AG-Magazin (im Druck)
Literatur- und Poster Projekte
der Echten Eidechsen, Familie Lacertidae
Eremias FITZINGER, 1834
Agasyan, A. & Tuniyev, B. & Ananjeva, N. & Orlow, N. (2009) -
Ahmadzadeh, F. & Kami, H.G. & Hojjati, V. & Rezazadeh, E. (2009) -
In this study a total of 29 Eremias strauchi strauchi specimens (10 males, 16 females and three juveniles), collected from different localities in northwest of Iran were examined. The study was based on morphological features including color pattern, morphometric measurements, pholidotic characters, as well as ecological and biological observations especially habitat, reproductive biology and distribution. Habitat features and new distribution localities were documented. Egg characters of Eremias strauchi strauchi such as shape, size, number and color are reported for the first time. Also, some other new information on this species has been given.
Ahmadzadeh, F. & Kheyrandish, A. (2006) -
The Northwest of Iran, covering the three provinces of Ardabil, East Azerbaijan and West Azerbaijan, is a special area that, due to its particular geographical and climatic conditions has a rich biodiversity. The present study was conducted with the aim of studying the habitat, substrate type, feeding, conservation and distribution of lizards in this area from 2003 to now. Our results have revealed that there are 20 lizard species belonging to 13 genera and 5 families in this area. Lacertid lizards have the highest species diversity with 12 species. We also found that high ranges of habitats with a different substrate types are inhabited by lizard species. The number of species in pine regions compared with other types of area is considerably greater. The conservation status of lizards is unknown and requires further study.
Ahmadzadeh, F. & Kiabi, B.H. & Kami, H.G. & Hojjati, V. (2008) -
Northwestern Iran has unique geographical and climatic conditions that support a rich flora and fauna. In
view of the lack of in-depth studies on the lizards of the region, an investigation was started in the northern part of
Ardabil Province for an inventory of this component of the fauna and their habitats. Collections were made from
October 2003 to June 2005 and 165 specimens were collected and identified. Five families, 12 genera and 15 species
are represented, including Agamidae: Laudakia caucasia, Phrynocephalus persicus, Trapelus ruderatus; Lacertidae:
Lacerta media media, Lacerta strigata, Lacerta brandtii, Darevskia raddei raddei, Eremias strauchi strauchi,
Eremias arguta, Ophisops elegans; Scincidae: Mabuya aurata transcaucasica, Eumeces schneiderii princeps,
Abelepharus bivittatus; Anguidae: Pseudopus apodus and Gekkonidae: Cyrtopodion caspium caspium. Comparing
this list to the data provided by Anderson (1999), it seems that most of the lizards are being reported for the Province
for the first time. The families Gekkonidae and Anguidae are newly recorded, and the gecko Cyrtopodion caspium is
first recorded from the west and northwest of Iran. With seven species represented in the area, lacertids have the highest
species diversity among the lizard families and need further study. Habitat features also have been given for all
Ahmadzadeh, F. & Lymberakis, P. & Saberi Pirouza, R. & Kapli, P. (2017) -
The Iranian Plateau is an area of highly complex landscape and incredibly diverse habitats, from salt deserts to temperate forests. Such a heterogeneous environment, at the crossroads of Asia, Europe, and Africa, fuels the high diversity and uniqueness of the Iranian fauna and flora. Nevertheless, our understanding of the historical processes that shaped the Iranian biodiversity remains limited. In this context, we revisit the evolutionary history of the two most widespread lizard species on the Iranian Plateau (Eremias persica and Mesalina watsonana) to explore whether these two taxa of similar ecology have been subjected to similar historical processes. To achieve that, we performed a series of phylogenetic analyses and thoroughly tested all possible alternative topologies based on available mitochondrial sequences (cytochrome b and 12S ribosomal RNA). Additionally, we estimated the number of mitochondrial clusters based on a novel single-locus delimitation method and the time of their divergence, using recently inferred evolutionary rates for lacertid species. The results indicate that the two taxa have been shaped by similar physiographic and climatic barriers since both phytogenies split into similar geographical clusters. However, E. persica has twice as long evolutionary time on the Iranian Plateau than M. watsonana. The first divergence of E. persica was estimated in the Middle Miocene (~13 Mya), at the time of the major uplift of the Zagros mountain range. The Upper Miocene tectonic rearrangement that resulted in the uplift of the Alborz mountains coincides with the original split in M. watsonana (~6.6 Mya) and several contemporaneous splits within E. persica.
