investigations carried out on the Kuriat Archipelago, in the Khnis Bay, and the islet of Jbel, off the harbor of Echebba. Six reptile species on the whole have been found on the studied islets. Tarentola fascicularis (Daudin, 1802), familia Phyllodactylidae, occurring on Great Kuriat, and Trachylepis vittata (Olivier, 1804), familia Scincidae, detected on all the three islets, are recorded for the first time for the islands of Tunisia.
Lo Cascio, P. & Rivière, V. (2016) -
The present paper provides the results of the herpetological investigations carried out on thesatellite islets of Djerba and the Kneiss Archipelago, and an updated list of their herpetofauna.On the whole, the faunal assemblage of the eleven visited islets includes seven species of reptiles, whose richness seems to be related to the islet size. Stenodactylus sthenodactylus (Lichtenstein, 1823) and Malpolon insignitus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1827) are new records, respectively, for the Djerba satellites and the Kneiss Archipelago, while new localities we rerecorded for the previously known species.
Lopez-Darias, M. & Vanhooydonck, B. & Cornette, R. & Herrel, A. (2015) -
1. Males and females often differ from one another in phenotypic traits due to differential investment in traits relevant to the fitness of each sex. However, how differences in sexually dimorphic traits affect ecologically relevant performance traits and whether these are correlated with variation in ecology remains poorly understood. 2. Here, we test the co-evolution of head shape, bite force capacity and diet in male and female lizards (Gallotia) from the Canary Islands, known to be sexually dimorphic. We collected data on bite force and head size and shape for both sexes of all seven extant species on all seven islands of the archipelago (ten evolutionary-independent lineages). Moreover, we collected diet data for five out of the seven species (eight lineages). 3. Our results show that the evolution of head morphology is associated with the evolution of bite force in both sexes. However, only in females is the evolution of head morphology and bite force associated with the evolution of diet. In males, head morphology and bite force are decoupled from the evolution of diet. In conjunction with the male head shape characterized by a broad rostrum, this suggests that head shape and bite force may be evolving principally under sexual selection in males. 4. Our data thus suggest that head morphology and associated functional traits may evolve under different selective pressures in the two sexes.
López-Jurado, L.F. (1981) -
López-Jurado, L.F. (1985) -
López-Jurado, L.F. (1989) -
López-Jurado, L.F. (1992) -
Lopez-Jurado, L.F. (1998) -
López-Jurado, L.F. & Cano, J. & Báez, M. (1986) -
A karyological analysis on lizards of the Canary Islands Gallotia simonyi and G. atlantica ssp., resulted inboth cases ina formula of 2n = 40 (38.1 + 2 m; NF = 40); what, besides the results in Gallotia galloti, defines the genus Gallotia (Lacertidae) endemic of the Canary Islands as a monophyetic unit. Considering the ancestral characteristic demonstrated in several species of this genus by different authors such ads some morphological aspects (the hemipenis) as well as ethological aspects (copulatory ritual), it pointed out the important coincidence of the karyotype of these species and its relictual character. The similarities with Lacerta jayakari of Oman, are commended taking into consideration the botanical connections between the Canary Islands and south-eastern Arabia.
López-Jurado, L.F. & Cano, J. & Baez, M. (1996) -
López-Jurado, L.F. & Garcia-Márquez, M. & Mateo, J.A. (1999) -
Paleontological and archaeological evidences coming from 39 sites of El Hierro (Canary Islands) show that the herbivorous, bog sized and endangered G. simonyi (Lacertidae) was formerly tied to the xeric and thermophyllic ecosystems all around the island. Sadly for conservation concerns, most of this landscape has been strongly perturbed by man. 14C dating revealed that in currently well preserved habitats of this kind at La Dehesa, some populations faded out not before the 19th century. The taphonomical traits of many subfossil findings strongly suggest for feral cats (probably) introduced after the resenzi conquest) playing a role in these extinctions. Except for the occurrence of cats (which also threaten the small wild population), La Dehesa juniper scrubland/woodland appears as a priority place for the reintroduction of captive bred lizards.
López-Jurado, L.F. & Mateo, J.A. (1992) -
The morphological and genetic differences between populations of Canarian lizards on four islands were analysed in relation to two ecological systems: the laurisilva forest and the young volcanic ecosystems or ‘malpaises’. The two ecosystems induce two different evolutionary responses by lizard populations; morphological and genetic modifications are intense in the case of a very old ecosystem like laurisilva whereas in the young volcanic ecosystems, morphological modifications are much more pronounced although the temporary nature of the ecosystem is limiting from point of view of speciation.
López-Jurado, L.F. & Mateo, J.A. (1995) -
The Canary Island lizards constitute a monophyletic group which separated from the rest of the family shortly after the first islands of the archipelago emerged. Five living and at least one recently extinct species belong to the genus Gallotia. In addition, two of the living species, Gallotia simonyi and Gallotia stehlini have become extinct on Gomera and Tenerife, respectively. Juveniles of all species present tricuspid teeth. This character is preserved in the adults with changes to one degree or another in G. galloti, G. caesaris, G. simonyi and G. goliath. In G. atlantica there are only two cuspids and G. stehlini has 4 or more. It has been confirmed that in current species there is a direct relationship between the num,ber of cuspids in the adults and the extent to which they are herbivorous. The number and arrangement of teeth on the pterigoides also presents some differences in terms of species: only one row in G. atlantiva, G. galloiti, G. caesaris, G. stehlini, G. goliath from La Gomera and the smaller G. simonyi. Gallotia goliath on other islands and the larger G. simonyi specimens present a lot of teeth in two rows. A model is suggested according to which the phenomenon of gigantism in these lizards is related to favourable environments of recent volcanic origin, while the extinction of large species is associated with selective predation on the larger breeders by Mnan and by domestic animals.
López-Jurado, L.F. & Mateo, J.A. (1996) -
López-Jurado, L.F. & Mateo, J.A. (1997) -
López-Jurado, L.F. & Mateo, J.A. (1999) -
López-Jurado, L.F. & Mateo, J.A. & Geniez, P. (1995) -
López-Jurado, L.F. & Mateo, J.A. & Guillaume, C.P. (1997) -
Comparison of genetic variability between ten populations of Canarian lizards (Gallotia galloti complex) sampled on four islands, shows the existence of two well differentiated lineages. The first one groups the populations from the islands of Hierro and Gomera (G. caesaris) and the second those from the islands of Tenerife and La Palma (G. gallotia s. str.). The analysis of allelic frequencies, the projection of the individuals on the two princepal axes of factorial analysis of correspondences, and the very low viability of offspring support the idea of a differenciation at the specific level between the two lineages (Gallotia galloti s. str. and G. caesaris) and the validity of at least one subspecific taxon per island.
López-Orge, H. & González-Lama, Z. & Garcia-Rodriguez, T.& Pérez-Silva, J. (1980) -
Luef, H.J. & Luef-Kászoni, E. (2006) -
Luft, A. & Erp, C. van (1989) -
Lurquin, G. (2017) -
Gallotia stehlini (Schenkel, 1901), the Gran Canaria Giant lizard
This is a large lizard species of the Lacertidae family from Gran Canaria. They can reach a total length of 80 or even 90 cm. They are endemic to Gran Canaria, although there are a few introduced populations on Fuerteventura. The genus Gallotia is endemic to the Canary Islands. Several species are large, although there used to be several even larger species (up to 1,50 meter), but these are extinct now due to predation by humans and domestic animals in historical times.
Gallotia stehlini is not endangered at this moment, it is a very adaptable species. Consequently, their husbandry is not difficult and they are easy to breed. The adults feed for a large part on a vegetarian diet like fruit and vegetables, although they still need some food like insects, snails and baby-mice. The juveniles feed mostly on insects and other invertebrates, although some fruit and vegetables is accepted too. For the rest their husbandry is comparable with that of other Lacertidae, although they are less aggressive towards each other.
Lutz, D. & Bischoff, W. & Mayer, W. (1986) -
Chemosystematic investigations on the position of Lacerta jayakari and the genera Gallotia and Psammodromus (Sauria; Lacertidae)
13 species of the genera Lacerta, Psammodromus and Gallotia (L. erhardii, L. filfolensis, L. bedriagae, L. cappadocica, L. jayakari, L. vivipara, L. trilineata, L. agilis, P. hispanicus, P. algirus, G. atlantica, G. galloti, G. stehlin:) have been examined by means of micro complement fixation tests (albumin) as well as by proteinelectrophoresis concerning 14 genetic loci. The results and their con-sequences are the follows:
1. L. cappadocica, L. bedriagae, and L. erhardii/L. filfolensis are representatives of phylogeneticly equivalent groups (subgenera). Their isolation in the Middle Miocene corresponds with the first contacts of the landmasses of Eurasia and Africa.
2. Lacerta jayakari may be considered as a representative of a further group equivalent in this aspect; though the immunological results would not exclude a position near the green lizards (subgenus Lacerta s. str.).
3. Because of this isolated position of L. jayakari for this species (and Lacerta cyanura) the subgenus Omanosaura subgen. nov. has been established.
4. Psammodromus hispanicus and P. algirus have probably been isolated of each other since the Middle Miocene, too.
5. The radiation of the genus Gallotia corresponds closely with genesis of the Canary Isles.
Lutz, D. & Mayer, W. (1985) -
Albumins from several species assigned to Lacerta s. 1. and Gallotia were investigated by means of the Micro-Complement fixation technique. The phylogenetic trees evaluated according to Fitch & Margoliash (1967) and Beverley & Wilson (1982) led us to infer a division, which is in accordance with protein electrophoretic results (Mayer & Tiedemann, 1982) as well as with the subgeneric division used before the studies of Böhme (1971) and Arnold (1973).
Maca-Meyer, N. & Carranza, S. & Rando, J.C. & Arnold, E.N. & Cabrera, V.M. (2003) -
Ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences (378 base pairs of cytochrome b and 368 of 12S rRNA) extracted from a mum-
miﬁed extinct giant lizard, Gallotia goliath, from eastern Tenerife, Canary Islands, were used to assess the species
status and relationship of this form within the genus. G. goliath is clearly a member of the G. simonyi group of the
western Canary islands (Tenerife, La Gomera, El Hierro and La Palma) and is not closely related to the giant
G. stehlini of Gran Canaria. Contrary to recent opinion, it is phylogenetically distinct, within the G. simonyi group,
from the extant G. simonyi of El Hierro and also from the recently discovered live G. gomerana on La Gomera and
from G. intermedia in north-western Tenerife. It may be the sister taxon of either all the other members of the
G. simonyi group or of G. intermedia. The phylogenetic distinctness of G. goliath makes Tenerife unique among oce-
anic islands in having had one giant and two medium-sized lizard species that were probably substantially herbiv-
orous, the others being G. intermedia and G. galloti. Gallotia shows great community differences on other islands in
the Canaries, two having a single small species, one a single giant, and three a giant and a medium-sized form.
Machado, A. (1984) -
Machado, A. (1985) -
Während die nur fossil bekannte Lacerta (Gallotia?) goliath Mertens, 1942, bis 1,50 m Gesamtlänge erreichen konnte, werden die größten heute lebenden Kanareneidechsen Gallotia stehlini (Schnkel, 1901), 80 cm lang. Die von der Ausrottung bedrohte Hierro-Rieseneidechse, Gallotia aff. simonyi, erreicht nur etwa 50 cm. Die topotypische Population von Gallotia simonyi (Steindachner, 1889) verschwand in diesem Jahrhundert von dem von ihr bewohnten Felseiland, ebenso wie ein fossiler Verwandter von einer anderen Insel. Die von früheren Autoren geäußerten Überlegungen und Vorstellungen über das Aussterben bzw. den Rückgang dieser Gruppe von Großlacerten werden kommentiert. Es wird postuliert, daß zur Verringerung zwischenartlicher Konkurrenz die Großeidechsen eine von den sympatrischen kleineren Arten verschiedene Populationsstruktur entwickelten, charakterisiert durch eine Anhäufung von Individuen der oberen Größenklassen (durch schnelles Wachstum).
Die Konzentration von Genen in größeren Individuen bedeutet eine erhöhte Gefahr der Population durch Räuber, da die großen Eidechsen einen höheren „Beuteappetenz-Index“ (Indice de Apetencia sensu José Valverde, 1967) haben ala kleinere Exemplare. Im Gegensatz zu Populationen mit einem ausgewogenen Größenklassen-Verhältnis, wo es nur einen kleinen Prozentsatz großer Individuen gibt, kann Prädation auf die Populationen der Rieseneidechsen verheerende Auswirkungen haben.
Die Einbürgerung von (für diese Insellebensräume zu großen) Raubtieren, wie Hunden und Katzen, durch den Menschen, und die gleichfalls gegebene Möglichkeit der Ausbeutung der Großeidechsen-Populationen zur Ernährung der Ureinwohner werden diskutiert, wobei einige zusätzliche historische Argumente die hier vorgestellte Hypothese stützen. Biologische Interaktionen mit vom Menschen eingebürgerten Räubern sind der ursächliche Faktor für den Rückgang der großen Kanareneidechsen.
Machado, A. & L. F. López-Jurado, A. Martín (1985) -
Malkmus, R. (2004) -
Mamin, A. (2019) -
Mamin, A. (2020) -
Gallotia atlantica is a lizard endemic to the eastermost islands of the Canary Islands. However, there is also one population present on Gran Canaria. Once described as a different subspecies than the ones from Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, it is now acknowledged that this population was introduced on Gran Canaria. According to different publications, this population was attributed either to Gallotia atlantica atlantica or to Gallotia atlantica mahoratae. Here, the author gives the clarification why the population on Gran Canaria should be considered as Gallotia atlantica atlantica and not Gallotia atlantica mahoratae.
Mamin, A. & A. Le Bail (2021) -
Gallotia stehlini is an endemic lizard of Lacertidae from Gran Canaria in the Canary Islands. This lizard is omnivorous with a large range of food. As omnivorous lizards, it is commonly admitted that G. stehlini is more herbivorous than carnivorous, with very few data about active hunting on other animals than lizards and arthropods. Here we share what we think is the first record of active hunting on an adult rodent (Mus musculus) by Gallotia stehlini in the wild.
Márquez, R. & Cejudo, D. (1999) -
Márquez, R. & Cejudo, D. (2000) -
We studied the occurrence of threat display as a defensive behavior at different temperatures in two large-sized (Gallotia simonyi and Gallotia stehlini) and two small-sized (Gallotia atlantica and Gallotia caesaris) lacertids from the Canary Islands. Lizards were chased on a linear track at five temperatures (24, 28, 32, 36, and 40 C). Only adult individuals of the two large-sized species sporadically adopted the threat display, and G. stehlini used the display more often than did G. simonyi. Among these, there was no clear pattern of relationship between temperature and probability of display nor differences between sexes.
Márquez, R. & Cejudo, D. & Pérez-Mellado, V. (1997) -
Marrero Rodriguez, A. & Garcia Cruz, C.M. (1978) -
En el presente trabajo se describe un nuevo yacimiento de restos esqueléticos subfósiles de dos especies de vertebrados extintos del Terciario-Cuaternario de las Islas Canarias: Lacerta maxima Bravo, 1953 (Sauria: Lacertidae) y Canariomys bravoi Crus. et Pet., 1964 (Rodentia: Muridae), encontrados en una cueva de naturaleza volcánica en la zona alta de Icod de los Vinos (Tenerife).
Marrero, M.V. & Oostermeijer, G. & Nogales, M. & Hengstum, T. van & Saro, I. & Carqué, E. & Sosa, P.A. & Banares, A. (2019) -
Oceanic island ecosystems harbour many endemic plant and animal species, which are often threatened because they have only a few small populations. Many factors contribute to the biological viability of such populations, such as demography and population dynamics, breeding system and pollination ecology, seed dispersal and genetic variation. In a collaborative project, all these factors were studied in the rare endemic, predominantly monoecious shrub Bencomia exstipulata Svent. (Rosaceae), which grows exclusively in the national parks of El Teide (Tenerife) and La Caldera de Taburiente (La Palma). Demography was monitored through annual censuses of individual plants in a natural and an augmented population on Tenerife. The breeding system and reproductive success were studied through bagging and pollination experiments, and insect visitation censuses. Seed dispersal by animals was assessed using cafetaria experiments. With matrix projection models and stochastic simulations, we show that the Tenerife population was demographically stable. This was largely explainable by the high survival of adult individuals. Despite frequent germination, successful seedling recruitment was very rare. Male and female flowers occurred in separate inflorescences within individuals, although some inflorescences were mixed and some shrubs were entirely male or female. Despite frequent visits by honeybees, the species is predominantly wind pollinated. Insect-proof bags reduced seed set by 12.5%, and pollen-proof bags by 44%. Large quantities of airborne pollen were detected on unbagged sticky microscope slides, this was 56% reduced by insect-proof and 96% by pollen-proof bags. Hence, some self-pollination also seems to occur. Cafetaria experiments showed that the local lizards (Gallotia galloti Oudart) readily eat the fruits and that the seeds pass through their intestines unharmed and germinable. Since other dispersal vectors are unknown, saurochory seems the most likely mode of dispersal. Our study strongly suggests that the population of B. exstipulata on Tenerife is viable, and that there are no significant threats associated with its breeding system,
pollination or seed dispersal. To alleviate the natural extinction risk typical of narrow endemics, five main conservation measures are proposed.
Martin Hernández, A. (2015) -
Environmental niche of smut lizard was analyzed at “Malpaís de Güímar”. Three sampling plots were selected attending to differences among environmental conditions. Two types of pit-fall traps were used to capture arthropods and lizards for a four month period. Capture-mark-recapture technique was used to estimate population sizes of the smut lizard. The highest population size was estimated at clay substrate, where vegetal fleshy fruit species reach higher vegetal coverage and where a higher abundance of arthropods is determined. The number of lizards captures is positively related to temperature variation and according to lizard captures related to stages it seems there are no relation with the type of bait and seasonal period. Finally, the log-normal structure of arthropods and vegetation assemblage was showed at the clay substrate sampling plot where was registered a low diversity value and where the highest lizard population size was estimated.
Martin, A. (1985) -
Martin, A. (2009) -
Martin, A. & Rando, J.C. (2006) -
Martin, J. & Martinez-Silvestre, A. & Lopez, P. & Ibanez, A. & Rodriguez-Dominguez, A. & Verdaguer, I. (2015) -
Many lizards use femoral gland secretions in reliable intraspecific communication. Based on mass spectra, obtained by GCeMS, we found 57 lipophilic compounds in femoral secretions of males and females of El Hierro giant lizards, Gallotia simonyi (fam. Lacertidae). Compounds included steroids (mainly cholesterol) and fatty acids ranging between n-C16 and n-C22 (mainly hexadecanoic and octadecanoic acids), followed by aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, squalene and waxy esters. There were important intersexual differences in thepresence, abundance and number of compounds (more numerous in males). Males had higher proportions of the most odoriferous compounds (fatty acids and aldehydes), while females had higher proportions of more stable compounds (steroids, waxy alcohols, waxy esters and terpenoids). This suggests sexual differences in function of femoral secretions. In addition, some compounds could reflect the physiological state, allowing monitoring health of lizards from secretions samples, which is especially important given the critical conservation status of this lizard.