Ai, Q., Zongyua, L., Yiqiong, Z., Jun.Shen Zhongping, G..Guangwei, J. and Hongsu, W. (1992) -
E · a · argus possesses 2u = 38 chromomes with a chromosome formula as 2n = 341 + 2m+ZW.NF=38. The C-bands of centric regions are found on all of chromosomes. Telomeric C-bands can be seen of pairs -1 chromosomes. As compared with species of close relative Eremias brenchleyi .there is a world of difference between the two state chearly :The Karyotype of E · a · argus more evolution. Meanwhile conduct a discussion on the relation of Karyotype evolution and species.
Akman, B. & Yildizt, M.Z. & Özcan, A.F. & Bozkurt, M.A. & Igci, N. & Göcmen, B. (2018) -
Anhand ihrer Feld- und Literaturstudien identifizierten die Autoren 36 Amphibien- und Reptilienarten, die nachweislich in der turkischen Provinz Bitlis vorkommen, wobei die Fundorte und die an ihnen angetroffenen Habitattypen angegeben werden. die durch Beobachtung festgestellten Hauptgefahrdungsursachen werden benannt. insgesamt kennt man aus dem Untersuchungsgebiet Vorkommen von vier Froschlurch-, zwei Schwanzlurch- und Schildkrötenarten sowie 15 Echsen- und 13 Schlangenarten. Hyla savignyi Audouin, 1827, Heremites vittatus (Olivier, 1804), Timon kurdistanicus (Suchow, 1936) and Eirenis thospitis Schmidtler & Lanza, 1990, stellen Erstnachweise fur die Provinz Bitlis dar.
Al-Barazengy, A.N. & Salman, A.O. & Abdul Hameed, F.T. (2015) -
The present work provides a list of all amphibians and reptiles recorded from Iraq up to
2014. It includes 115 species (105 species of reptiles and 10 species of amphibians) dating back to 25 families (20 families of reptiles and 5 families of amphibians). Conservation status of each species was mentioned.
Alcock, A.W. & Finn, F. (1897) -
Alekperov A.M. (1978) -
АЛЕКПЕРОВ, A.M. (1978) -
Altunisic, A. & Gül, C. & Özdemir, N. & Tosunoglu, M. & Ergül, T. (2013) -
We studied, for the first time, the age structure of Eremias strauchi strauchi (Kessler, 1878) from a sample (18 adults) of a population living in the vicinity of Iğdır (eastern Turkey) using the skeletochronological method. The maximum observed longevity was 7 years for males and 5 years for females. The age of males ranged from 4 to 7 years (mean 4.91, n = 12), while that of females ranged from 4 to 5 years (mean 4.66, n = 6). The average snout–vent length (SVL) was 61.10 mm in males and 60.82 mm in females. The differences in mean age and SVL between sexes were not statistically significant. Intersexual differences in body size were male-biased, but this state was not statistically significant. Age and SVL were positively correlated in both sexes.
Ananjeva, N. & Borkin, L. & Darevsky, I. & Orlov, N. (1988) -
Ananjeva, N. & Papenfuss, T. & Bafti, S. & Sharifi, M. (2010) -
Ananjeva, N.B. (1971) -
Ananjeva, N.B. (1976) -
Ananjeva, N.B. (1977) -
Ananjeva, N.B. (1995) -
Ananjeva, N.B. (2003) -
Morphometric evaluation of limb proportions in five sympatric desert lacertas of the genus Eremias, namely E. velox, E. grammica, E. intermedia, E. lineolata, and E. scripta inhabiting southern Balkhash Lake region (Sary-Ishyk-Otrau desert), Kazakhstan, was made. Considerable species differences in proportions of some limb segments associated with locomotion adaptations (burrowing, climbing etc) of these lizards have been found as well as sexual dimorphism and age variability. Associations among morphometric peculiarities (limb proportions), locomotion activity, spatial, temporal, and trophic characteristics of ecological niches of sympatric species are discussed.
Ananjeva, N.B. (2013) -
Ananjeva, N.B. & Borkin, L.Y. & Darevsky, I.S. & Orlov, N.L. (1998) -
Ananjeva, N.B. & Orlov, N.L. & Khalikov, R.G. & Darevsky, I.S. & Ryabov, I.S. & Barabanov, A.V. (2004) -
Ananjeva, N.B. & Orlov, N.L. & Khalikov, R.G. & Darevsky, I.S. & Ryabov, S.A. & Barabanov, A.V. (2006) -
TERRA TYPICA. China, Chifu (now Yantai, Shandun Province).