Martin, J.E. (2005) -
En el presente estudio se ha llevado a cabo el análisis helmintofaunístico de 8 especies y subespecies de hospedadores pertenecientes al género Gallotia (Sauria: Lacertidae) de las Islas Canarias, en concreto: G. stehlini (Gran Canaria), G. caesaris caesaris (El Hierro), G. c. gomerae (La Gomera), G. galloti galloti (Tenerife), G. g. palmae (La Palma), G. atlantica atlantica (Lanzarote), G. a. laurae (Lanzarote) y G. a. mahoratae (Fuerteventura). En total, se han encontrado 23 especies de helmintos: 1 Digenea (Pseudoparadistomum yaizaensis), 5 Cestoda (Mesocestoides sp., Dipylidium sp., Diplopylidium acanthotetra, Oochoristica agamae y Nematotaenia tarentolae), 16 Nematoda (Thelandros filiformis, Thelandros galloti, Thelandros tinerfensis, Alaeuris numidica canariensis, Tachygonetria dentata, Tachygonetria macrolaimus, Tachygonetria conica, Tachygonetria numidica, Parapharyngodon micipsae, Parapharyngodon echinatus, Parapharyngodon bulbosus, Spauligodon atlanticus, Skrjabinelazia pyrenaica, Skrjabinelazia hoffmanni, Skrjabinodon medinae y Spirurida gen. sp.), y 1 Acanthocephala (Centrorhynchus sp.). El análisis efectuado revela diferencias en la estructura y composición de las comunidades helmintianas de estos lagartos canarios, tanto entre sí, como en relación a otros lacértidos insulares y continentales. Estas diferencias están principalmente relacionadas con: (i) la existencia de especies endémicas de helmintos; (ii) la presencia de nematodos Pharyngodonidae típicos de reptiles herbívoros, en todos los hospedadores excepto en los de las islas más orientales (G. atlantica) y, en mayor medida, en los lagartos de mayor tamaño (G. stehlini); (iii) la existencia de comunidades helmintianas con tendencia hacia una elevada diversidad en términos de riqueza y abundancia de especies, principalmente en los hospedadores de mayor tamaño y en los de mayor contenido de materia vegetal en sus tractos digestivos (G. stehlini y G. galloti palmae).
Martin, J.E. & Llorente, G.A. & Roca, V. & Carretero, M.A. & Montori, A. & Santos, X. & Romeu, R. (2005) -
Diet and helminth fauna were analysed in Gallotia caesaris, a small lacertid lizard endemic to El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) in order to study the evolutionary and functional relationships between the two traits. This species is omnivorous but consumed a high proportion (82.13%) of plant matter including not only seeds but also leaves and other vegetative parts. Helminth fauna included many helminth species typical of herbivorous reptiles. Both herbivory and helminth presence were higher than expected for a lizard of its size. Comparison with other lacertids suggests that both traits result from an adaptation to insular conditions but that some “evolutionary time” to develop them is needed. Canarian Gallotia lizards, a separate lineage evolving for a long time in insularity, constitutes the most advanced lacertid group in this way. Nevertheless, results for G. caesaris indicate that helminth fauna also changes seasonally tracking variation in diet (and herbivory) throughout the year, which suggests a dynamic interaction between diet and helminth parasites.
Martin, J.E. & Roca, V. (2004) -
A survey of gastrointestinal helminth communities of Gallotia caesaris caesaris (Lehrs, 1914) and G. c. gomerae (Boettger and Müller, 1914), from the islands of El Hierro and La Gomera, respectively, in the Canary Archipelago, Spain, was conducted to determine the prevalence, intensity, and diversity of intestinal parasites of these lacertid lizards. Larval forms of cestodes, nematodes, and acanthocephalans were found in the body cavity of G. c. caesaris; this lizard is the intermediate or paratenic host in the life cycle of these helminths. Pharyngodonid nematodes were the most common intestinal helminths in both hosts, 4 of them being Gallotia spp. specialists. Helminth infracommunities of both hosts were depauperate and isolationist, according to the low values of helminth diversity.
Martinez Rica, J.P. (1981) -
This paper presents the first data on the ecology of the Giant Hierro Lizard (Gallotia simonyi simonyi) from Canary Islands; this animal was believed to be extinct until its recent finding, in 1975. The biotope, a very steep rocky cliff, almost inaccessible in many places, is described; the climate of the area is subdesertic and the plant cover, very sparse, is xerophytic; the vertebrate fauna is poor, but insects are abundant and diverse. The colour of this lizard is almost black, with large dull grey patches at the sides in the adults, while in the youngs the colour is earthly brown with whitish dorsal stripes. The largest specimen we measured was near 70 cm from snout to tail`s end. Daily activity begins in young specimens when the sun reaches the area, while in the adult ones activity begins somewhat later, even at noon for the oldest animals. The diet consists entirely of plants, and includes lignified stems and other non-nourishing parts from several species (Kleinia neriifolia, Lavandula abrotanoides, etc.). Obviously there exists a strong intraspecific competition for food. The number of animals was very low in September 1975, about 200 specimens, half of them or more being young. This number might have been increased by now through protective measures recently adopted. Nevertheless, the status of the population is still critical and the danger of its extinction is strong. Some recent plans to modify the area, building industrial facilities nearby, may have, of course, very bad effects on this lizard.
Martinez-Rica, J.P. (1982) -
This paper presents the first data on the ecology of the Giant Hierro Lizard (Gallotia simonyi simonyi) from Canary Islands; this animal was believed to be extinct until its recent finding, in 1975. The biotope, a very steep rocky cliff, almost inaccessible in many places, is described; the climate of the area is subdesertic and the plant cover, very sparse, is xerophytic; the vertebrate fauna is poor, but insects are abundant and diverse. The colour of this lizard is almost black, with large dull grey patches at the sides in the adults, while in the youngs the colour is earthly brown with whitish dorsal stripes. The largest specimen we measured was near 70 cm from snout to tail`s end. Daily activity begins in young specimens when the sun reaches the area, while in the adult ones activity begins somewhat later, even at noon for the oldest animals. The diet consists entirely of plants, and includes lignified stems and other non-nourishing parts from several species (Kleinia neriifolia, Lavandula abrotanoides, etc.). Obviously there exists a strong intraspecific competition for food. The number of animals was very low in September 1975, about 200 specimens, half of them or more being young. This number might have been increased by now through protective measures recently adopted. Nevertheless, the status of the population is still critical and the danger of its extinction is strong. Some recent plans to modify the area, building industrial facilities nearby, may have, of course, very bad effects on this lizard.
Martinez-Silvestre, A. & Darias, S. & Lavin, S. & Cuenca, R. (2010) -
Martinez-Silvestre, A. & Marco, I. & Rodriguez-Dominguez, M.A. Lavin, S. & Cuenca, R. (2005) -
The objewct of this study was to examine the erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes of the giant lizard of El Hierro (Gallotia simonyi) by light and electron (TEM) microscopy, and cytochemical staining. Smears were prepared from blood from the ventral coccygeal vein of 10 healthy adult lizards (five males and five females) from the Giant Lizard of El Hierro Reproduction and Research Centre, Canary Islands, Spain. The cytoichemical stains used were: benzidine peroxidase (BP), chloroacetate esterase (CAE), alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE), acid phosphatase (AP), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), toluidine blue (TB) and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG). Electron microscopy was also performed on all samples. Heterophils had granules that were heterogeneous in b oth size and electron density, and stained with BP, PAS and ANAE. Eosinophil granules were homogeneously electron-dense and stained for AP, CAE and ANAE. Basophils had both highly and moderately electron-dense granules, and stained with TB and ANAE. Azurophil granules were of low electron-density and stained for AP, CAE and ANAE. Azurophil cytoplasm was vacuolated on TEM. The cytoplasm of lymphocytes contained many ribosomes and was positive for AP. Monocytes had a large nucleus and a vacualated cytoplasm but did not stain by any of the cytochemical methods used. Thrombocytes had a relatively large nucleus but little cytoplasm; they did not stein cytochemically.
The blood cells of the giant lizards of El Hierro differ from those of other members of the Order Squamata both morphologically and cytochemically. The variation in cytochemical responses in the blood of reptiles makes it necessary to study species individually if meaningful clinical decisions are to be made.
Martínez-Silvestre, A. & Mateo, J.A. & Jones, M. & Gallego, S. & Soler, J. (2012) -
Martinez-Silvestre, A. & Mateo, J.A. & Silveira, L. & Bannert, B. (2001) -
Martinez-Silvestre, A. & Mateo, J.A. & Soler, J. & Pether, J. (2001) -
Martinez-Silvestre, A. & Rodriguez-Dominguez, M.A. Mateo, J.A. & Pastor, J. & Marco, I. & Lavin, S. & Cuenca, R. (2004) -
Blood samples were taken from the ventral coccygeal vein of 15 El Hierro giant lizards (Gallotia simonyi) (seven females and eight males), six La Gomera giant lizards (Gallotia bravoana) (four males and two females) and four Tenerife giant lizards (Gallotia intermedia) (two males and two females), and 31 blood parameters were measured. Among the haematological parameters there were significant differences between the three species in heterophils, azurophils and lymphocytes, but no significant differences in red blood cell count, white blood cell count, haemoglobin, packed-cell volume, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils. in terms of blood chemistry there were significant differences between the three species in cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, sodium, chloride, urea, uric acid, total proteins, prealbumin, albumin and gamma globulins, but no significant differences in calcium, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, bile acids, alpha-i and alpha-2 globulins and beta globulins.
Martinez-Silvestre, A. & Silva , J. L. & Andreu, A. & Mateo, J. A. (2001) -
Martinez-SIlvestre, A. & Silva, J.L. & Silveira, L. (2002) -
Martinez-Silvestre, A. & Silveira, L. & Mateo, J.A. & Urioste, J. & Rodriguez-Dominguez, M.A. & Pether, J. (2003) -
Martinez-Silvestre, A. & Silveira, L. & Rodriguez-Dominguez, M.A. Saco, M. & Usera, M.A. (2004) -
Martinez-Silvestre, A. & Soler Massana, J. & Silva , J. L. & Mateo, J. A. (2002) -
Mas Tugores, M.A. (2018) -
Gallotia galloti lizards as poikilotherms organisms, depend on the external environment to regulate its body temperature. Changes in environmental temperature are reflected in the heart rate, demonstrating a direct and exponential relation established from the study of the electrocardiogram (EKG). Moreover, heart rate is controlled by the autonomic nervous system. Studies have proved this by using blockers, which effects are reflected on the heart rate variability (HRV) signal obtained from the EKG. The hypothesis of this study was to analyse the effects of increasing environmental temperature could have on heart rate by studying the HRV signal. The results obtained in the time domain analysis allows to prove an increase in heartrate and an increase in the distance between RR intervals as well as the environmental temperature increases, showing the existence of an indirect relationship between these two parameters. Nonlinear analysis results show a decrease in the complexity of the function as the environmental temperature increases. The other parameters have not shown any statistical differences, therefore no conclusions can be established of the frequency domain analysis, representing the SNA activity.
Maślak, R. & Paśko, L. & Kusnierz, J. & Moska, M. (2010) -
Studies concerning, among others, the sex ratio in a selected population of Lacerta vivipara
were carried out during four years in the vicinity of Wroc aw (SW Poland). The results show that
adult sex ratios are male-biased. Assuming prevalence of males among juveniles and yearlings
would be burdened with too great error. Reasons for this phenomenon are discussed. The most
probable factors determining male-biased sex ratio in studied population seem to be intersexual
competition and its impact on female survival and possibly effect of predation. The predation
hypothesis is supported by the data on the proportion of males and females with regenerated tails.
The proportion is as high as 45.8% in females and only 36.7% in males. This may indicate that
females are really more often wounded. Our results confirm that in a lowland populations mean
adult mortality is usually lower in males.
Badania dotycz ce m.in. struktury płci przeprowadzono w ci gu czterech lat na wybranej populacji jaszczurki yworodnej, Lacerta vivipara, w okolicy Wrocáawia. Wyniki wskazuj , e w populacji wyst puje przewaga samców w populacji dorosáych osobników. W przypadku máodych i jaszczurek po pierwszym zimowaniunie stwierdzono istotnych statystycznie ró nic w strukturze páci. Dyskutowane s przyczyny tego zjawiska. Najbardziej prawdopodobnym czynnikiem decy- duj cym o przewadze samców u dorosáych zwierz t jest konkurencja mi dzy samcami i jej wpáyw na prze ywalno ü samic oraz mo liwy wpáyw drapie nictwa. Hipoteza zwi zana z tym ostatnim zjawiskiem znajduje uzasadnienie w danych dotycz cych proporcji samic i samców z regenerowanymi ogonami. Takie samice stanowi 45,8%, a samce tylko 36,7. Mo e to ozna- czaü, e samice s bardziej nara one na drapie nictwo. Uzyskane rezultaty potwierdzaj , e w populacjach nizinnych rednia miertelno ü dorosáych samców jest mniejsza ni samic.
Masó, A. & Pijoan, M. (2011) -
Mateo Miras, J.A. & Afonso, O.M. & Geniez, P. (2007) -
Mateo Miras, J.A. & Pérez-Mellado, V (2005) -
Mateo, J.A. (2001) -
Mateo, J.A. (2002) -
Mateo, J.A. (2006) -
Mateo, J.A. (2007) -
Mateo, J.A. (2008) -
Mateo, J.A. (2009) -
Mateo, J.A. (2015) -
Mateo, J.A. & Afonso, Ó.M. (2009) -
Mateo, J.A. & Ayres, C. & López-Jurado, L.F. (2011) -
Mateo, J.A. & Crochet, P.-A. & Afonso, O.M. (2011) -
Mateo, J.A. & Garcia-Márquez, M. (2002) -
Mateo, J.A. & Garcia-Márquez, M. & López-Jurado, L.F. & Barahona, F. (2001) -
Mateo, J.A. & Garcia-Márquez, M. & López-Jurado, L.F. & Silva, J.L. (1999) -
Mateo, J.A. & López Jurado, L.F. (1992) -
The dentition of Gallotia stehlini from one extant and two subfossil populations dated as 4000 and 2000 years before present was studied. Body measurements were similar in the two subfossil populations, but much greater than the largest sizes observed today in G. stehlini. The morphology of the dental cusps in this G. stehlini differs greatly from that of other Lacertidae, including other congeneric Canarian species; this has been connected with a vegetarian diet. A decrease in heterodonty with size of the animal is also seen which contrasts strongly with the models observed in the Mediterranean lacertid lizards.
Mateo, J.A. & López-Jurado, L.F. (1997) -
Mateo, J.A. & López-Jurado, L.F. & Garcia-Márquez, M. (1999) -
In the recent bibliography of lizards on El Hierro, there have been hypotheses advanced as to the co-existence of three species on the island up until fairly recent times: Gallotia caesaris, G. simonyi and G. goliath. According to the bibliography, these three species have been traced thanks to their dentary morphology, on the number of teeth, the number of series of teeth in the pterigoids and the morphology of the skull. The comparative analysis of the various sub-fossil remains of lizards found in El Hierro has allowed us to come to the conclusion that although these characteristics do allow us to differentiate G. caesaris from other larger lizards, none of these parameters allow us to establish clearly the existence of the other two species proposed. The study of the correlation between age and size of the sub-fossils shows linear growth with age where the largest sized lizards (over 400 mm total length) were approximately 50 years old. This would appear to suggest that only species actually co-existed on the island of El Hierro: Gallotia caesaris and G. simonyi. The latter has undergone an acute process of dwarfing mainly due to the increased death rate of adult specimens since the arrival of Man. This fact may be the origin of the near-extinction of the species.
Mateo, J.A. & Pérez-Mellado, V. (2002) -
Mateo, J.A. & Pleguezuelos, J.M. (2015) -
Cannibalism is not rare among animals, and particularly in reptiles it is favored by a strong ontogenetic shift in body size and generalized carnivore habits. We looked for evidence of this behavior in a medium-sized lizard, endemic of oceanic islands (Canary Islands), with a high prevalence of a parasite transmitted by cannibalism. Conspecific predation appeared in this lizard, with a rather low incidence (0.76% of fecal pellets included conspecifics), although the analysis of a very large sample (n- 11,651 pellets) indicated ontogenetic, sexual, and seasonal patterns of such predation. Only the largest individuals were cannibal, invariably males, which only depredated immature individuals, almost exclusively during the post-hatching period (summer and autumn). Together with other natural-history traits already known for the species (e.g., high density, low breeding output, large offspring), cannibalism adds further evidence that this lizard fits the island syndrome.
Mateo, J.A. & Silva, J.L. & Afonso, O. (2003) -
Matero, J.A. (2015) -
Mattison, C. (1991) -
Matuschka, F.-R. & Bannert, B. (1987) -
In search for the final host of Sarcocystis gallotiae, sarcocysts of naturally infected Canarian lizards, Gallotia galloti, were fed to vertebrate predators of the lizard. Repeated transmission experiments remained negative. Routine check of the feces of the wild G. galloti revealed shedding of sporocysts. The sporocysts were administered to small vertebrates, which may function as prey for G. galloti. The transmission experiments remained negative. The observation of a high intraspecific aggression of G. galloti, including cannibalism and autotomy, seemed to support the hypothesis that this behavior might be the base of a an unexpected predator-prey relationship. Sarcocysts of S. gallotiae, fed to two laboratory-bred G. galloti resulted in excretion of sporulated sporocysts measuring 9.7 (9.2–12.2)×7.7 (6.6–9.2) Μm. Oral inoculation of two laboratory-bred G. galloti with experimentally gained sporocysts, led to the development of sarcocysts of 150–200 Μm in length and 80–110 Μm in width in the musculature of the lizards 153 days p.i. The sarcocysts were identified as S. gallotiae by light and electron microscopy. In epithelial cells of the intestine of G. galloti, which had experimentally been infected with sarcocysts of S. gallotiae, stages of gamogony and sporogony were found. We suggest that the life cycle of S. gallotiae is monoxenous and not obligatorily heteroxenous. The genus Sarcocystis seems to be more flexible in its biologic adaptability to utilize autotomy and cannibalism for completing its cycle than had heretofore been assumed.
Matuschka, F.-R. & Bannert, B. (1989) -
The transmission of Sarcocystis species via cannibalism seems to be common among lizards of the genus Gallotia that are endemic to the Canary Islands. Gran Canarian giant lizards, Gallotia stehlini, were screened for the presence of sarcosporidian parasites. Sarcocysts, measuring 90-400 µm in length and 60-160 µm in width, were found in the musculature of the lizards` tails. In their feces the lizards passed sporocysts of 8.5(8.2-9.4) x 6.5(5.9-7.0) µm. A series of laboratory infections was carried out to shed light on the life cycle of Sarcocystis stehlinii n. sp., proving it to be another dihomoxenous Sarcocystis species.
Matuschka, F.-R. & Mehlhorn, H. (1984) -
Mayer, W. (1993) -
Mayer, W. (1994) -
Mayer, W. (1995) -
Mayer, W. (2013) -
A commented lacertids list for Europe, Africa, the Middle East, including the Arabian Peninsula and Asia is given.
Mayer, W. & Benyr, G. (1994) -
The albumins from 41 species of the family Lacertidae representing a substantial part of genera as well as
infrageneric groups of the collective genus Lacerta s.l. were investigated by means of the MCF technique.
The data allow a chronological estimation of the most important radiation events and their correlation with
paleogeographical facts. Our results are in remarkable contradiction to the phylogeny presented by ARNOLD
(1989a) based mainly on morphological characters. The most important phylogenetic relationships are:
1. The genera Gallona and Psammodromus are already isolated from the other taxa since the Oligocene.
We assess these main branches as subfamilies Gallotiinae and Lacertinae.
2. Lacerta s.str. and Lacerta subgenus Zootoca form the sister group of the remaining Lacertinae.
3. A colonization of Africa in the Lower Miocene has led to a separation in two lines, with mainly Eurasian
and African members respectively.
4. ARNOLD`S (I.e.) `Ethiopian and advanced Saharo-Eurasian clade` proved to be a paraphyletic unit, one
group of genera being more closely related to European taxa.
All techniques applied to the systematics of Lacertidae hitherto are critically discussed. An area-time-
hypothesis concerning the phylogeny of Lacertidae is presented.
Key words: Lacertidae, phylogeny of; Gallotiinae subfam. nov.; Lacertinae subfam. nov.; micro
complement fixation; albumin evolution.
Mayer, W. & Bischoff, W. (1991) -
All recent members of the genus Gallotia from the seven large isles of the Canary Archipelago have been investigated immunologically by means of micro-complement- fixation technique. Three species of genera living in NW-Africa were used as outgroup. Prom the evolutionary tree constructed from the results isolation times can be estimated and ways of colonization can be reconstructed. Various possibilities of insertion of the fossil species G . goliath in the evolutionary tree are discussed.
Mayer, W. & Pavlicev, M. (2007) -
The family Lacertidae encompasses more than 250 species distributed in the Palearctis, Ethiopis and Orientalis. Lacertids have been
subjected in the past to several morphological and molecular studies to establish their phylogeny. However, the problems of convergent
adaptation in morphology and of excessively variable molecular markers have hampered the establishment of well supported deeper phylogenetic
relationships. Particularly the adaptations to xeric environments have often been used to establish a scenario for the origin and
radiation of major lineages within lacertids. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic study based on two nuclear marker genes and
representatives of 37 lacertid genera and distinct species groups (as in the case of the collective genus Lacerta). Roughly 1600 bp of
the nuclear rag1 and c-mos genes were sequenced and analyzed. While the results provide good support to the hitherto suggested main
subfamilies of Gallotiinae (Gallotia and Psammodromus), Eremiainae and Lacertinae [Harris, D.J., Arnold, E.N., Thomas, R.H., 1998.
Relationships of lacertid lizards (Reptilia: Lacertidae) estimated from mitochondrial DNA sequences and morphology. Proc. R. Soc.
Lond. B 265, 1939–1948], they also suggest unexpected relationships. In particular, the oriental genus Takydromus, previously considered
the sister-group to the three subfamilies, is nested within Lacertinae. Moreover, the genera within the Eremiainae are further divided into
two groups, roughly corresponding to their respective geographical distributions in the Ethiopian and the Saharo-Eurasian ranges. The
results support an independent origin of adaptations to xeric conditions in different subfamilies. The relationships within the subfamily
Lacertinae could not be resolved with the markers used. The species groups of the collective genus Lacerta show a bush-like topology in
the inferred Bayesian tree, suggesting rapid radiation. The composition of the subfamilies Eremiainae and Lacertinae as well as their
phylogeography are discussed.
McGregor, D.P. (1992) -
Medina, F.M. & Martín, A. (2010) -
We present data to confirm that the island of La Palma harbours the first established feral population of ferrets Mustela furo on the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean. It is not known when the species was introduced but individuals occasionally lost during hunting appear to have become established sometime in the previous 2 decades. Sightings of ferrets are mainly in the north of the island but they are likely to expand their range southwards, and a few have already been detected in the centre of the island. We report a total of 45 cases of wild ferrets in 28 different localities during 1998–2007. To minimize effects on native species, control measures or eradication are required. Public awareness of the problem and education campaigns, especially among hunters, are needed to reduce the threat of this alien species to the biota of the Canary Islands.
Medina, L. & Puelles, L. & Smeets, W.J.A.J. (1994) -
For a better insight into general and derived traits of developmental aspects of catecholaminergic (CA) systems in amniotes, we have studied the development of these systems in the brain of a lizard, Gallotia galloti, with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)- and dopamine (DA) immunohistochemical techniques. Two main groups of TH-immunoreactive (THi) perikarya appear very early in development: one group in the midbrain which gives rise to the future ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and retrorubral cell groups, and another group in the tuberomammillary hypothalamus. Somewhat later in development, TH/DA-immunoreactive cells are observed in the thalamus, rostrodorsal hypothalamus and spinal cord, and, with another delay, in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the periventricular organ, and the pretectal posterodorsal nucleus. CA cell groups that appear rather late in development include the cells in the olfactory bulb, the locus coeruleus and the caudal brainstem. As expected, the development of immunoreactive fibers stays behind that of the cell bodies, but reaches the adult-like pattern just prior to hatching. The present study revealed considerable variation in the relation between the state of cytodifferentiation and first expression of TH/DA immunoreactivity between CA cell groups. Catecholamine cells in the midbrain and tuberomammillary hypothalamus are still migrating, immature (absence of dendrites) and express only TH immunoreactivity at the time of first detection. Cells which appear at later developmental stages lie already further away from the ventricle, possess two or more dendritic processes, and generally express both TH- and DA immunoreactivity.
Medina, L. & Smeets, W.J.A.J. (1992) -
In order to study the relationship between retinal projections and immunohistochemically identified neurotransmitter systems in the primary visual centers of the brain in lizards, intraocular injections of horseradish peroxidase were combined with immunohistochemistry. Antibodies raised against six substances were applied: choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), serotonin (5-HT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine (DA), substance P (SP), and leu-enkephalin (LENK). In the primary visual centers of the lizards Gekko gecko and Gallotia galloti, notable overlap was observed between retinofugal fibers with: 1) ChAT-immunoreactive fibers in almost all primary visual centers; 2) 5-HT-immuno-reactive fibers in the ventral lateral geniculate body and the basal optic nucleus; 3) TH-immunoreactive fibers in the nucleus ovalis and the dorsal lateral geniculate body; 4) SP- and LENK-immunoreactive fibers in the perirotundal belt; and 5) TH- and SP-immunoreactive fibers in the pretectal posterodorsal nucleus. The latter nucleus also contains dopaminergic cell bodies that lie outside the retinal target area but have dendrites extending into it. Several differences were noted in the distribution of 5-HT-, TH-, DA-, and LENK-immunoreactive fibers in the tectum of the midbrain in the two species studied. Distinct laminae of 5-HT-immunoreactive fibers (layer 9) and TH- and DA-immunoreactive fibers (layers 9 and 11) are present in G. gecko but absent or, at least, less distinct in G. galloti. On the contrary, the optic layers in the tectum of G. galloti show a rather dense plexus of LENK immunoreactive fibers, whereas the corresponding layers in G. gecko are devoid of LENK-immunoreactivity. Since only a very few ChAT immunoreactive fibers were observed in the optic nerve of G. galloti, most of the observed immunoreactive fibers in the primary visual centers are considered to have an extraretinal origin. Putative sources of the cholinergic, the monoaminergic, and the peptidergic innervation of the primary visual centers in reptiles include the isthmic nucleus, the raphe nuclei, the substantia nigra and the nucleus of the posterior commissure, as reported in other amniotes.
Megia-Palma, R. & Arregui, L. & Pozo, I. & Zagar, A. & Serèn, N. & Carretero, M.A. & Merino, S. (2020) -
Anthropization of insular ecosystems may have negative impacts on native populations of lizards, which provide core ecosystem services on islands. We aimed to identify environmental factors to explain the interlocal variation in faecal glucocorticoids, parasite intensity, and body condition in populations of insular lizards. A cross-sectional design during the summer of 2017 and 2018 was used to sample 611 adult lizards, Gallotia galloti. Interlocal variation of three stress indicators was analysed in response to environmental variables across a wide environmental gradient in Tenerife (Canary Islands): (i) concentration of faecal glucocorticoids, (ii) intensities of infection by hematic parasites, and (iii) body condition. The data, with low spatial autocorrelation, were analysed using multimodel inference and model cross-validation. Bioclimatic variables associated with the extreme hot and dry climate of summer were the most informative predictors. Interlocal variation in faecal corticosterone in males was best fitted to a model that included the maximum temperature of the warmest month, although the best predictor was habitat anthropization. The thermal annual range, associated with extreme thermal events, was positively related to faecal corticosterone in females. Extreme hot temperatures were positively related to the median parasite intensities in both sexes, while the highest mean intensities of infection were found in females from the most xeric coastal localities. None of the predictors tested, including faecal glucocorticoids, explained individual or interlocal variation in body condition. Effects of human pressure and climate change on insular populations of lizards can be additive. However, the uncoupled relationship found between body condition and the faecal glucocorticoid content suggests that current negative effects may be aggravated during drought periods in summer. Given the impact of climate change on islands, our results may be of application to other archipelagos, where lizards also play key ecological roles.
Megia-Palma, R. & Jorge, A. & Reguera, S. (2018) -
Melanic pigments play a key role in the coloration of animals, but the type of melanin pigment in black, brown, and blue colored scales of Squamata has not been studied. Based on research on birds and mammals, we may expect that pheomelanin is the majority pigment in brownish colorations and eumelanin is the majority pigment in black and blue colorations of Squamata. To characterize the pigments that underlie the melanin-based colorations of lizards, we analyzed the skin of nine genera of lacertids using dispersive Raman spectroscopy. Our results suggest that no prediction can be made on the type of pigmentary melanin present in the skin of the lacertids based alone on the hue of the sample. Indeed, brownish patterns in the skin of Psammodromus, Gallotia, Acanthodactylus, and Algyroides lizards presented both chemical forms of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. Therefore, pheomelanogenesis might be an ancient characteristic within Lacertidae, because it was detected in genera in the Lacertini, Eremini, and Gallotini. Raman spectra of melanic-based patterns of genus Zootoca and ultraviolet (UV)-blue patches of Podarcis, Iberolacerta, Lacerta, and Timon lizards suggested that eumelanin is the majority pigment in these patches. Raman spectroscopy is a suitable nondestructive technique useful to identify melanin forms in the skin of lizards, and it demonstrated that pheomelanin is synthesized by Squamata.
Megia-Palma, R. & Martinez, J. & Merino, S. (2014) -
Megia-Palma, R. & Martinez, J. & Merino, S. (2016) -
Pigment-based ornaments in vertebrates may reflect the body condition or health status of the individual in correlation with environmental stress and hormonal balance. Among the environmental factors shaping sexual colouration, parasitic infections have been stressed as an important evolutionary pressure constraining the maintenance of pigment-based ornaments. However, the honesty of structure-based ornaments in vertebrates is still under debate. Structural UV-biased ornaments in Gallotia lizards were described as a trait used by conspecifics during mate and rival assessment suggesting the reliability of these signals. We investigated the relationship between parasitaemia, body condition and a structural-based ornament present in the cheek of the sexually dichromatic Canarian lacertid Gallotia galloti in a population with an almost 100 % prevalence of haemoparasites. Using spectrophotometric techniques, we found that males with higher values of cheek UV chroma were infected with more haemoparasites. No significant relationship was found between haemoparasite load and body condition. However, males with higher cheek UV chroma showed significantly better body condition. In addition, we found that cheek hue was significantly related to body condition of individuals in both sexes. In males, cheek reflectivity biased towards the UV range was significantly related to better body condition. In females, those individuals with better body condition showed more whitish cheeks with less UV suggesting that cheek hue serves as an intersexual signal for sex recognition. We conclude that the positive relationship between cheek chroma and parasite load in male lizards is compatible with both differential density of melanin and iridophore arrangement in the dermis conveying an individual’s ability to cope with environmental stress.
Megia-Palma, R.M. (2016) -
Meiri, S. (2008) -
Aim Body size is instrumental in influencing animal physiology, morphology, ecology and evolution, as well as extinction risk. I examine several hypotheses regarding the influence of body size on lizard evolution and extinction risk, assessing whether body size influences, or is influenced by, species richness, herbivory, island dwelling and extinction risk.
Methods I used literature data and measurements of museum and live specimens to estimate lizard body size distributions.
Results I obtained body size data for 99% of the world`s lizard species. The body size–frequency distribution is highly modal and right skewed and similar distributions characterize most lizard families and lizard assemblages across biogeographical realms. There is a strong negative correlation between mean body size within families and species richness. Herbivorous lizards are larger than omnivorous and carnivorous ones, and aquatic lizards are larger than non-aquatic species. Diurnal activity is associated with small body size. Insular lizards tend towards both extremes of the size spectrum. Extinction risk increases with body size of species for which risk has been assessed.
Main conclusions Small size seems to promote fast diversification of disparate body plans. The absence of mammalian predators allows insular lizards to attain larger body sizes by means of release from predation and allows them to evolve into the top predator niche. Island living also promotes a high frequency of herbivory, which is also associated with large size. Aquatic and nocturnal lizards probably evolve large size because of thermal constraints. The association between large size and high extinction risk, however, probably reflects a bias in the species in which risk has been studied.
Meiri, S. & Bauer, A.M. & Chirio, L. & Colli, G.R. & Das, I. & Doan, T.M. & Feldman, A. & Herrera, F.-C. & Novosolov, M. & Pafilis, P. Pincheira-Donoso, D. & Powney, G. & Torres-Carvajal, O. & Uetz, P. & Van Damme, R. (2013) -
Aim Temperature influences most components of animal ecology and life history
– but what kind of temperature? Physiologists usually examine the influence of
body temperatures, while biogeographers and macroecologists tend to focus on
environmental temperatures. We aim to examine the relationship between these
two measures, to determine the factors that affect lizard body temperatures and to
test the effect of both temperature measures on lizard life history.
Methods We used a large (861 species) global dataset of lizard body temperatures,
and the mean annual temperatures across their geographic ranges to examine
the relationships between body and mean annual temperatures.We then examined
factors influencing body temperatures, and tested for the influence of both on
ecological and life-history traits while accounting for the influence of shared
Results Body temperatures and mean annual temperatures are uncorrelated.
However, accounting for activity time (nocturnal species have low body temperatures),
use of space (fossorial and semi-aquatic species are ‘colder’), insularity
(mainland species are ‘hotter’) and phylogeny, the two temperatures are positively
correlated. High body temperatures are only associated with larger hatchlings and
increased rates of biomass production. Annual temperatures are positively correlated
with clutch frequency and annual longevity, and negatively correlated with
clutch size, age at first reproduction and longevity.
Main conclusions Lizards with low body temperatures do not seem to have
‘slower’ life-history attributes than species with high body temperatures. The longer
seasons prevalent in warm regions, and physiological processes that operate while
lizards are inactive (but warm enough), make environmental temperatures better
predictors of lizard life-history variation than body temperatures. This surprisingly
greater effect of environmental temperatures on lizard life histories hints that global
warming may have a profound influence on lizard ecology and evolution.
Meiri, S. & Brown, J.H. & Sibly, R.M. (2011) -
Aim We provide a new quantitative analysis of lizard reproductive ecology. Comparative
studies of lizard reproduction to date have usually considered life-history
components separately. Instead, we examine the rate of production (productivity
hereafter) calculated as the total mass of offspring produced in a year. We test
whether productivity is influenced by proxies of adult mortality rates such as
insularity and fossorial habits, by measures of temperature such as environmental
and body temperatures, mode of reproduction and activity times, and by environmental
productivity and diet. We further examine whether low productivity is
linked to high extinction risk.
Methods We assembled a database containing 551 lizard species, their phylogenetic
relationships and multiple life history and ecological variables from the literature.
We use phylogenetically informed statistical models to estimate the factors
related to lizard productivity.
Results Some, but not all, predictions of metabolic and life-history theories are
supported. When analysed separately, clutch size, relative clutch mass and brood
frequency are poorly correlated with body mass, but their product – productivity –
is well correlated with mass. The allometry of productivity scales similarly to
metabolic rate, suggesting that a constant fraction of assimilated energy is allocated
to production irrespective of body size. Island species were less productive than
continental species.Mass-specific productivity was positively correlated with environmental
temperature, but not with body temperature. Viviparous lizards were
less productive than egg-laying species. Diet and primary productivity were not
associated with productivity in any model. Other effects, including lower productivity
of fossorial, nocturnal and active foraging species were confounded with
phylogeny. Productivity was not lower in species at risk of extinction.
Main conclusions Our analyses show the value of focusing on the rate of annual
biomass production (productivity), and generally supported associations between
productivity and environmental temperature, factors that affect mortality and the
number of broods a lizard can produce in a year, but not with measures of body
temperature, environmental productivity or diet.
Mellado, J. & Olmedo, G. (1987) -
This note describes general patterns of winter activity in lizard populations along a latitudinal gradient with an approximate range of twelve degrees (26 to 38°N) in southern Europe and North Africa. We make use of qualitative data gathered through the last ten years in the area, as well as much more accurate quantitative data obtained from periodic censuses covering the whole year cicle in certain populations. Results allow us to impute a great importance to the activity observed in the unfavourable season. This activity seems to be an attribute at the population level and shows a great variability between and within species and populations.
Menendez, S. (2007) -
Menne, H.A.L. (1956) -
Mertens, R. (1928) -
Mertens, R. (1942) -
Mertens, R. (1970) -
Mertens, R. & Müller, L. (1940) -
Mesa-Avila, G. & Molina-Borja, M. (2007) -
The study assessed the behavior of Gallotia bravoana (La Gomera, Canary Islands, one of the world`s most threatened reptiles) to facilitate management decisions and improve welfare during initial stages of a species` recovery plan. The study analyzed--and remote-controlled video cameras filmed-the behavior of lizards housed in 3 outdoor enclosures, from May to September 2000. Daily activity showed a bimodal or unimodal pattern, all specimens basking more during June, with the largest male was the most active. Adults ate a higher percentage of vegetable items; subadults, a comparatively larger proportion of larvae and adult insects. The study analyzed individual compatibility; all interacted during 2 short periods. Aggression occurred mainly between males; because most directed high-intensity aggression toward a specific lizard, the study recommended isolating this lizard in a separate enclosure. The study recommended keeping 2 male-female pairs, who demonstrated social tolerance, as breeding pairs in separated terraria. Typical courtship behavior (head-bob sequences) occurred mainly during July, with highest frequency by the oldest male. Behavioral assessment provided data for improving the individuals` welfare in the enclosures and to select specific pairs for breeding.
Minguez, L.E. & Alfonso, O.M. & Pether, J. & Mateo, J.A. (2007) -
Molina Borja, M. (1981) -
Molina Borja, M. (1985) -
s wurde das Verhalten einer Eidechsenpopulation in dem Gebiet von Buenavista (NO Teneriffa) untersucht, und zwar mit dem Ziele, raum-zeitliche Aspekte des Verhaltens zu klären. Ein Rechteck von 352 m² wurde dort abgesteckt und darauf ein Gitternetz aus Stäben in Abständen von 2 m gesetzt, um das Verhalten mit dem jeweiligen Standort in Verbindung bringen zu können. Von dem Versteck aus wurde in den Monaten April, Mai, Juni jeweils an zwei Tagen jede Woche beobachtet, und der Wandel der Verhaltensweisen sowie die Benutzung des Raumes durch die Einzelexemplare registriert.
Die Aktivität begann in den Morgenstunden und trat in folgender chronologischer Reihenfolge auf: Sonnen- und Erkundungsverhalten, Aggression und Balz. Um die Mittagszeit ließ die Aktivität nach.