DISTRIBUTION. The species is widely distributed in the eastern
part of Mongolia, in China (from the lake Kukunor up to Shanghai
city), in the western part of the Korean Peninsula and in Russia,
in the southern Buryatia (to the north approximately up to Ulan-
Ude city) and in the extreme south-west of the Chita region. In
Mongolia the most part of the findings are attributed to the north
and east from the range Khangai in Kobdos, Gobi-Altai, Dzabkhan,
Bayan-Khongor, South-Gobi, Middle-Gobi, Central, Bulan, Selengin,
Khentei, East-Gobi, Sukhe-Bator and Eastern aimaks. Of two
known subspecies within North Eurasia occurs the western one
– E. a. barbouri Schmidt, 1925.
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species (E. a. barbouri) is included
into the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation (2001): category
4 – species uncertain in its status distributed in Russia on the
extreme border of its distribution range.
TERRA TYPICA. Interstream area of the rivers Ural and Emba.
DISTRIBUTION. The distribution range stretches from northeastern
Romania in the west to south-western Mongolia (Jungar
Gobi) and north-western China (Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous
Region and Inner Mongolia) in the east, Turkey and Iran in the
south. Within the limits of North Eurasia it is widely distributed
from the steppe zone of Moldova, the Ukraine and the European
part of Russia including North Caucasus and the area of the Volga river in the west, to Kazakhstan, the Republics of Middle Asia
and Mongolia in the east. In Mongolia records are known in the
southern part of the Kobdos aimak and in the Gobi-Altai aimak.
Disjuncted from the main distribution range the species occurs
in the eastern Transcaucasia, within the limits of Azerbaijan,
eastern Georgia and the basin of the Sevan Lake in Armenia.
The most northern, evidently isolated habitats are known in the
Volzhsko-Kamsky Territory from the Samara bend and Buzuluksky
The species is divided into 6 subspecies which are different,
in particular, by the above-described types of the coloration
of the body and the size proportions. E. a. arguta (Pallas, 1773)
– is distributed in the western Kazakhstan. E. a. deserti (Gmelin,
1789) – occupies the whole western part of the distribution range
from the river Ural in the east up to the eastern part of the North
Caucasus in the south-west. E. a. transcaucasica Darevsky, 1953
inhabits eastern Transcaucasia, E. a. uzbekistanica Chernov, 1934
– Uzbekistan and the frontier regions of Turkmenistan, southern
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. E. a. darevskii Tsaruk, 1986
– Issyk Kul hollow in Kyrgyzstan. E. a. potanini Bedriaga, 1912 lives
in the area adjacent to the Balkhash Lake and Zaisan hollow in
CONSERVATION STATUS. The steppe – runner E. a. potanini
is included into the Red Data Book of Mongolia (1997) as a
rare species, it is protected on the territory of the Great Gobi
reservation. E. a. uzbekistanica is included into the Red Data Book
of Turkmenistan (1999) as a species which habitats are destroyed
the number of is reducing (category 2). E. a. transcaucasica is
included into the Red Data Book of Armenia (1987) with the status
“species disjuncted from the main distribution range”. E. a. deserti
is included into the Red Data Book of Moldova (2001): category
– Critically Endangered species.
TERRA TYPICA. Karakum, Turkmenistan.
DISTRIBUTION. Middle Asia within the plains of Turkmenistan,
Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, middle and southern Kazakhstan. The
northern border of the distribution range runs in Kazakhstan, in
some places nearly attaining 49°N. Outside of Middle Asia it also
occurs in the north-east of Iran (eastern Khorasan), in the adjacent
plain regions of Afghanistan to the north of Hindu Kush, as well
as in the east up to the western regions of the Xinjiang-Uyghur
Autonomous Region, China.
CONSERVATION STATUS. The number is stable and does not require
special measures on its maintenance.
TERRA TYPICA. Kyzyl Kum, region of Aral-Caspian deserts.
DISTRIBUTION. Middle Asia within the limits of Turkmenistan,
Uzbekistan, extreme west of Tajikistan and Kazakhstan. The northern
border of the distribution range stretches in Kazakhstan from
the north-eastern coast of the Caspian Sea and northern coasts
of the Aral Sea to the north of the Balkhash Lake across the desert
Betpack-Dala up to the basin of the Lake Alakol’. CONSERVATION STATUS. The number is stable. The species does
not require species conservation measures.
TERRA TYPICA. Settlement Sary-Jaz, ravine Terekty, Kyrgyzstan.
DISTRIBUTION. This form of the complex “Eremias multiocellata”
is known from the central Tien Shan (basin of the river Sary-Jaz),
Kyrgyzstan and China (Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region, including
Kashgaria in the southern Tien Shan). Populations of this
species were referred earlier to Eremias buechneri.