Die Einzugsgebiete hatten eine errechnete Ausdehnung von 15 bis 89 m² bei den ♂ und 22,4 bis 77,7m² bei den ♀. In allen Fällen überlappten sich die Bereiche der einzelnen Individuen. Obgleich wahrscheinlich keine Individuenreviere vorhanden sind, wurden doch einzelne Plätze gegen Eindringlinge verteidigt.
Molina Borja, M. (1986) -
Several behaviour patterns that appear during courting of females by male lizards are described for two different Canarian subspecies: Gallotia galloti eisentrauti and G. galloti palmae. A report of copulation in G.galloti caesaris is also included. The importance of the courting behaviour as a character for studying behaviour evolution and taxonomic relationships is discussed in relation to another behavioural character previously cited by other authors.
Molina Borja, M. (1987) -
From the study of behaviour of the lizard Gallotia galloti in a natural population of the Northwest of Tenerife (Canary Islands) some behaviour patterns, which had not been previously discovered could be described in detail. The lizards were observed through binoculars from a hide during several days per week of April, May and June. The actual sequence of behaviour patterns was verbally recorded on a microcasette and those that were discovered for the first time were carefully described using the “by consequence” criterion and considering behaviour as a series of discrete events. The presently described behaviour patterns contribute to enlarge the behavioural catalogue of the studied species and some of them are cited as lacertid lizards for the first time. The possible function of the patterns is also discussed.
Molina Borja, M. (1991) -
The alimentary habits of lizard specimens are described from behavioral observations of a natural population of the species Gallotia galloti. The spatial and temporal distribution of eating behaviours in the studies specimens were also analysid for a selected area of 352 m². The results showed that the cited population had a mainly vegetable diet, principally Opuntia fruits and Launaea arborescens flowers, although it also fed on some insects. On the other hand, the temporal distribution of different eating behaviours was influenced by the weather, being more sommon in hours near middaxy. Overlapping spatial distribution of eating behaviours for the different animals was observed.
Molina Borja, M. (1994) -
Molina Borja, M. (1996) -
In order to contribute to a comparative view on lacertids, the effect of pinealectomy on the freerunning activity displayed under constant darkness and temperature (27.5°C ± 0.5) has been studied in the lizard Gallotia galloti eisentrauti. Animals showed an entrained motor activity rhythm under an initial light-dark (12:12 hours) routine and freerunning circadian periods ranging between 24.1 and 25.5 h during constant darkness (periodograms obtained by Sokolove & Bushell`s method). After pinealectomy, most animals showed no significant circadian rhythm, their locomotor activity becoming diffuse throughout the whole 24 h period. Thus, the pineal gland seems to play an important role as a main pacemaker regulating the endogenous activity rhythm under constant conditions. This result contrasts with that found in Podarcis sicula where after pinealectomy only changes in length of the freerunning period were found.
Molina Borja, M. (2002) -
Molina Borja, M. (2003) -
I examined sexual dimorphism in the lacertids Gallotia atlantica atlantica and Gallotia atlantica mahoratae from Lanzarote and Fuerteventura Islands, respectively. Mean body size was smaller in G. a. mahoratae than in G. a. atlantica. Sexual size dimorphism was greater in G. a. atlantica than in G. a. mahoratae, but relative size of several morphological traits was not different between the two populations. In both subspecies, head and body traits scaled to SVL, with head size of males having a positive allometry, indicating a disproportionate increase of this trait with the increase in body size. Relative size in hind-limb length was greater in males than in females in G. a. atlantica but not in G. a. mahoratae.
Molina Borja, M. & Bannert, B. & Bischoff, W. (2001) -
Molina Borja, M. & Barquin, E. (1986) -
Molina Borja, M. & Bischoff, W. (1998) -
Molina Borja, M. & Mesa, G. (2001) -
Molina Borja, M. & Padron-Fumero, M. & Alfonso-Martin, T. (1997) -
Within and between-population variation differences in size andcolor pattern traits are described for the lizards Gallotia galloti eisentrauti and G. g. galloti from two different habitats. For males, snout-vent length (SVL), head length (HL), cheek mark length (CML), and the number of ventral patches (NVP) were all greater in G. g. eisentrauti. The first lateral patch (FLPL) was longer in males of G. g. galloti but the number of lateral blue patches (NLBP) did not differ. Considering all traits, male CML and FLPL had the greatest coefficients of variation in both races. Snout-vent length and HL were greater in G. g. eisentrauti females than in G. g. galloti females, while the opposite occurred for NLBO and NVP. Adult male to adult female SVL ratio, a measure of body size dimorphism, was 1.19 for G. g. eisentrauti and 1.21 for G. g. galloti. For most animals. Lateral patch color was in the 5 PB (purple-blue) step of the Munsell System Chart, and value and chroma were 3-4 and 6, respectively. ANCOVA of the HL-SVL relationship showed a significant difference between male and female HL in both races; this difference may reflect differences in HL growth. The data are discussed in relation to information on male intrasexual competition.
Molina Borja, M. & Padron-Fumero, M. & Alfonso-Martin, T. (1998) -
This study describes the sequence of behaviour during aggressive encounters between male ‘tizón’ lizards (G. galloti galloti) and assesses the effect of morphological and behavioural traits on the outcome and intensity of staged aggressive encounters between males. Aggressive encounters ranged from only throat extension to escalated fights with biting and rolling over. Winners were heavier, had longer heads, and performed tongue-flicking, throat extension and biting at a higher rate than losers. The rate of aggressive behaviour increased with decreasing difference in snout-to-vent length, head length and head width of the contestants. The results are in agreement with some predictions of the sequential assessment game model in that probability of victory increased with the difference in fighting ability and that the rate of aggressive behaviour was higher in contests between animals of similar size.
Molina Borja, M. & Rodriguez-Dominguez, M.A. (2004) -
The aim was to study as to how biometric and life-history traits of endemic lacertids in the Canary Islands (genus Gallotia) may have evolved, and possible factors affecting the diversification process of this taxon on successively appearing islands have been deduced. To that end, comparative analyses of sexual dimorphism and scaling of different body, head and life-history traits to body size in 10 species/subspecies of Gallotia have been carried out. Both Felsenstein`s independent contrasts and Huey and Bennett`s `minimum evolution` analyses show that male and female snout-vent length (SVL) changed proportionally (sexual size dimorphism not changing with body size) throughout the evolution of these lizards and all within-sex biometric traits have changed proportionally to SVL. Life-history traits (size at sexual maturity, clutch size, hatchling SVL and mass, and life span) are highly correlated with adult female body size, the first two being the only traits with a positive allometry to female SVL. These results, together with the finding that the slope of hatchling SVL to female SVL regression was lower than that of SVL at maturity to female SVL, indicates that larger females reach maturity at a larger size, have larger clutches and, at the same time, have relatively smaller hatchlings than smaller females. There was no significant correlation between any pair of life-history traits after statistically removing the effect of body size. As most traits changed proportionally to SVL, the major evolutionary change has been that of body size (a ca. threefold change between the largest and the smallest species), that is suggested to be the effect of variable ecological conditions faced by founder lizards in each island.
Molina-Borja, M. (1980) -
Molina-Borja, M. (1986) -
Molina-Borja, M. (1987) -
The temporal and spatial distribution of various aggressive and courting behaviors of the lacertid lizardGallotia galloti was studied in Tenerife (the Canary Islands) for several days from April to June, by direct observations with binoculars from a hide situated near the study area. Aggressive behaviors were exhibited by the lizards throughout the whole recording period and were more frequently shown on sunny days or near the midday hours of cloudy days. The same occurred for courting behaviors, but these were less frequently seen in April and May. The spatial distribution of both kinds of behaviors for each lizard proved to be overlapped, thus confirming the non-territoriality of this lizard population.
Molina-Borja, M. (1991) -
Molina-Borja, M. (2003) -
Molina-Borja, M. & Bohórquez Alonso, M.L. & González Ortega, C. & Rodriguez-Dominguez, M.A. (2004) -
Molina-Borja, M. & Font, E. & Mesa Ávila, G. (2006) -
Sex and population differences in the ultraviolet (UV) reflectance patterns of two phenotypically divergent lacertids from Tenerife, Gallotia galloti eisentrauti and G. g. galloti, are described. Adults in both populations have rows of lateral and ventro-lateral blue patches on either side of the trunk that show a single peak of reflectance in the near UV. The lateral patches of males are more intensely reflective than those of females, but females have more chromatic and UV-shifted lateral patches than males. Most G. g. eisentrauti and some G. g. galloti also have blue cheek patches on either side of the gular area. Male cheek patches have reflectance peaks in the near UV, whereas those of females peak in the visible part of the spectrum. The lateral patches of males from the two populations differ in hue but not in intensity, those of G. g. galloti being more UV-shifted than those of G. g. eisentrauti. Female G. g. galloti have more intensely reflective lateral patches than female G. g. eisentrauti. Interindividual variation in peak wavelength and/or UV chroma is present in both sexes and populations. This is the first demonstration of sexual dichromatism in the UV reflectance of colour patches in a lacertid.
Molina-Borja, M. & Gomez-Soutullo, T. (1984) -
Molina-Borja, M. & Gonzalez-Gonzalez, J. & Gomez-Soutullo, T. & Garcia-Diaz, C. (1986) -
Activity data from two experimental lizard groups were analysed in order to search for 24 h‐entrained and ultradian periodicities. The data of a first group were obtained through motion sensitive platforms situated under the animals’ cage and continuously for up to 12 consecutive days; those from a second group were collected by manual recording of the behaviour patterns of individual animals for 2 h each day over a 10‐day period. Lizards from both groups were situated in cages inside isolated chambers in which a light‐dark cycle (12:12), a temperature of 28°C ±1° and a relative humidity of 50–60% were maintained. Periodogram analysis showed the existence of a significant period peak (p < 0.01) at 24 h. Autocorrelation functions and spectral analysis of different data‐segment lengths showed that ultradian periodicities were present in the daily motor activity, appearing as noisy though frequency‐band limited. Differences in the frequency band‐limited fluctuations were found between morning and afternoon activities: during the morning ultradian activity appears distributed in two bands (4.5–36 c/day and 63–94 c/day), the power being mainly concentrated in the second one, while during the afternoon it was in the 4.5–36 c/day band. Results from the second lizard group showed only one band (24–60 c/day) overlapped with the first one from the latter group. Although activity recording methods and some experimental conditions are discussed as possible sources of these differences, the possibility of endogenous ultradian variation within the individuals is also suggested.
Molina-Borja, M. & Mesa-Ávila, G. (2001) -
Molina-Borja, M. & Rodriguez-Dominguez, M.A. (1998) -
Molina-Borja, M. & Rodriguez-Dominguez, M.A. & Gonbzález-Ortega, C. & Bohórquez-Alonso, M.L. (2010) -
We co mpared sexual dimorphism of body and head traits from adult lizards of populations of Gallotia caesaris living in ecologically different habitats of El Hierro and La Gomera. Males had larger body sizes than females, and sexual size and shape dimorphism were greater in a population from La Gomera than in three populations from El Hierro. Multivariate analysis of variance, using linear and shape-adjusted traits, showed that the populations differed significantly in body and head traiuts, with pileus (head) width, snout-vent length (SVL), and body mass the main traits contributing to the differences. Males had larger SVL, heads, and limbs than females in all populations, but SVL relative to a shape index (calculated as the geometric mean of several body parameters) was larger in females than in males. Moreover, shapeadjusted hind-lim b lengths were significantly shorter in lizards from the more densely vegetated habitats than in those from the less vegetated ones. The magnitude of msexual dimorphism was largere for relative limb length and head depth in the population with less vegetation than in those with more vegetation. Our data suggest that morphological differences between populations reflect local adaptations to habitat structure.
Molina, M. & Marrero, A. & Carnero, A. & Perez, F. (1980) -
Montori, A. (1997) -
Montori, A. & Llorente, G.A. (2005) -
Montori, A. & Llorente, G.A. & Carretero, M.A. & López-Jurado, L.F. (1996) -
The Hierro Giant Lizard (Gallotia simonyi) is themost threatened reptilian in Europe. In the present
paper we present the results obtained during the first year of action within the recovery plan of the
species designed and advanced by the Spanish Herpetological Society (AHE) and the Regional Government of
the Canary Islands.
Believed to be extinctand rediscoveredin 1975, the Hierro Giant Lizard has at present only a small
population of scarcely 150 specimens livingin the area called Fugade Gorreta in the island of EI Hierro (
Canary Islands). To avoid its extinction, reproduction of captive specimens has been achieved, and
the basic studies have been performed to contemplate its reintroduction in other suitable areas. At present a
number of animals born in captivity is available (130 specimens), from which new population
groups maybe established to allow the species to recolonize the areas it formerly occupied in the island.
Monzón Mayor, M. & Yanes, C. & James, J.L. & Sturrock, R.R. (1990) -
Mourgue, M. (1935) -
Mudde, Peter (1998) -
Musters, R.J. (1992) -
Canary island lizards are very aggresive animals. h is impossible to keep more than one couple in a terrarium. Kept indoors the lizards arc very shy. Adult animals lose their shyness in an outdoor ter- rarium. If kept together the young animals may fight or even kill each other. My conclusion is to keep the juveniles in separate containers. The fe- males lay about seven eggs in July, and at an incu- bation temperature of 28 to 31o C the eggs hatch
after 63 to 68 days.
Naeslund Diaz, C. & Bischoff, W. (1994) -
Roque Chico de Salmor (Canary Islands) surveys: 1. possible causes for the extinction of its Gallotia simonyi population; 2. the systematic status of its Tarentola.
The vegetation of the rock (close to El Hierro) has declined strongly during the last decades, presumed due to the increasing number of herring gulls (Larus argentatus atlantis); this ecological change is seen as a possible cause for the extinction of its population of Gallotia simonyi STEINDACHNER, 1889.
The geckoes of this isolated rock are clearly Tarentola boettgeri hierrensis (JOGER & BISCHOFF, 1983) and not Tarentola delalandii (as presumed anteriorly).
Naeslund Diaz, C. & Bischoff, W. (1998) -
Naranjo, J.J. & Nogales, M. & Quilis, V. (1991) -
Nicolai, B. (2020) -
The author reports on the food and the analysis of faecal pellets of Gallotia atlantica on Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, Spain). The results show that this lizard is omnivorous, but feeds predominantly on insects. It uses a wide range of food, especially Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera (Formicidae), and adapts quickly to natural changes in food resources. After rainfall and the emergency of new growing vegetation, insect laevae (especially caterpillars) are increasingly eaten by the lizards. Finally, in one of the faecal samples little bones and scales were found and revealed a case of cannibalism in this species.
Nieves Casañas, M. & Santos, E. & Yanes, C. & Romero-Alemán, M.M. & Viñoly, R. & Alfayate, M.C. & Monzón-Mayor, M. (2011) -
Nogales Hidalgo, M. & Gonzalez Gonzalez, C. (2005) -
Nogales, M. & Hernandez, E. & Delgado, G. & Quintero, A. (1990) -
The floristic and faunistic communities of Roque Grande de Salmor off the North coast of El Hierro is described. In the highest part of the islet, a small previously unrecorded population of Gallotia galloti caesaris has been found .
Nogales, M. & Luis, R. & Alonso, M. (1989) -
In this paper, we present the first record of the presence of a young Gallotia galloti (F. Lacertidae) inside a stomach of Rana perezi (F. Ranidae).
Nogales, M. & Padilla, D.P. & Nieves, C. & Illera, J.C. & Traveset, A. (2007) -
1. Secondaryseeddispersaloccurswheneveraseedisdispersedintwoormoredifferent dispersal events, so that different dispersal agents (e.g. animal frugivores or inverte- brates) contribute to different events. Three secondary seed dispersal systems, in which lizards and predatory birds participate, are studied in Lanzarote (Canary Islands).
2. Seeds from all three plant species studied (Lycium intricatum, Rubia fruticosa and Asparagus nesiotes) were found with the remains of lizards (Gallotia atlantica) when they appeared inside shrike (Lanius meridionalis) and kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) pellets. This suggests that these two avian predators might secondarily disperse these plants by incidentally ingesting seeds when they prey upon the frugivorous lizards.
3. Lycium and Rubia seeds dispersed by Falco had significantly thinner seed coats com- pared to the other treatments (Gallotia and Lanius) and to uningested seeds. Correlated with this result, seed hardness increased from Lycium (the softest coat), to Rubia (inter- mediate values), to Asparagus.
4. Seed viability was high in all three species, although both viability and germination were significantly reduced in seeds of Lycium and Rubia dispersed by Falco.
5. The seed distribution was markedly different, Gallotia being an important disperser in the open ground microhabitats, Lanius in hillocks and Falco in hills. Because all three plant species were present in all these microhabitats, our observations suggest that the dispersal of these plants might be associated with the differential use of the habitat by the different dispersers.
6. Synthesis: Contrary to some long-distance seed dispersal (LDD) paradigms, the complex seed dispersal systems we describe are common and affect an important number of seeds that are moved each year to particular microhabitats. Finally, the simultaneous ecological factors analysed in this study support the hypotheses that diplochory by double endozoochory could have played a more important role in LDD events than is currently recognized, both in recent volcanic areas (lowlands) and also probably in the colonization of other subtropical islands.
Nogales, M. & Rando, J.C. & Valido, A. & Martin, A. (2000) -
Nogales, M. & Rando, J.C. & Valido, A. & Martin, A. (2001) -
We describe the external morphology of a new giant lizard found alive on La Gomera Island (Canarian Archipelago), which had been previously described from subfossil bones. Adult size (SVL 135-190 mm) is comparable with the two largest living species (G. simonyi and G. stehlini) of the genus. It differs from the other species of Gallotia in the low number of temporal scales (21-27), presence of one elongate interprefrontal scale (linearly depressed in center) that is very infrequent in most of its congeners (small when it is present), having two distinctive lateral lines of small blue spots, and in having a blackish-brown dorsum and ventral parts ivory white. According to subfossil data, based on tooth morphology and body size, this lizard seems to correspond to the putatively extinct subspecies (G. simonyi gomerana). This taxon is sufficiently distinct to be treated as a full species, G. gomerana. Molecular data analysis from mtDNA sequences (cytochrome b and 12S rRNA) indicate that G. gomerana is closely related to G. simonyi and G. intermedia. After prospecting 70 localities in La Gomera, we only found a very small and threatened population of this species in Valle Gran Rey, in the western part of the island and living in an area of less than 1 ha. A small population size (only six individuals are known) and a large number of feral cats in their habitat makes this lizard the most endangered vertebrate of the Canaries and Europe and one of the most threatened in all the world. The species is suspected to be on the brink of extinction, so conservation measures are urgently needed, including a captive breeding plan at Valle Gran Rey, close to the natural habitat.
Nogales, M. & Valido, A. (1999) -
In this paper we present the regression analysis between SVL and eight osteological variables in G. atlantica and G. galloti. Positive significant relationships can be observed among them, although coefficient of determination (R²) indicate better fits in the case of G. galloti than G. atlantica. Furthermore, preliminary data on the weight-length relationships are shown. The proposed models can be used in predator vertebrate alimentary studies that include lizards size selection of both mentioned species and also in paleontological surveys.
Nogales, M. & Valido, A. & Rando, J.C. & Martin, A. (1999) -
Noguera Tomás, C. (2018) -
Body temperature is the most important physiological variable for ectotherms, because it directly affects their biological adequacy through the effect on the performance of variable behavioral and physiological variables (Huey 1982, Huey & Kingsolver 1989, Angilletta et al.2002). The behavior plays a preponderant role in the thermoregulation, allowing a quick and economic adaptation to the spatial and temporal variability of the availability of thermal resources, making it possible to increase / decrease the heat loss / gain by solar radiation, convection and / or conduction (Templeton 1970). The physiological thermoregulation is a mechanism that focuses mainly on variations in the cardiovascular system, where the rate of heat transfer between different parts of the body is modified by changes in heart rate, respiration, blood flow and redistribution (Bartholomew 1982, Seebacher 2000, Dzialowski & O´connor 2001). In this study we wanted to verify the effects produced in the Gallotia galloti by a controlled change of temperature on brain activity, heart rate, respiratory rate and, by means of a photothermal camera, the temperature difference between the head and body of the animal. The results obtained by the analysis in the time domain have been able to verify that the temperature affects the respiratory and cardiac frequency, producing a decrease in the amplitude between the RR and SS peaks. Also, by means of the photographs taken with the photothermal camera, it has been observed that these animals have a thermoregulation system by which they modify the body temperature, including a countercurrent system in the head area to regulate the cranial temperature.
Observatoire National de l’Environment du Maroc “O.N.E.M” (1998) -
Olesen, J.M. & Valido, A. (2003) -
Recent data demonstrate that flower-visiting and fruitconsuming lizards are strikingly more common on islands compared with the mainland, making them a true island phenomenon. We believe that different DC responses of insular animals might create this phenomenon. However, to confirm this we need more systematic data sampling from mainland and island. Some lizard -plant interactions might be excellent systems with which to study mutualism and potential coevolution between interacting plants and animals, (e.g. Phelsuma -flower mutualisms and Gallotia -fruit mutualisms). In particular, we need more experimental studies to demonstrate lizards that could cause evolutionary changes in flower and fruit traits in island plants. Many island lizard taxa are threatened by extinction or have already disappeared. The importance of mutualisms between plant-feeding lizards and flowering plants add very strong arguments to more joint conservation efforts for these groups of organisms.
Olmo, E. & Odierna, G. & Capriglione, T. (1987) -
The occurrence and form of sex chromosomes were investigated with the aid of C-banding and 4′-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining in 13 species of lacertid lizards. The results obtained show the presence in five species of a female heterogamety in which the two sex chromosomes have the same shape and size, but the W differs from the Z in being almost entirely heterochromatic. This condition is clearly similar to that found in some snakes and considered to be an early stage of differentiation of sex chromosomes by Singh et al. (1976, 1980). A more evolved condition may be that found in three other species in which the W is distinctly smaller than the Z. A third situation is that found in all Podarcis species which, even though they are considered to be among the more evolved species in the family, possess two sex chromosomes that are indistinguishable. In general, the situation in lacertids may be compatible with the hypothesis of sex chromosome evolution put forward by Singh et al. (1976, 1980). However a differentiation mechanism of this kind does not seem to be well established in lacertids, and is probably not the only mechanism that is in operation in this family.
Olmo, E. & Odierna, G. & Cobror, O. (1985) -
Chromosomal inter- and intraspecific variation in Lacertidae. The karyology of various species from the family Lacertidae (Reptilia, Sauria) has been studied with conventional and C-banding techniques. The study shows that this family is not so conservative from a karyological viewpoint as considered til! now. In fact supernumerary chromosomes have been observed in two of the species investigated. Moreover an inter- and intraspecific variability has been found in the C-banding pattern of the various species studied. The situation found in Podarcis sicula is particularly remarkable. Different Cbanding patterns have been observed in three different subspecies and in two populations of the same subspecies. The C-banding technique evidences also the existence in some of the species studied of a female sex heteromorphism, in which the W chromosomes is completely heterochromatic. These observations suggest that in lacertid lizards the evolution of the sex chromosomes follows the same steps hypothesized for snakes.
Olmo, E. & Odierna, G. & Cobror, O. (1986) -
The karyology of various species from the family Lacertidae (Reptilia, Sauria) has been studied with conventional and C-banding techniques.
The study shows that this family is not so conservative from a karyological viewpoint as considered till now. In fact a higher diploid number than that generally observed in most species of Lacertidae and supernumerary chromosomes have been observed in three of the species investigated. Moreover an evident interand intraspecific variability has been found in the C-banding pattern of the various species studied. The situation found in Podarcis sicula is particularly remarkable. Different C-banding patterns have been observed in three different subspecies and in two populations of the same subspecies. These variations do not show a well defined trend and their role in the evolution of lacertid lizards is discussed.
The C-banding analysis evidences also the existence in two of the species studied of a female sex heteromorphism, in which the W chromosome has the same shape and size as the Z, but differs from it in being completely heterochromatic. This situation reminds that observed in some snakes and suggests that in lacertid lizards the evolution of sex chromosomes might have followed the same steps previously hypothesized for ophidians.
Oppliger, A. & Vernet, R. & Baez, M. (1999) -
Biologists commonly assume that parasites are locally adapted since they have shorter generation times and higher fecundity than their hosts, and therefore evolve faster in the arms race against the host`s defences. As a result, parasites should be better able to infect hosts within their local population than hosts from other allopatric populations. However, recent mathematical modelling has demonstrated that when hosts have higher migration rates than parasites, hosts may diversify their genes faster than parasites and thus parasites may become locally maladapted. This new model was tested on the Canarian endemic lizard and its blood parasite (haemogregarine genus). In this host–parasite system, hosts migrate more than parasites since lizard offspring typically disperse from their natal site soon after hatching and without any contact with their parents who are potential carriers of the intermediate vector of the blood parasite (a mite). Results of cross-infection among three lizard populations showed that parasites were better at infecting individuals from allopatric populations than individuals from their sympatric population. This suggests that, in this host–parasite system, the parasites are locally maladapted to their host.
Orós, J. & Andrada, M. & Martinez-Silvestre, A. & Cruz, G. & Mateo, J. (2007) -
The La Gomera Giant Lizard (Gallotia bravoana) is listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN Red List. The rediscovery of this species, presumably extinct, in the Risco de La Mérica (Valle Gran Rey, La Gomera) in 1999 drove to establish a specific recovery plan and a captive breeding programme in order to increase the number of individuals. Since then captive lizards have been monitored closely and several anatomopathological studies have been carried out in order to determine the causes of mortality and main diseases affecting this species. The most important lesions observed in the lizards necropsied during the period 2000/2005 included: multifocal granulomatous hepatitis, multifocal granulomatous poliserositis, fibrinopurulent poliserositis and fibrinopurulent pleuritis. Lesions caused by Salmonella arizonae in an outbreak during the summer of 2005 are also described and briefly discussed.
Orós, J. & Hernández, J.D. & Gallardo, J. & Lupiola, P. & Jensen, H.E. (2013) -
Reports of dermatophytosis in reptiles are rare. This report describes the microscopical and immunohistochemical findings in a case of dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton spp. in a 2-year-old Tenerife lizard (Gallotia galloti) with ulcerative and pustular skin lesions. Microscopically, the lesions were characterized by superficial epidermal pustules containing heterophils with numerous fungal hyphae that stained by periodic acid–Schiff and Grocott`s stain. Fungal culture was not performed, but a panel of polyclonal antibodies specific for different fungal genera was applied to tissue sections. These immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactivity of the hyphae only with antiserum specific for Trichophyton spp.
Orrit, N. & Llorente, G.A. & López-Jurado, L.F. (1999) -
In the frame of the project “Recovery of the El Hierro Giant Lizard” (Life Program B4-3200/94/743) the possibility of expanding the present range of distribution has been foreseen. One of the places chosen (La Dehesa) is situated in the west of el Hierro island. The vegetation is composed of Juniperus forest not much affected by human influence. The area was selected because of several reasons: the finding of fossil remains of giant lizards, its remote situation far from human influence, the good plant coverage and the present of potential shelters. Monitoring was carried out in order to evaluate in a reliable way the suitability of the area as a possible place for releasing lizards. The evolution of trophic resources (vegetation) was analyzed by means of monthly transects. The results allow to value this area positively as a zone for expanding the range of the lizard, since it resenz the necessary condition for supporting a lizard population. The lack of water during the dry seasons is minimized by the water contained in the vegetation. The carrying capacity of La Dehesa expressed in minimum lizard density and calculated from the plant biomass available would vary between 67.64 and 101.46 adult individuals by hectare.
Endangered and close to resenzia , the giant lizard of El Hierro (Gallotia simonyi) is the subject of a recovery plan based on captive breeding and eventual reintroduction into native habitats. This endemic species is largely herbivorous and in captivity bred resenzia o on a diet that was nutritious but not based on native foods. One goal was to change the dietary habits of a group of G. simonyi maintained in the Centro de Recuperación del Lagarto Gigante de El Hierro, so that hey could safely be reintroduced into natural habitats. Thus, a controlled period of adaptation to the natural vegetation of the reintroduction area was established. In captivity they had received water ad libitum, but in the dry natural area water is only occasionally available as condensation or rain. Our results indicate that the animals can consume and do well on the native resources available in the reintroduction area, particularly fruits of Juniperus resenzia, which are produced throughout the year. Lastly, we include dietary recommendations for lizards born in captivity which will ultimately be reintroduced into native habitats.
Orrit, N. & López Jurado, L.F. (1997) -
Padilla, D.P. & Nogales, M. (2009) -
Secondary seed dispersal is a multistep system that includes 2 or more dispersal processes that can increase the distance from whichseeds arrive. This phenomenon is relatively common in some habitats of subtropical oceanic islands due to the frequent frugivore–predator interactions found in them. In this study, we describe how the Eurasian Kestrel is an effective disperser of plants in thesecondary seed dispersal process, through interaction with frugivorous lizards. Experiments using captive wild kestrels, along withfield data, showed that predation of kestrels on lizards leads to a secondary seed dispersal with 2 possible outcomes: 1) most seeds(89%) are not consumed by kestrels because they reject the lizards’ digestive tracts and so receive only the gut treatment of lizardsand 2) a small fraction of seeds (11%) appeared inside the kestrel pellets as a result of indirect ingestion by this raptor, thusundergoing double gut treatment. So, 2 different seed dispersal distances may result from this interaction: 1) when the kestrelscapture the lizard and transport it to a perch where the seed-containing guts are discarded and 2) when they indirectly ingest a fewseeds from lizards, consequently increasing the dispersal distance. Seeds from the Macaronesian plant speciesRubia fruticosaweretested, finding that those passed through kestrels had a lower germinability than those that remained inside the rejected lizards’digestive tracts, which had similar germination rates to those from control plants (uningested seeds). The kestrel can be consid-ered an important and effective long-distance seed disperser due to the high abundance of frugivorous lizards in their diet, theirstereotyped consumption behavior, and the effectiveness of their seed dispersal.
Padilla, D.P. & Nogales, M. & Marrero, P. (2007) -
Size-related selection of insular lizards by two sympatric predatory bird species (Southern Grey Shrike and Eurasian Kestrel) was studied in an arid insular environment. The endemic lizard genus Gallotia was a key resource in the diet of both predators, constituting more than 50% of the total biomass. Shrikes captured smaller lizards than kestrels during all seasons (mean snout - vent length (SVL): 7.4 ± 1.9 vs. 9.4 ± 2.1 cm respectively), presenting a sequential use of lizard sizes and avoiding potential competition. On the other hand, shrikes and kestrels showed the same seasonal variation pattern, capturing the largest lizards during their breeding periods (spring). Considering lizard availability, shrikes displayed less selective predation than kestrels in all seasons. Shrikes positively selected the medium lizard size (SVL: 5-10 cm) during the nestling period, but negatively selected the small lizard size (SVL: < 5 cm) in autumn and winter, probably due to an explosion of juvenile lizards. Lastly, kestrels appeared to be more selective, negatively choosing the small lizard size but positively selecting the largest ones all the year round (SVL: > 10 cm).
Pasteur, G. & Salvidio, S. (1985) -
Proteinloci von 36 Eidechsen der Art Gallotia galloti aus Teneriffa wurden untersucht. Der Gendiversitätsindex betrug bei einer Zufallsstichprobe von 24 Proteinloci 0.087. Unter insgesamt 36 untersuchten Loci wurde eine signifikante geographische Variation nur nei Transferrinen von Tieflandeidechsen festgestellt, während eine Stiuchprobe von Gallotia aus Gebirgsregionen oberhalb der Passatwolken ausschließlich Heterozygote auswies, scheinbar eine Anpassung an drastische circadiane Änderungen der Umweltbedingungen.
Paulo, O.S. (1999) -
Paulo, O.S. & Pinheiro, J. & Miraldo, A. & Bruford, M.W. & Jordan, W.C. & Nichols, R.A. (2008) -
The schism between North Africa and Southern Europe caused by the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar and the consequent refilling of the Mediterranean basin at the end of Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), 5.33 million years ago, has been advocated as the main event shaping biogeographical patterns in the western Mediterranean as exemplified by the distribution of species and subspecies and genetic variation within the ocellated lizard group. To reassess the role of the MSC, partial sequences of three mitochondrial DNA genes (cytochrome b, 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA) and two nuclear genes (β-fibrinogen and C-mos) from species of the ocellated lizard group were analysed. Three alternative hypotheses were tested: that divergence was initiated (i) by post-MSC vicariance as the basin filled, (ii) when separate populations established either side of the strait by pre-MSC overseas dispersal, and (iii) by post-MSC overseas dispersal. The pattern and level of divergence detected clearly refute the post-MSC vicariance hypothesis, and support a model of divergence initiated by earlier overseas dispersal. Indeed, our best estimate is that the basal Euro-African divergence predates the MSC event by several million years. The estimated divergence times among the populations in former Miocene Mediterranean islands, the current Betic and Rifian mountains, from adjacent mainland populations suggest overseas dispersal for the former and overland dispersal, or perhaps vicariance, for the latter. These results suggest that the MSC may have played a much less important role in shaping the current western Mediterranean biogeographical patterns than might have been anticipated from the dramatic nature of the episode.
Pavlicev, M. & Mayer, W. (2009) -
Lacertinae is one of the three lacertid lizard subfamilies with a geographical distribution confined to the
Palaearctic. Several past attempts to reconstruct its phylogeny resulted in unresolved bush-like topologies.
We address the question of whether the lack of resolution is due to insufficient data or whether this
lack reflects a rapid succession of speciation events. We analyzed four partial and one complete gene
sequences from mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, totalling roughly 3600 bp. We included 29 species
representing all 19 genera suggested in recent revision of Lacertinae [Arnold, E.N., Arribas, O., Carranza, S.,
2007. Systematics of the palaearctic and oriental lizard tribe Lacertini (Squamata: Lacertidae: Lacertinae),
with descriptions of eight new genera. Zootaxa 1430, 1–86]. The resulting phylogeny, first, corroborates
monophyly at the genus level for the suggested genera, as well as the finding that Atlantolacerta andreanskyi,
until recently part of Lacertinae, belongs to the subfamily Eremiadinae. Second, we find that
increasing the sequence length and combining multiple nuclear and mitochondrial sequences did not
resolve the polytomy, suggesting that the inferred topology indicates a multiple cladogenesis within a
short geological period, rather than a methodical artefact. Divergence time estimates, based on previous
estimates of several node ages, range from 13.9 to 14.9 million years for the radiation event, however
with very broad confidence interval. To associate the radiation with a narrower geological time we consider
palaeogeographic and palaeoclimatic data, assuming that the Lacertinae probably evolved in Central
Europe andWAsia after the collision of Africa and Eurasia. We suggest that this radiation may date to the
late Langhian (ca. 14–13.5 million years) when geological events caused abrupt changes in regional
water–land distribution and climate, offering a window of distinct conditions.
Payeras Sabater, M.E. (2020) -
In actual society, the lifestyle that is carried out is far from everything to which we were biologically adapted. This lifestyle negatively affects the people`s health, mainly promoting stress. The objective of stress is to promote the expression of behaviors or changes in the physiology of body organs and tissues to achieve the survival of an organism that is under threat, but currently it has been seen that it is a very frequent state in adult humans . It has been shown that, in humans, stress is associated with severe disturbances of the circadian rhythm causing sleep disorders such as insomnia. This project aims to study the activity-rest rhythm (Wake-Sleep) in animals subjected to a stressful environment. For this, a group of Wistar rats (nocturnal homeothermic mammal) and a group of lizards of the species Gallotia galloti (diurnal poikilothermic reptile), both located for the first time in a nearby recording chamber, will be used. This is intended to create a stressful predator-prey environment (both species can be one or the other). If it is confirmed that stress can make circadian rhythms disappear in the rat, and / or in the lizard, it will have been shown that these rhythms have a degree of flexibility unsuspected until now.
Pedro Silva, J. & Toland, J. & Jones, W. & Eldridge, J. & Hudson, J. & O`Hara, E. (2009) -
Pereira, A. & Perera, A. & Jorge, F. & Harris, D.J. (2014) -
Pérez i de Lanuza, G. & Font, E. (2016) -
Many animals display complex colour patterns that comprise several adjacent, often contrasting colour patches. Combining patches of complementary colours increases the overall conspicuousness of the complex pattern, enhancing signal detection. Therefore, selection for conspicuousness may act not only on the design of single colour patches, but also on their combination. Contrasting long- and short-wavelength colour patches are located on the ventral and lateral surfaces of many lacertid lizards. As the combination of long- and short-wavelength-based colours generates local chromatic contrast, we hypothesized that selection may favour the co-occurrence of lateral and ventral contrasting patches, resulting in complex colour patterns that maximize the overall conspicuousness of the signal. To test this hypothesis we performed a comparative phylogenetic study using a categorical colour classification based on spectral data and descriptive information on lacertid coloration collected from the literature. Our results demonstrate that conspicuous ventral (long wavelength-based) and lateral (short wavelength-based) colour patches co-occur throughout the lacertid phylogeny more often than expected by chance, especially in the subfamily Lacertini. These results suggest that selection promotes the evolution of the complex pattern rather than the acquisition of a single conspicuous colour patch, possibly due to the increased conspicuousness caused by the combination of colours with contrasting spectral properties.
Pérez-Mellado, V. (2004) -
Pérez-Mellado, V. & Arano, B. & Astudillo, G. & Cejudo, D. & Garcia-Márquez, M. & Llorente, G.A. & Márquez, R. & Mateo, J.A. & Orrit, N. & Romero-Beviá, M. & López-Ju (1997) -
Pérez-Mellado, V. & Romero-Bevia, M. (1999) -
Pérez-Mellado, V. & Romero-Bevia, M. & Ortega, F. & Martin-Garcia, S. & Perera, A. & López-Vivente, M. & Galache, C. (1999) -
Pérez-Mellado, V. & Romero-Beviá, M. & Torre, A. de la & Vicedo, M. & Garcia-Sirvent, J. (1999) -
Pérez-Mellado, V. & Traveset, A. (1999) -
Different kinds of interactions between lizards and plants in the Mediterranean basin have been described. Lizards have shown to `use` plants as a refuge against predators, as a foraging site, as a thermal microhabitat or as a food resource. In the last case, they can either act as herbivores (+/- interaction, consuming vegetative and/or reproductive parts, and damaging the plant to a higher or lower degree) or as mutualists (+/+ interaction, by behaving as legitimate pollinators and/or seed dispersers).
The importance of plants as a food resource for Mediterranean lizards has been found to be high in insular habitats, espescially in small islands, where the paucity of arthropod prey availability redirects the foraging activity of lizards towards other nutrient resources. In such small islands, plants may play a major role in the trophic ecology of lacertid lizards, as suggested by recent studies. Likewise, lizards may be important both as efficient pollen transporters and seed dispersersfor a variety of plants. Some of these lizard-plant interactions are unique. The effect lizards have on the reproductive and dispersal succes of some species may be very relevant for plant preserveation, and in turn, the preserveation of prticular behavioral and ecological traits of the particular lizard populations depends, at least partly, on the plants they interact with.
Pérez-Méndez, N. & Jordano, P. & Valido, A. (2018) -
1. Defaunation of large-bodied frugivores could be causing severe losses of crucial ecosystem functions such as seed dispersal. The immediate ecological consequences may include alteration or even collapse of seed-mediated gene flow affecting plant population connectivity, with impacts on the regional scale distribution of genetic variation. Yet these far-reaching consequences of defaunation remain understudied. 2. Here we tested whether human-induced defaunation of the Canarian frugivorous lizards (Gallotia, Lacertidae) altered within-island population connectivity and the amount and large-scale distribution of genetic variation of Neochamaelea pulverulenta (Rutaceae), which relies exclusively on these lizards for seed dispersal. Our study system defines a lizard downsizing gradient with three contrasted ecological scenarios (islands) with relatively optimal (Gran Canaria; large-sized lizards), sub-optimal (Tenerife; medium) and collapsed seed dispersal processes (La Gomera; small). We extensively sampled individual plant genotypes from 80 populations spanning the full geographic range of the plant to examine their genetic diversity, population-genetic network topologies, and the patterns of isolation both by distance (IBD) and resistance (IBR) across these three ecological scenarios. 3. Plant genetic diversity appeared unaffected by defaunation-mediated downsizing of frugivorous lizards. However, we found a reduced overall plant population connectivity together with an increased isolation by distance within the most defaunated islands (La Gomera and, to a lesser extent, Tenerife) when compared with the scenario preserving the functionality of lizard-mediated seed dispersal (Gran Canaria). The results, with a significant effect of lizard downsizing, were robust when controlling for biotic/abiotic differences among the three islands by means of isolation by resistance models (IBR). 4. Synthesis. Our results provide valuable insights into the far-reaching consequences of the deterioration of mutualisms on plant population dynamics over very large spatial scales. Conservation of large-bodied frugivores is thus essential because their irreplaceable mutualistic dispersal services maintain an extensive movement of seeds across the landscape, crucial for maintaining the genetic cohesiveness of metapopulations and the adaptive potential of plant species across their entire geographic range.
Pérez-Méndez, N. & Rodriguez, A. & Nogales, M. (2018) -
The loss of largest-bodied individuals within species of frugivorous animals is one of the major consequences of defaunation. The gradual disappearance of large-bodied frugivores is expected to entail a parallel deterioration in seed dispersal functionality if the remaining smaller-sized individuals are not so effective as seed dispersers. While the multiple impacts of the extinction of large bodied species have been relatively well studied, the impact of intraspecific downsizing (i.e. the extinction of large individuals within species) on seed dispersal has rarely been evaluated. Here we experimentally assessed the impact of body-size reduction in the frugivorous lizard Gallotia galloti (Lacertidae), an endemic species of the Canary Islands, on the seed germination patterns of two fleshy-fruited plant species (Rubia fruticosa and Withania aristata). Seed germination curves and the proportions of germinated seeds were compared for both plant species after being defecated by large-sized individuals and small-sized individuals. The data show that seeds of W. aristata defecated by larger-sized lizards germinated faster and in a higher percentage than those defecated by small-sized lizards, while no differences were found for R. fruticosa seeds. Our results suggest that disappearance of the largest individuals of frugivorous species may impair recruitment of some plant species by worsening seed germination. They also warn us of a potential cryptic loss of seed dispersal functionality on defaunated ecosystems, even when frugivorous species remain abundant.
Perez-Santana, L. & Martinez-de-la-Torre, M. & Loro, J.F. & Puelles, L. (1996) -
The retinotectal projection of reptiles is largely crossed. The intertectal commissure is an important pathway that interconnects directly the two sides of the optic tectum. The rostrocaudal topography of intertectal commissural fibers at the dorsal midplane was examined by means of the in vitro horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labelling technique in the lizard Gallotia stehlini. Unilateral large deposits of tracer in the optic tectum as well as smaller deposits restricted to one quadrant were used to map the intertectal fibers anterogradely. Most commissural axons reached the contralateral side grouped into a dense bundle at the transition between two structurally distinct parts of the midbrain dorsal midline. The smaller rostral zone relates laterally to the griseum tectale, whereas the larger caudal zone relates to the tectum. The intertectal fibers seem to converge on the rostralmost part of the latter midline region, even though they originate throughout the optic tectum. A rough rostrocaudal tectotopic order was detected at the midline. Retrogradely labelled neurons were best obtained by depositing HRP directly within the compact commissure at the midline. These belong to pyriform cells in the periventricular layers 3 and 5. Axons labelled from the tectum did not enter the posterior commissure nor the intervening commissural region related to the griseum tectale.
Peters, W.C.H. & Doria, G. (1882) -
Porcell, L. de V. & Gonzalez, J.G. (1986) -
Rams, I. (2020) -
The gonads are specific organs since the testes and ovaries, as organs with totally different structure, develop from common, undifferentiated anlages termed genital ridges. Cells sharing the same origin commit various fate, and form different structures, depending on sex determination. The testes and ovaries are therefore a valuable object of research on cell differentiation and mechanisms of organ structure patterning. The development of gonads in reptiles has been studied in few species and many aspects of gonadogenesis in this group of vertebrates have remained unclear. Comparative descriptions showing similarities and differences in gonad development between lizard species have been scarce. The aim of the study was to investigate changes in the structure of developing gonads occurring at the early stages of development in selected species of lizards. The study was carried out on six species of lizards: Correlophus ciliatus, Lepidodactylus lugubris, Eublepharis macularius, Takydromus sexlineatus, Anolis carolinensis and Chamaeleo calyptratus. Gonads were subjected to trichromatic staining specifically revealing connective tissue and basement membranes, which enabled to image the internal structure of the organ. In differentiating testes, the cortex reduces to a thin epithelium, and the germ cells disappear in the reducing cortex, while in the medulla the epithalial cells differentiate and testis cords, containing the germ cells, form. In differentiating ovaries, the cortex grows, which is accompanied by an increase in the number of germ cells in this part of the gonad; the ovarian cortex surrounds the entire medulla or forms only a cluster of cells at the distal gonad pole as in geckos; in the ovarian medulla, cells can eventually differentiate in epithelial structures, and in the leopard gecko even form well-organized cords. The main interspecific differences in the structure of developing gonads concerned a shape of the gonads, their cortex and medulla, and the tendency of ovarian medulla cells to form epithelial structures and cords. The veiled chameleon turned out to be a unique species, in which gonadal development rate is accelerated in relation to soma development. Despite describing significant diversity in the structure of developing lizard gonads, this study reveals the existence of a common model of sexual differentiation of gonads independent of the genetic or temperature sex determination.
Rando, J.C. (2002) -
Rando, J.C. & Betoret, A. & Martin, A, & Barone, R. (2004) -
Rando, J.C. & Hernández, E. & López, M. & González, A.M. (1997) -
Comment on: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 6 (1): 63-71.
Rando, J.C. & Valido, A. & Nogales, M. & Martin, A. (2000) -
Recknagel, H. & Kamenos, N.A. & Elmer, K.R. (2018) -
Dollo’s law of irreversibility states that once a complex trait has been lost in evolution, it cannot be regained. It is thought that complex epistatic interactions and developmental constraints impede the re-emergence of such a trait. Oviparous reproduction (egg-laying) requires the formation of an eggshell and represents an example of such a complex trait. In reptiles, viviparity (live-bearing) has evolved repeatedly but it is highly disputed if oviparity can re-evolve. Here, using up to 194,358 SNP loci and 1,334,760 bp of sequence, we reconstruct the phylogeny of viviparous and oviparous lineages of common lizards and infer the evolutionary history of parity modes. Our phylogeny supports six main common lizard lineages that have been previously identified. We find strong statistical support for a topological arrangement that suggests a reversal to oviparity from viviparity. Our topology is consistent with highly differentiated chromosomal configurations between lineages, but disagrees with previous phylogenetic studies in some nodes. While we find high support for a reversal to oviparity, more genomic and developmental data are needed to robustly test this and assess the mechanism by which a reversal might have occurred.
Richard, M. & Thorpe, R.S. (2000) -
Richard, M. & Thorpe, R.S. (2001) -
Population phylogeographic studies are generally based solely on mtDNA without corroboration, from an independent segregating unit (i.e., nuclear genes), that the mtDNA gene tree represents the organismal phylogeny. This paper attempts to evaluate the utility of microsatellites for this process by use of the Western Canary Island lacertid (Gallotia galloti) as a model. The geological times of island eruptions are known, and well-supported mtDNA phylogenies exist (corroborated as the organismal phylogeny rather than just a gene tree by nuclear random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs)). The allelic variation in 12 populations from four islands (representing five haplotype lineages) was investigated in five unlinked microsatellite loci. Analysis of molecular variance showed this data to be highly structured. A series of genetic distances among populations was computed based on both the variance in allele frequency (i.e., Fst related) and the variance in repeat numbers (i.e., Rst related). The genetic distances based on the former were more highly correlated with the mtDNA genetic distances than those based on the latter. All trees based on both models supported the primary division shown by mtDNA and RAPDs, which is dated at ca. 2.8 to 5.6 mybp (depending on calibration of the mtDNA clock) and which could, under the evolutionary species concept, be regarded separate species. This was achieved despite theoretical problems posed by the use of few loci, suspected bottlenecks, and large population sizes. The finer details were less consistently represented. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that even a small number of microsatellites can be useful in corroborating the deeper divisions of a population phylogeny
Rico, J. & Berg, E. van den (2000) -
Rivero Suárez, C. & Rodríguez-Domínguez, M.A. & Molina-Borja, M. (2016) -
Lizards of the genus Gallotia, endemic to the Canary Islands, show morphological and colouration varieties that are related to within island variation in orographic and climatic characteristics. This study examines sexual size dimorphism (SSD) within and between population variation in morphological traits, and scaling relationships in G. sthelini from a southwestern locality (Tasartico) and from another (Gáldar) in the northwest of Gran Canaria. Both sites differ in climate and vegetation traits, and we hypothesised that SSD should be manifested by males having relatively larger body traits than females and that hind limb lengths should be relatively larger in individuals from the more open habitat. Results showed that one-third of the largest lizards from both populations did not differ significantly either in snout-to-vent length (SVL) nor in trunk length (TRL), but overall males had significantly larger SVL and TRL than females. Multivariate analysis showed that head width (HW) and hind limb length (HLL) were significantly larger in individuals from Tasartico than in those of Gáldar. Hind limb length was the trait that contributed most to differentiate between populations and head parameters between males and females. In both populations head and body traits scaled to TRL, head width (HW) and head depth (HD) of males having a positive allometry, and fore limb length (FLL) and hind limb length (HLL) a negative one. In relation to head length (HL), females had significantly larger TRL and smaller head depths than males; lizards from Gáldar had significantly larger trunk length (TRL), but smaller HW and HLL than those of Tasartico. We outline the multiple factors that could affect the evolution of morphometric traits of each sex, taking into account the ecological features of the two zones.
Roca, V. (2002) -
Roca, V. (2003) -
A helminthological investigation was carried out on the lacertid lizard, Gallotia atlantica (Peters and Doria, 1882) (Reptilia: Lacertidae) from Lanzarote, Canary Islands (Spain). One hundred and three digenean trematodes were found in the small intestine. Based on morphological and morphometric analysis of 35 specimens, it is concluded to be a new species which is here named Pseudoparadistomum yaizaensis gen. et sp. nov. referring to the locality where the hosts were caught. Pseudoparadistomum n.g. most closely resembles members of Paradistomum and Paradistomoidella, but is characterized by a V-shaped excretory vesicle, a spined tegument, and the position of the ovary relative to the testes.
Roca, V. (2004) -
Roca, V. (2012) -
Roca, V. & Carretero, M.A. & Llorente, G.A. & Montori, A. & Martin, J.E. (2005) -
A parasitological survey has been carried out to determine the relationships between host diet and parasite fauna. Diet, and infracommunities and component communities of two subspecies of lacertid lizards, Gallotia galloti galloti (Oudart, 1839) and G. g. palmae (Boettger et Müller, 1914) from Tenerife and La Palma islands (Canary Islands, Spain), have been analysed. High values of parasite infection parameters were found in both subspecies, which were only infected by nematodes of the family Pharyngodonidae. Plant matter was mainly consumed by both lizard subspecies and relevant amounts of mineral matter were also found in both hosts. Diet of these lacertid lizards was correlated with their parasite fauna formed by monoxenous nematodes parasitising herbivorous reptiles, as in tortoises and iguanid lizards. Abundance and richness of parasites increased with consumption of plant matter in G. g. galloti. Helminthological data support the idea of a tendency of both hosts towards herbivory, probably related to their own phylogeny linked to insularity.
Roca, V. & Jorge, F. & Carretero, M.A. (2012) -
Roca, V. & Llorente, G.A. & Carretero, M.A. & Galán, P. & Mateo, J.A. & Garcia-Márquez, M. & Rodriguez-Luengo, J.L. (2002) -
Roca, V. & Orrit, N. & Llorente, G.A. (1999) -
Rodriguez Dominguez, M. & Trujillo González, D. & Bohórquez Alonso, M.L. & Molina Borja, M. (2014) -
At a meeting with various specialists, the current situation as well as the future prospects for the reintroduction of the giant lizard of El Hierro (Gallotia simonyi) in the natural habitat were discussed. A survey of the two habitats, La Dehesa and El Julan, where captive bred Gallotia simonyi had been reintroduced, revealed disappointing results as only very few specimens were found again. However, the population size of the reintroduced lizards on the Roque Chico de Salmor is satisfactory. In addition the factors for a successful reintroduction are listed.
Rodriguez Dominguez, M. A. (1997) -
Rodriguez Dominguez, M. A. (1999) -
Rodriguez Dominguez, M. A. (2000) -
Rodriguez Dominguez, M. A. (2002) -
Rodriguez Dominguez, M. A. (2007) -
Rodriguez Dominguez, M.A. (2000) -
Rodriguez Dominguez, M.A. (2006) -
Rodriguez Dominguez, M.A. & Plasencia Rodriguez, S. (2014) -
Es wird über die Bestandentwicklung der vergangenen zehn Jahre der 1999 auf La Gomera wiederentdeckten Gallotia bravoana berichtet. Aus Zählungen am Gebirgsstock La Merica im Jahr 2009 errechnete sich eine erfreulich hohe Populationsgröße von 570 Exemplaren. Dagegen entsprach das Projekt zur Nachzucht in Menschenobhut zunächst nicht den Erwartungen. Nachdem die Haltungsbedingungen vor allem für die Zuchtweibchen verändert wurden, konnte die Anzahl der erzielten Schlüpflinge jedoch deutlich gesteigert werden. Zurzeit werden drei Gebiete auf La Gomera auf ihre Eignung für die Wiedereinbürgerung von Rieseneidechsen geprüft.
Rodriguez Izquierdo, R. (2019) -
In island environments, lizards tend to include plant materials into their diet at a higher proportion than in the mainland surroundings. They are considered as key elements for plant dynamics in many islands communities, where they consume a great amount of fruits. In the Canary Islands, it has been evidenced that Gallotia lizards are among the most important seed dispersers of fleshy-fruited plant species. However, if lizards’ effectiveness as seed dispersers changes or not throughout their ontogeny is still unknown. Hence, this study compares the “seed dispersal effectiveness” (SDE) provided by large and small-sized individuals of the common Canary lizard Gallotia galloti (Oudart 1839) to a group of plant species representative of the thermo-sclerophyllous shrubland, one of the most threatened habitats in the macaronesian islands. The results of this study show that large male lizards disperse a greater wealth of plants species than juveniles and female lizards. In addition, considering the quantity and quality of dispersal, large-sized lizards provide a higher SDE to plants than small-sized lizards. These results might have important consequences for the conservation of the thermos-sclerophyllous shrubland from Tenerife within a context of global change, where invasive alien predators, although without driving native species to extinction, can lead to their body size reduction.
Rodriguez-Dominguez, M. A. & Molina-Borja, M. (1998) -
Rodriguez-Dominguez, M.A. (1999) -
Rodriguez-Dominguez, M.A. (2006) -
Rodriguez-Dominguez, M.A. & Castillo, C. & Coello, J.J. & Molina-Borja, M. (1998) -
Rodriguez-Dominguez, M.A. & Coello, J.J. & Castillo, C. (1998) -
Rodriguez-Dominguez, M.A. & González Ortega, C. & Bohórquez Alonso, M.L. & M. Molina-Borja (2007) -
Rodriguez-Dominguez, M.A. & Ruiz-Caballero, M. (1998) -
Rodriguez-Dominguez, M.A. & Santos, A. de los & Cantarella, F. (1994) -
Rodriguez-Luengo, J. & Romero, P. (2000) -
Rodriguez, A. & Nogales, M. & Rumeu, B. & Rodriguez, B. (2008) -
We analyzed 621 lizard fecal pellets to assess the diet of the endemic lizard Gallotia galloti (Lacertidae) throughout one year in the thermophilous scrubland, the most threatened habitat in the Canary Islands. Indicating the importance of frugivory, 98.1% of pellets contained seeds from fleshy-fruited plant species (8,028 seeds in total), and the fruit volume reached 47.5%. The Canarian endemic plants Rhamnus crenulata and Canarina canariensis were most important in frequency of occurrence and number of seeds found in pellets, respectively. Lizards were more frugivorous during the summer (63.0% of volume), and seasonal variation was associated with temporal changes in availability of ripe fleshy fruits. We detected microspatial differences in the consumption of fruits and plant material. Significant correlations were found between plant cover of each species and their respective consumption by lizards. Lizards consumed invertebrates throughout the year; Formicidae, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera were the most frequently consumed prey (76.5% of the animal prey items). Our results indicate that G. galloti is one of the most frugivorous lacertids studied. The high number of undamaged seeds removed by these lizards also implies an important role in the seed dispersal processes of many fleshy-fruited plant species from this threatened habitat.
Rodriguez, A. & Rodriguez, B. & Montelongo, T. (2007) -
Rodriguez, M.A. & Castillo, C. & Sánchez, S. & Coello, J.J. (2000) -
Rodriguez, N. (2014) -
Rogner, M. (1981) -
Romero Aleman, M.M. & Monzon Major, M. & Plaza Perez, M.L. & Yanes, C. (1995) -
Some variants of the Golgi techniques have been used to study the possible origin and developmental sequence of astroglial cells in the lizard Gallotia galloti. the developmental sequence consists of progressive transformations of astroglial cells originating either from radial glia or from glioblasts. The so-called displaced radial glia, an intermediate cellular type between radial glia and astrocytes, indicate the radial glia/astrocytes transformation. Apparently, glioblasts also evolve into astroblasts that, in turn could develop into immature protoplasmic or fibrous astrocytes, precursors of mature protoplasmic and fibrous astrocytes, respectively. The present study confirms our previous ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies on the same animal.
Romero Aleman, M.M. & Monzon Major, M. & Plaza Perez, M.L. & Yanes, C. (2010) -
Spontaneous regrowth of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons occurs after optic nerve (ON) transection in the lizard Gallotia galloti. To gain more insight into this event we performed an immunohistochemical study on selected neuron and glial markers, which proved useful for analyzing the axonal regrowth process in different regeneration models. In the control lizards, RGCs were beta‐III tubulin‐ (Tuj1) and HuCD‐positive. The vesicular glutamate transporter‐1 (VGLUT1) preferentially stained RGCs and glial somata rather than synaptic layers. In contrast, SV2 and vesicular GABA/glycine transporter (VGAT) labeling was restricted to both plexiform layers. Strikingly, the strong expression of glutamine synthetase (GS) in both Müller glia processes and macroglial somata revealed a high glutamate metabolism along the visual system. Upregulation of Tuj1 and HuCD in the surviving RGCs was observed at all the timepoints studied (1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postlesion). The significant rise of Tuj1 in the optic nerve head and optic tract (OTr) by 1 and 6 months postlesion, respectively, suggests an increase of the beta‐III tubulin transport and incorporation into newly formed axons. Persistent Tuj1+ and SV2+ puncta and swellings were abnormally observed in putative degenerating/dystrophic fibers. Unexpectedly, neuron‐like cells of obscure significance were identified in the control and regenerating ON‐OTr. We conclude that: 1) the persistent upregulation of Tuj1 and HuCD favors the long‐lasting axonal regrowth process; 2) the latter succeeded despite the ectopia and dystrophy of some regrowing fibers; and 3) maintenance of the glutamate‐glutamine cycle contributes to the homeostasis and plasticity of the system.
Romero-Alemán, M. & Monzón-Mayor, M. & Santos, E. & Yanes, C.M. (2013) -
We analysed the astroglia response that is concurrent with spontaneous axonal regrowth after optic nerve (ON) transection in the lizard Gallotia galloti. At different post-lesional time points (0.5, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months) we used conventional electron microscopy and specific markers for astrocytes [glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin (Vim), sex-determining region Y-box-9 (Sox9), paired box-2 (Pax2)¸ cluster differentiation-44 (CD44)] and for proliferating cells (PCNA). The experimental retina showed a limited glial response since the increase of gliofilaments was not significant when compared with controls, and proliferating cells were undetectable. Conversely, PCNA+ cells populated the regenerating ON, optic tract (OTr) and ventricular wall of both the hypothalamus and optic tectum (OT). Subpopulations of these PCNA+ cells were identified as GFAP+ and Vim+ reactive astrocytes and radial glia. Reactive astrocytes up-regulated Vim at 1 month post-lesion, and both Vim and GFAP at 12 months post-lesion in the ON-OTr, indicating long-term astrogliosis. They also expressed Pax2, Sox9 and CD44 in the ON, and Sox9 in the OTr. Concomitantly, persistent tissue cavities and disorganised regrowing fibre bundles reaching the OT were observed. Our ultrastructural data confirm abundant gliofilaments in reactive astrocytes joined by desmosomes. Remarkably, they also accumulated myelin debris and lipid droplets until late stages, indicating their participation in myelin removal. These data suggest that persistent mammalian-like astrogliosis in the adult lizard ON contributes to a permissive structural scaffold for long-term axonal regeneration and provides a useful model to study the molecular mechanisms involved in these beneficial neuron–glia interactions.
Romero-Bevia, M. & Mateo, J.A. & Pérez-Mellado, V. (1999) -
The structure of the free-living population of the Giant lizard of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) has been studied. The population seems to be composed of 83 juveniles, 45 females and 22 males, that gives an effective population size of N = 59.10. But, if females reach sexual maturity at larger body sizes, corresponding to an age of six years, as it seems the case in captivity individuals, the effective population size would drop to N = 29.33. We also observe a sex-ratio bias towards females, as well as a lower proportion of juveniles than expected. The possible causes of this population structure are discussed. Gallotia simonyi shows a clear sexual dimorphism in body size, as well as a significantly slower growth rate than other lacertid lizards of similar body size. We did not observe significant differences in the condition state of individuals from lower and higher altitudinal parts of the distribution area.
Rosa, H.D. (1999) -
Rovatsos, M. & Kratochvíl, L. (2017) -
While the stability of sex chromosomes is widely accepted in viviparous mammals and birds, ectothermic vertebrates are still largely viewed as having frequent turnovers in sex determining systems. Frequent changes in sex determining systems in ectotherms could be problematic for field ecological studies as well as for breeding programs, as molecular sexing across a phylogenetically widespread spectrum of ectothermic vertebrates would not be possible. However, we recently documented that sex determining systems in three important reptile lineages (caenophidian snakes, iguanas, and lacertid lizards) are in fact highly conserved. 2.We applied a new molecular procedure to identify sex within each of these three lineages (encompassing altogether around 4,000 species, i.e. nearly 50% of the recent species of reptiles). This technique uses quantitative PCR (qPCR) to compare copy numbers of genes specific for their respective Z (in caenophidian snakes and lacertids) and X (in iguanas) chromosomes between male and female genomes. The DNA samples required can be collected relatively non-invasively. Unlike molecular sexing based on repetitive elements, this technique can be easily applied to previously unstudied species of these lineages, as the number of copies of protein coding genes linked to the differentiated sex chromosomes is evolutionary highly conserved in each. 3.We suggest that qPCR-based molecular sexing using the comparison of gene copy number is a practical choice for non-model species of caenophidian snakes, iguanas and lacertids. Morever, it should also soon be available for other reptile lineages with differentiated sex chromosomes.
Rovatsos, M. & Vukic, J. & Altmanová, M. & Johnson Pokorná, M. & Moravec, J. & Kratochvíl, L. (2016) -
Sex chromosomes are believed to be stable in endotherms, but young and evolutionary unstable in most ectothermic vertebrates. Within lacertids, the widely radiated lizard group, sex chromosomes have been reported to vary in morphology and heterochroma- tinization, which may suggest turnovers during the evolution of the group. We compared the partial gene content of the Z-specific part of sex chromosomes across major lineages of lacertids and discovered a strong evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes. We can conclude that the common ancestor of lacertids, living around 70million years ago (Mya), already had the same highly differentiated sex chromosomes. Molecular data demonstrating an evolutionary conservation of sex chro- mosomes have also been documented for iguanas and caenophidian snakes. It seems that differences in the evolutionary conservation of sex chromosomes in vertebrates do not reflect the distinction between endotherms and ectotherms, but rather between amniotes and anamniotes, or generally, the differences in the life history of particular lineages.
Ruiz Sanchez, S.L. (1996) -
Sacha, M. (2017) -
Salvador, A. (1971) -
Salvador, A. (1974) -
Salvador, A. (2007) -
Salvador, A. (2009) -
Salvador, A. (2015) -
Sämann, J. (2006) -
Sämann, J. (2007) -
Sämann, J. (2010) -
Sämann, J. (2013) -
Sämann, J. & Schuster, P. & Pfau, B. (2008) -
In diesem Bericht wir die aktuelle Situation der Rieseneidechsen auf den Kanaren-Inseln La Gomera und El Hierro dargestellt. Mit der dringend notwendigen Einzäunung der Wiederansiedlungsgebiete auf La Gomera wird noch 2008 begonnen werden, sodass, wie geplant, 2009 die ersten nachgezüchteten Rieseneidechsen ausgewildert werden können. Das Eidechsen-Zuchtzentrum auf El Hierro war im Januar 2007 von einem Erdrutsch getroffen und schwer beschädigt worden. Dennoch wird dort so gut wie möglich weiter gearbeitet und auch geforscht, und die Planungen für ein neues, etwas abseits gelegenes Zuchtzentrum sind schon weit fortgeschritten und sollen hier kurz vorgestellt werden.
Sanchez, J.C. & Fossi, M.C. & Focardi, S. (1997) -
Santos, A. De Los & Nicolás, J.P. De (2008) -
Relationships among environmental patterns and population size of the smut lizard Gallotia galloti galloti Oudart, 1839 (Sauria Lacertidae) were examined in the context of longer time-scale variability on a sandy beach and adjacent environments of Southeastern Tenerife. Seasonal and yearly patterns in the population size were likewise analyzed in relation to climatic and anthropic variables. Six sampling plots (coastal, sweet tabaiba, tuff, lava, sandy lava and crater) were selected following a perpendicular transect to the sandy fringe that extends from the beach toward the volcanic interior. Pitfall trapping was conducted from 1984 to 2005, and capture–mark–recapture technique and the Jolly–Seber method were used to estimate population sizes. The highest population size estimates were shown on the sandy lava plot and the neighboring lava plot, reaching values of about 3500 individuals ha−1 during the spring. The population was active almost the whole year, with seasonal patterns of activity from March to October. Seasonal temperature and population size patterns were correlated but the ‘calima’ episodes produced some disturbance. Gallotia galloti galloti was one of the most abundant lizards of all the species studied and its population size has not remained stable over the study period, probably because of the absence of predation and competition, and because of human interference and environmental instability.
Santos, E. & Monzon-Mayor, M. & Romero-Aleman, M.M. & Yanes, C. (2008) -
We have previously described the spontaneous regeneration of retinal ganglion cell axons after optic nerve (ON) transection in the adult Gallotia galloti. As neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is involved in neuronal differentiation, survival and synaptic plasticity, we performed a comparative immunohistochemical study of NT-3 during the ontogeny and regeneration (after 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postlesion) of the lizard visual system to reveal its distribution and changes during these events. For characterization of NT-3(+) cells, we performed double labelings using the neuronal markers HuC-D, Pax6 and parvalbumin (Parv), the microglial marker tomato lectin or Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin (LEA), and the astroglial markers vimentin (Vim) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Subpopulations of retinal and tectal neurons were NT-3(+) from early embryonic stages to adulthood. Nerve fibers within the retinal nerve fiber layer, both plexiform layers and the retinorecipient layers in the optic tectum (OT) were also stained. In addition, NT-3(+)/GFAP(+) and NT-3(+)/Vim(+) astrocytes were detected in the ON, chiasm and optic tract in postnatal and adult lizards. At 1 month postlesion, abundant NT-3(+)/GFAP(+) astrocytes and NT-3(-)/LEA(+) microglia/macrophages were stained in the lesioned ON, whereas NT-3 became downregulated in the experimental retina and OT. Interestingly, at 9 and 12 months postlesion, the staining in the experimental retina resembled that in control animals, whereas bundles of putative regrown fibers showed a disorganized staining pattern in the OT. Altogether, we demonstrate that NT-3 is widely distributed in the lizard visual system and its changes after ON transection might be permissive for the successful axonal regrowth.
Santos, E. & Romero-Alemán, M.M. & Monzón-Mayor, M. & Yanes, C. (2013) -
The lizard Gallotia galloti shows spontaneous and slow axon regrowth through a permissive glial scar after optic nerve axotomy. Although much of the expression pattern of glial, neuronal and extracellular matrix markers have been analyzed by our group, an estimation of the cell loss in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and the degree of visual function recovery remained unresolved. Thus, we performed a series of tests indicative of effective visual function (pupillary light reflex, accommodation, visually elicited behavior) in 18 lizards at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-axotomy which were then processed for immunohistochemistry for the neuronal markers SMI-31 (neurofilaments), Tuj1 (beta-III tubulin) and SV2 (synaptic vesicles) at the last timepoint. Separately, cell loss in the GCL was estimated by comparative quantitation of DAPI+ nuclei in control and 12 months experimental lizards. Additionally, 15 lizards were processed for electron microscopy to monitor relevant ultrastructural changes in the GCL, optic nerve and optic tract throughout regeneration. Hypertrophy of RGCs was persistent, morphology of the regenerated nerves varied from narrow to neuroma-like features and larger regenerated axons underwent remyelination by 9 months. The estimated cell loss in the GCL was 27% and two-third of the animals recovered the pupillary light reflex which involves the pretectum. Strikingly, visually elicited behavior involving the tectum was only restored in two specimens, presumably due to the higher complexity of this pathway. These preliminary results indicate that limited functional regeneration occurs spontaneously in the severely injured visual system of the lacertid G. galloti.
Schäberle, C. & Schäberle, A. (2019) -
Die Kanareneidechsen der Gattung Gallotia gehören zu den chasrismatischten Vertretern der Lacertidae. Durch ihr Vorkommen auf den beliebten Urlaubsinseln, ihre Größe und ihr teils massenhaftes Auftreten sind sire auch bei Laien recht bekannt, während die packenden bis dramatischen Geschichten rund um die beinahe ausgestorbenen Rieseneidechsen die Fachleute elektrisieren. Im seltsamen Mißverhältnis dazu steht, dass diese kräftigen, teils farbenfrohen Echsen in der letzten Zeit in der Terraristik nur noch wenig beachtet worden sind. Zeit für eine Ehrenrettung!
Bizarre Felsstrukturen, exotische Pflanzen und gierige Eidechsen lassen sich in einem Wort zusammenfassen: Teneriffa. Die größte Insel der Kanaren ist geprägt vom Pico del Teide, Spaniensn höchsten Berg mit 3.718 m ü. NN. Dadurch bietet sie die verschiedensten Klimazonen auf engstem Raum – und eine Heimat für Kanareneidechsen mehrerer Taxa.
Die Pracht-Kanareneidechse ist eine besonders farbenfrohe Vertreterin ijhrer Gattung. Obwohl d9ie Tiere auf Teneriffa in großer Zahl vorkommen und regelrechte Wegelagerer-Qualitäten entwickeln, verhalten sie sich im Terrarium häufig sehr scheu. Aber auch hier kann die Eingewöhnung gelingen - und selbst mit der berüchtigten Aggressivität der Tiere untereinander kann man fertig werden.
Schenkel, E. (1901) -
Schifter, H. (1965) -
Schmidt-Loske, K. (2001) -
Schmidtler, J.F. (1997) -
Notes on distribution, systematics, habitats of Lacerta c. cappadocica, L. danfordi bileki (with addifional data on the mating behaviour), L. d. ibrahimi, L. parva, L. cf. rudis, L. trilineata galatiensis, L. m. media, L. m. isaurica, L. pamphylica, Ophisops elegans macrodactylus, O. e. centralanatoliae, O. e. basoglui in southern central Anatolia and adjacent parts of the Mediterranean region are given.
Schuster, P. (2004) -
The report gives a short survey of the history of discovery of the giant lizards on Tenerife
and La Gomera. The new breeding station on the latter island as well as some serious problems
the free living lizards in the habitat are confronted with are described.
Schuster, P. (2005) -
Schweiger, M. (1994) -
Remarks on the lizards of the coastal areas of Tuscany, Italy. Seven species were observed (Hemidactylus turcicus, Tarentola mawitanica, Lacerta viridis Podarcis muralis, P. sicula and Chalcides chalcides). The eighth species (Phyllodactyllus europaeus) known from this area was not found.
Scriba, D. (2000) -
Siebenrock, F. (1994) -
Siebold, M. (2007) -
Siliceo, I. & Díaz, J.A. (2010) -
Whereas the range size of endangered species is undoubtfuly useful to predict risk of extinction, the role of their life-history characteristics is much less clear, and their effects may depend on the nature of the threatening factors. Such factors, for instance, are known to be different on islands and on the mainland. We used phylogenetically based statistical analyses to study the relationships among conservation status, insularity, range size, and life-history traits in a clade of Western Palaearctic lacertids including insular and continental species. These lizards are ecologically similar, but they show wide variation in life-history traits and vulnerability to extinction. Insular species of a given size had smaller clutches than mainland ones. Degree of threat was best predicted by a logistic regression including range size, insularity, clutch size, and the insularity × clutch size interaction. On the mainland, but not on islands, threatened species had smaller clutches than non-threatened ones. On islands, small clutch size is probably an adaptive trait, and it might predispose certain species to extinction, but the intrinsic characteristics of such species remain unclear. However, small clutch size was a good predictor of extinction risk on the mainland, having evolved most frequently in late maturing species from montane habitats in which climatic conditions limit their reproductive output and increase their vulnerability to stochastic hazards or habitat fragmentation.
Silva Mendes, J. da (2018) -
The order Squamata is a species-rich group of reptiles including the groups Sauria, Serpentes and Amphisbaenia. Several members of these groups have been extensively used as model organisms for a great variety of studies of different fields including ecology, behaviour and medicine. Such studies require a well-established phylogenetic framework to trace the evolution and diversity of the studied traits in the squamate tree of life. However, the accuracy of phylogenetic inference in Squamata is unbalanced: while the position of the main squamate groups and high level relationships have been successfully and consistently estimated across phylogenetic studies, the phylogenetic relationships of some groups have provided inconsistent results over the years. The accurate estimation of relationships between these groups might have been hindered by methodological artefacts of the phylogenetic inference due to limited data and analytical tools.
For the last couple of decades, and even presently, phylogenetic inference has relied heavily on mitochondrial DNA as the main molecular marker as a result of its advantages, such as the lack of recombination, easy amplification and high evolutionary rate. While its use is based on sound reasons, some drawbacks and limitations have been highlighted, such as the overall small size, and the fact that all genes are linked thus it represents a single locus. To overcome this, the addition of nuclear DNA complements the use of mitochondrial DNA in phylogenetic inference. Within the nuclear DNA, some markers may present so little variation that it is insufficient to recover phylogenetic relationships, yet slow-evolving nuclear genes have been the most widely used markers in phylogenetic studies. On the other hand, it has been shown that the use of highly informative fast evolving nuclear genes, in combination with mitochondrial DNA, can provide resolution at different parts and depths of the evolutionary history of the species.
Phylogenetic analyses of multiple loci have historically been based on the concatenation approach, .i.e. the combination of the sequences into a single alignment that is then analysed to represent the species tree. This method, however, relies on the assumption that the most commonly occurring gene tree is equivalent to the true species tree of any taxa, which may not be true in all cases. Another limitation of the concatenation approach is the elevated percentage of missing data that it sometimes entails, especially in large taxon sets, meaning that the sequence representation is The order Squamata is a species-rich group of reptiles including the groups Sauria, Serpentes and Amphisbaenia. Several members of these groups have been extensively used as model organisms for a great variety of studies of different fields including ecology, behaviour and medicine. Such studies require a well-established phylogenetic framework to trace the evolution and diversity of the studied traits in the squamate tree of life. However, the accuracy of phylogenetic inference in Squamata is unbalanced: while the position of the main squamate groups and high level relationships have been successfully and consistently estimated across phylogenetic studies, the phylogenetic relationships of some groups have provided inconsistent results over the years. The accurate estimation of relationships between these groups might have been hindered by methodological artefacts of the phylogenetic inference due to limited data and analytical tools.
For the last couple of decades, and even presently, phylogenetic inference has relied heavily on mitochondrial DNA as the main molecular marker as a result of its advantages, such as the lack of recombination, easy amplification and high evolutionary rate. While its use is based on sound reasons, some drawbacks and limitations have been highlighted, such as the overall small size, and the fact that all genes are linked thus it represents a single locus. To overcome this, the addition of nuclear DNA complements the use of mitochondrial DNA in phylogenetic inference. Within the nuclear DNA, some markers may present so little variation that it is insufficient to recover phylogenetic relationships, yet slow-evolving nuclear genes have been the most widely used markers in phylogenetic studies. On the other hand, it has been shown that the use of highly informative fast evolving nuclear genes, in combination with mitochondrial DNA, can provide resolution at different parts and depths of the evolutionary history of the species.
Phylogenetic analyses of multiple loci have historically been based on the concatenation approach, .i.e. the combination of the sequences into a single alignment that is then analysed to represent the species tree. This method, however, relies on the assumption that the most commonly occurring gene tree is equivalent to the true species tree of any taxa, which may not be true in all cases. Another limitation of the concatenation approach is the elevated percentage of missing data that it sometimes entails, especially in large taxon sets, meaning that the sequence representation is Miocene and supported a scenario of east-to-west diversification. The little morphological and phylogenetic evidence for the distinctiveness between Rhinechis and Zamenis supports a classification lumping which better reflects their evolutionary history and, based on the priority rule, R. scalaris is moved into the genus Zamenis and designated as Zamenis scalaris comb. nov.
Within the Gallotiinae subfamily, the combined use of fast nuclear markers and the species tree was fruitful for the inference of a robust phylogeny of the genus Psammodromus, distributed in the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa. In this study we analysed for the first time the six Psammodromus species to infer the association between the main cladogenetic events within this genus and the complex biogeographic dynamics across the Strait of Gibraltar. The inferred phylogeographical history suggests that Psammodromus probably originated in Iberia. The African species and the African lineage of P. algirus were a result of two over-sea dispersal events towards Africa that occurred 10 Ma and 1.5 Ma, while continental vicariance events might have shaped the diversification of the species within Iberia and Africa. These results, combined with previous literature, provide compelling evidence that major biotic exchanges occurred across the Strait of Gibraltar well before or long after the land connection during the Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.9 – 5.33 Ma). These findings suggest caution in the application of the relatively short event of the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar at the end of the Messinian Salinity Crisis as a cause for divergence in molecular clock calibrations, which is a common approach in literature.
At the species level, the use of fast evolving nuclear markers proved to be fruitful to understand the geographical pattern of phyletic diversification within the Omanosaura lizards belonging to the Eremiadini tribe, endemic to the Hajar Mountains in the Arabian Peninsula. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses recovered two highly divergent lineages within O. cyanura which are geographically associated to the northernmost and to the south and eastern regions of the Hajar Mountains. These lineages are reciprocally monophyletic at both mitochondrial and nuclear loci suggesting a long history of independent evolution and the need of a comprehensive taxonomic assessment. Omanosaura cyanura represents an additional case of cryptic diversity in the north Hajar Mountains, an area that has been demonstrated to hide high levels of genetic diversity in other reptile groups.
Overall, the work developed in this dissertation has demonstrated that the inclusion of fast evolving nuclear genes and the coalescent species tree approach was relevant for resolving challenging phylogenetic questions on selected squamate groups. This approach allowed the recovery of new clades and provided support for old and recent relationships. These methods have further allowed the comparison between contrasting phylogenetic hypotheses on the Lacertini and Colubrinae, demonstrating that the inference based on the supermatrix approach used by many recent studies may provide high support for incorrect nodes. Future research directions include (i) the application of the phylogenomic approach based on Next Generation Sequence data to further resolve basal polytomy within the Lacertini and Colubrinae radiations; (ii) a taxonomical assessment of Omanosaura; (iii) a re-evaluation of molecular clock calibrations based on the end of the Messinian Salinity Crisis as general cause for divergence, in order to account for biotic exchanges by over-sea dispersal across the Mediterranean well before or long after the land connection during this period, as suggested by emerging literature and the study case on Psammodromus.
Silva-Armas, J.L. & Santana, M. & Silva, J.A. & Arechavaleta, M. & Farina, B. & Fox, E. & Afonso, Ó. (2003) -
Silva, J.L. & Santana Rivero, M. (2003) -
Silva, J.P. & Toland, J. & Jones, W. & Eldridge, J. & Hudson, T. & O`Hara, E. (2009) -
Siverio, F. & Felipe, P. (2009) -
Siverio, F. & Rodríguez-Rodríguez, M.C. (2011) -
Siverio, F. & Rodríguez-Rodríguez, M.C. (2012) -
Speer, E. O. (1994) -
On EI Hierro, Canary Isiands, the endemic Iizard Gallotia galloti caesaris was observed
visiting the flowers of the likewise endemic Euphorbia broussonetii in search of nectar. For such piants visited and quite likely pollinated by Iizards, the collective term Saurophilae is proposed. Poiyphilous and monophilous biossoms are distinguished .
Speybroeck, J. & Beukema, W. & Dufresnes, C. & Fritz, U. & Jablonski, D. & Lymberakis, P. & Martinez-Solano, I. & Razzettis, E. & Vamberger, M. & Vences, M. & Vörös, J. & Crochet, P.-A. (2020) -
The last species list of the European herpetofauna was published by Speybroeck, Beukema and Crochet (2010). In the meantime, ongoing research led to numerous taxonomic changes, including the discovery of new species-level lineages as well as reclassifications at genus level, requiring significant changes to this list. As of 2019, a new Taxonomic Committee was established as an official entity within the European Herpetological Society, Societas Europaea Herpetologica (SEH). Twelve members from nine European countries reviewed, discussed and voted on recent taxonomic research on a case-by-case basis. Accepted changes led to critical compilation of a new species list, which is hereby presented and discussed. According to our list, 301 species (95 amphibians, 15 chelonians, including six species of sea turtles, and 191 squamates) occur within our expanded geographical definition of Europe. The list includes 14 non-native species (three amphibians, one chelonian, and ten squamates).
Spikmans, F. & Bosman, W. (2013) -
Maastricht herbergt ’s lands enige natuurlijke populatie muurhagedissen. Kernpopulaties van de soort zijn aanwezig in de Hoge en Lage Fronten (vestingwerken) en op een spoorlijn en emplacement. Tevens zijn de hazelworm en levendbarende hagedis in het Belvédèregebied (Maastricht Noord) aanwezig. In het gebied staan diverse stedelijke en infrastructurele ontwikkelingen op stapel, welke in veel gevallen zullen leiden tot vernietiging, versnippering en/of verstoring van reptielenleefgebied. De aanwezige reptielsoorten en hun leefgebieden zijn streng beschermd en aantasting van de populaties is zonder ontheffing op de Flora en faunawet niet toegestaan. In overleg met het ministerie van EL&I, de initiatiefnemers van de plannen en RAVON is besloten te zoeken naar een integrale oplossing voor de diverse projecten. Het doel dat hierbij is gesteld, is de instandhouding van duurzame en robuuste metapopulaties van de aanwezige reptielen. Door het creëren van een „robuust raamwerk” wordt de bescherming van de reptielen in Maastricht Noord geborgd, waarbij ook de genoemde ruimtelijke ontwikkelingen doorgang kunnen vinden. In het voorliggende rapport wordt de actuele verspreiding van reptielen in het gebied, de huidige kwaliteit van de leefgebieden en de mogelijke maatregelen voor realisering van duurzame metapopulaties reptielen beschreven.
Uit het veldonderzoek naar reptielen blijkt dat de muurhagedis voorkomt in de Hoge Fronten, Lage Fronten, emplacement Boschpoort, spoorlijn Maastricht – Lanaken, Maasoever en het bedrijventerrein Bosscherveld. Aanvullende waarnemingen op de bekende verspreiding zijn gedaan op diverse bedrijventerreinen in het Bosscherveld. Door de beperkte populatieomvang (<500 adulte dieren) en de versnippering van leefgebieden wordt de staat van instandhouding van de populatie muurhagedissen niet duurzaam geacht. De hazelworm komt in grote delen van het Belvédèregebied in hoge dichtheid voor en de populatie wordt in de huidige staat duurzaam geacht. De levendbarende hagedis is uitsluitend aanwezig op een klein stuk van de spoorlijn aan de Belgische grens. De populatie is klein, kwetsbaar en niet in een duurzame staat.
Voor de drie reptielsoorten wordt het raamwerk beschreven voor robuuste metapopulaties. Een duurzame metapopulatie bestaat uit minimaal 500 adulte dieren, verspreid over meerdere kernpopulaties in primaire leefgebieden die met elkaar in contact staan door (satellietpopulaties in) verbindingszones. Voor de realisering van een robuuste metapopulatie van de muurhagedis is de ontwikkeling van nieuw leefgebied noodzakelijk (Fort Willem, uitbreiding Frontenpark en Belvédèreberg). Diverse verbindingszones dienen nog gerealiseerd te worden door aanpassing van inrichting en beheer en de aanleg van passages. Per leefgebied en verbindingszone worden in het voorliggende rapport de noodzakelijke maatregelen beschreven en wordt een prioritering aangebracht hierin. Door realisering van de voorgesteld maatregelen kan de populatie muurhagedis groeien tot 500 – 900 adulte exemplaren.
Nieuw leefgebied voor met name de muurhagedis kan gerealiseerd worden door het aanbrengen van stenige en houtige structuren (stapelmuren, steenkorven, steenhopen, steenbedden en houtstapels). Hergebruik van materialen uit het gebied (zoals sloopafval) voor de bouw van deze voorzieningen is goed mogelijk Reptielvriendelijk vegetatiebeheer is van cruciaal belang om leefgebieden geschikt te houden. De wijze waarop wegen passeerbaar gemaakt kunnen worden voor reptielen, middels robuuste voorzieningen, wordt beschreven. De wijze waarop de deelprojecten in het gebied uitgevoerd worden dient vastgelegd te worden in een uitvoeringsplan, met aandacht voor werkwijze, materiaalkeuze, tijdstip van uitvoering en een goed afstemming in tijd van deelprojecten. Ook is ecologische begeleiding van de werkzaamheden van groot belang.
De bestaande plannen in het gebied, zoals de vestingvisie, bestemmingsplan Noorderbrug en de voorbereidingsbesluiten Bosscherveld Noord en RMP Noord, bieden naast bedreigingen zeker ook kansen voor de aanwezige reptielen. Met name de vestingvisie heeft een hoge ecologische ambitie. Binnen de stedelijke ontwikkelingsplannen zijn er voldoende mogelijkheden om verlies en verstoring van leefgebied te compenseren. De realisering van robuuste metapopulaties biedt voor met name de muurhagedis goed uitzicht op duurzaam voortbestaan. Een netwerk van met elkaar verbonden deelpopulaties functioneert echter alleen wanneer alle onderdelen gerealiseerd worden.
Steindachner, F. (1889) -
Steindachner, F. (1891) -
Suárez González, M. (2020) -
The expansion of urban areas and the correspondinganthropic actions have caused species to change their morphology and behavior compared with the individuals of the same species that live in rural areas. These changes have been shown to occur in several species and are considered to be the result ofbehavioral plasticity or micro-evolutionary changes. The initialobjective of this study was to analyze if there were differences in morphology and behavior between two different populations of Gallotia galloti, living respectivelyin urban and rural areas of Tenerife. Morphological and behavioral characteristics could only be taken from individuals of a rural population (3 males and 6 females). The statistical analysis of data obtained showed significative differences between sexes in: Snout-vent length, (SVL),pileus width (PW), head height (HH), and length of the two forelimbs. However, there were non-significant differences between sexes in the selected behavioral parameters. In order to obtain a wider understanding of this subject, Ialso performed abibliographic review in lizards of several species. This revision revealed specific changes in morphological and behavioral parameters between individuals living in urbanized areas in comparison with those of natural habitats, as well as some potential explanation for them.
Suárez, N.M. & Betancor, E. & Pestano, J. (2010) -
The Gallotia bravoana lizard, is an endangered species endemic to the Canary Island, entirely restricted to a very small area (*1 Ha) in La Gomera. Here we report the isolation and characterization of fifteen microsatellite loci following an enrichment protocol. Although five loci were monomorphic, an average of 2.1 alleles per locus and an average observed heterozygosity of 0.423 were found (n = 33) for the remaining loci. The loci were tested for their ability to cross amplify in all Gallotia species. These microsatellites will be used to manage a captive breeding programme for this endangered species.
Szczerbak, N.N. (1982) -
Elements of the herpetofauna are in the author`s opinion of great importance for the zoogeographical division of the Palaearctic region. It is suggested that this region be divided into the following four subregions: 1/ arctic, 2/ boreal Euro-Siberian, 3/ bo- real Himalayan-Manchurian and 4/ Mediterranean-Central-Asiatic.
Tello Marquina, J.C. (1975) -
Tersa, E. & Pether, J. & Mateo, J.A. (2010) -
Thorpe, R. S. McGregor, D.P. & Cumming, A.M. (1993) -
Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of 6 base pair recognising endonucleases are used to reconstruct the phylogeny of the endemic Canary Island lacertid, Gallotia. The division into conventional species is upheld by this molecular analysis and the western Canary Island lizard (G. galloti) and eastern Canary Island lizard (G. atlantica) are hypothesized to be sister species. A more comprehensive study of the intraspecific relationships of G. galloti, based on nineteen restriction enzymes, indicates that there are distinct southern and northern lineages within this species. The phylogenetic analysis does not uphold the conventional subspecies, but suggests an alternative arrangements with one northern (La Palma, Tenerife) and one southern (Gomera, Hierro) subspecies. The inferred timing of molecular divergence of populations of G. galloti, based on RFLP analysis, is compatible with the geological timing for island origin and fossil data. Mantel tests show that mitochondrial RFLP divergence is correlated with mitochondrial 12s rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I senquence divergence and highly correlated with mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence divergence.
Thorpe, R.S. (1985) -
berücksichtigt sie nicht die kleinen Inselchen, die von G. galloti bewohnt werden. Auch die bei anderen Eidechsen beobachtete positive Korrelation zwischen Inselgröße und populationsinterner Variabilität existiert nicht bei Gallotia. Dagegen besteht eine sehr eine Beziehung (r ≥ 0.94) zwischen Körpergröße und Variabilität bei allen Populationen von Gallotia, die für beide Geschlechter und verschiedene Merkmalstypen bemerkenswert durchgängig ist. Die Variabilität des Phänotyps wird durch ontogenetische Homoeostase-Mechanismen in der Weise beeinflußt, daß eine starke Tendenz zur Homoeostasis nur eine geringe Variation in der phänotypischen Ausprägung der Gene erlaubt. Umgekehrt gilt infolgedessen, daß die hohe potentielle Wachstumsrate großer Eidechsen einer weniger strengen Kontrolle unterliegt. Hierdurch dürfte zu erklären sein, warum großwüchsige Eidechsenarten eine stärkere phänotypische Variabilität zeigen.
Bisher sind für Gallotia atlantica keine Unterarten beschrieben, während G. galloti mehrere aufweist.Die Streuung von 23 Beschuppungsmerkmalen und 24 Körperproportionen wurde bei G. atlantica mit Hilfe des verallgemeinerten Abstands (Mahalanobis D²) untersucht. Die Unterschiede zwischen atlantica-Populationen von verschiedenen Inseln sind im Durchschnitt geringer als bei solchen von galloti. Die Kanonische Analyse von Beschuppung und Körperproportionen ergibt kein einheitliches Bild von Unterschieden in beiden Merkmalskomplexen. Männchen und Weibchen von Lanzarote sind jedoch größer als solche von anderen Inseln und weichen von diesen auch in einigen Körperproportionen ab.
Thorpe, R.S. (1996) -
Even though, from Darwin onwards, interisland evolution has been a cornerstone of evolutionary theory it has not been possible to determine to what extent this geographic variation reflects the phylogeny (e.g., pattern of island colonization) or ecogenetic adaptation to different ecological conditions on each island. Using the morphology of western Canary Island lacertids (Gallotia galloti) as an example, a procedure is explored that gives a preliminary answer to this problem when there are a limited number of islands. The phylogenetic component (represented by patristic distances derived from 1005 mitochondrial DNA [mtDNA] base pairs) can be separated from two potential ecogenetic factors (environmental richness and climate) by partial Mantel tests. This reveals that, although these components interact, some characters are correlated primarily to biodiversity/paucity (e.g., size), others are correlated to wet and lush environments (e.g., dorsal pattern), and others are correlated primarily to the phylogeny (e.g., sexual leg markings). The former two correlations may be due to ecogenetic adaptation to current ecological conditions, wheras the latter reflects historical processes.
Thorpe, R.S. & Baez, M. (1987) -
Microgeographic variation of the vegetarian lizard Gallotia galloti within the island of Tenerife is described using univariate analysis, correlation, multiple group principal component analysis, canonical analysis, transects, and contours. The size varies locally in a mosaic pattern while head shape shows a WNW–ESE cline in the south. The scalation (scale and femoral pore counts) has two facets to its geographic variation, both of which are incongruent with the primary variation in the size and shape. The scalation shows categorical variation (stepped cline) between northern and southern populations and also a strong clinal relationship with altitude. The possible causes of this variation are considered and adaptation to current ecological conditions appears to be implicated for at least the altitudinal variation, although the pertinent factors are not obvious. It is apparent that vertebrate populations distributed across small islands do not necessarily offer the advantage of a discrete homogeneous unit for evolutionary studies but can offer the opportunity for studying microgeographic variation.
Thorpe, R.S. & Baez, M. (1993) -
The lacertid lizard (Gallotia stehlini), an endemic of Gran Canaria, shows no visually obvious geographic variation, yet all seven scalation characters that were examined exhibit significant geographic variation. The number of collar scales, scales along the ventral trunk and femoral pores are correlated with habitat type, while the number of femoral pores is correlated negatively with altitude. Mantel tests were used to compare simultaneously an observed pattern with three hypothesized patterns (habitat type, altitude and proximity). They indicate that, while several individual characters are significantly associated with the putative causal factors of habitat type and altitude, there is no association between an overall scalation distance matrix and habitat type, or altitude when the effect of proximity is removed. Consequently, one should consider the individual characters as well as the multivariate generalized distances. Some of the observed patterns of geographic variation in scalation are very similar to those of the small scincid lizard Chalcides sexlineatus on Gran Canaria and also parallel the altitudinal and latitudinal variation in the scalation of the Tenerife lacertid (Galotia galloti). The low level of congruence in patterns of geographic variation in individual characters (i.e. some vary with latitude, some with altitude and one varies with longitude) is consistent with the hypothesis that ecogenetically caused geographic variation may result in lower inter-character congruence than phylogenetically caused geographic variation.
Thorpe, R.S. & Black, H. & Malhotra, A. (1996) -
Previous studies using partial regression Mantel tests of matrix correspondence on within-island geographic variation in the color pattern of the Tenerife (Canary Islands) lacertid lizard (Gallotia galloti) support natural selection for different north-south climatically determined biotopes but do not support any historical cause. However, tests on the DNA phylogeny based primarily on population data from 57 localities on Tenerife support the hypothesis that there were populations on two putative precursor islands that have come into secondary contact and introgressed after these islands were joined to form Tenerife by the eruption of the Canadas edifice. Subsequent partial Mantel tests continue to support the hypothesis that color pattern is adapted to the climatic biotopes even when this phylogenetic information is taken into account by (1) testing for color pattern adaptation separately within each lineage and (2) testing for color pattern adaptation across the entire island and simultaneously considering the molecular phylogenetic relationships as representing an alternative explanation. Selection has largely expunged any trace of the geological history from current morphological variation, and the introgression of these island populations after an estimated 0.7 million years of separation gives an insight into the relationships between allopatric divergence and reproductive isolation.
Thorpe, R.S. & Brown, R.P. (1988) -