CONSERVATION STATUS. Undetermined.
TERRA TYPICA. Betwen Faizabad and Nuzi, eastern Iran.
DISTRIBUTION. The republics of the Middle Asia within
Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, southern and south-eastern Tajikistan
and south of Kazakhstan, where it occurs isolatedly in the area
adjacent to the Balkhash Lake. Besides, it is distributed in the
north-eastern Iran (Khorasan) and northern Afghanistan.
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species does not require special conservation
TERRA TYPICA. Desert Gobi, the road between Sume and river
DISTRIBUTION. It inhabits montane and partly submontane regions
of Tien Shan and Pamir-Altai in Kyrgyzstan, eastern and
south-eastern Kazakhstan and neighbouring Uzbekistan. It is
known in Tuva and widely distributed in Mongolia (Bayan Ulug,
Kobdo, Ubsunur, Dzabkhan, Gobi-Altai, Bayan-Khongor, Uver-
Khangai, South-Gobi, Eastern-Gobi and Middle-Gobi aimaks). It is
also known from north-western China southwards to the mountain
ranges of Nan Shan and north-eastern Tibet, in the desert Alashan
and the southern part of Mongolia in the east. During recent years
the taxonomic status of some subspecific forms was revised, they
are considered as separate species.
CONSERVATION STATUS. As a narrow-ranged and small in number
species it is included into the Red Data Book of Kazakhstan (1996):
category 4 – a rare species, known by single specimens.
TERRA TYPICA. Sistan, Iran.
DISTRIBUTION. It occurs in the extreme south-east of Turkmenistan,
in southern Uzbekistan and in the south-west of Tajkistan up to
Kurgan-Tyube and Pyandzh river in the north-east of Iran and in
the north of Afghanistan.
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species is included into the Red Data
Book of Turkmenistan (1999): category 2 – species, the habitats
and number of which are sharply reducing, and into the Red Data
Book of Uzbekistan (2003) – vulnerable, reducing, mosaically
distributed species (2/VU:D).
TERRA TYPICA. Settlement Tengizbai, Altai Range.
DISTRIBUTION. It occurs in the mountains of Tien Shan system and
northern Pamir-Altai within the limits of Kyrgyzstan, Ferganskaya
valley in Uzbekistan and northern Tajikistan. The record of this
species in the extreme south-east of Kazakhstan (Terskei-Alatau)
needs to be confirmed more precisely.
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species does not require special conservation
TERRA TYPICA. Isfahan city, central Iran.
DISTRIBUTION. It occurs in the south of Turkmenistan where two
isolated populations are known – in the valley of the river Kushka
and the depression Er-Oilan-Duz in the Badkhyz Nature Reserve.
The main distribution is situated within Iran, in the central and eastern
parts of the Iran Plateau. CONSERVATION STATUS. A common species on the territory of
Turkmenistan. Species with a stable number lives on the protected
territory of the Badkhyz Nature Reserve.
TERRA TYPICA. Town Nakhichevan, Azerbaijan.
DISTRIBUTION. It occurs in the left-bank valley of the river Aras in
Armenia and in Nakhichevan, Azerbaijan, i.e. approximately from
the town Echmiadzin in the west up to the southern foothills of the
Megrinsky range. Outside of the eastern Transcaucasia it occurs in
the extreme east of Turkey and in the north-western Iran.
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species does not require special conservation
TERRA TYPICA. Alashan desert.
DISTRIBUTION. It is distributed mainly in the north China (Inner
Mongolia, Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region) and in Mongolia,
from where it penetrates into the territory of the neighbouring Tuva.
In North Eurasia the species is widely distributed in the western
and southern Mongolia (Ubsunur, Kobdo, Dzabkhan, Gobi-Altai,
Bayan-Khongor, Uwer-Khangai, South-Gobi, East-Gobi, Middle-
Gobi aimaks) and in Tuva [in Russia]. In the flood-plain of the river
Nariin-Gol lives the subspecies E. p. tuvensis Szczerbak, 1970.
CONSERVATION STATUS. E. p. tuvensis is included into the Red Data
book of the Russian Federation (2001): category 3 – rare species
within the limits of Russia known on the northern periphery of the
TERRA TYPICA. Town Shirabad, Surkhandar’inskaya region,
DISTRIBUTION. It occurs in the extreme south-east of Turkmenistan,
south of Uzbekistan and in the south-western Tajikistan. Outside
of Middle Asia the Tajik Racerunner is known from northern
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species is included into the Red Data
Book of Turkmenistan (1999) as a rare species – category 3.
TERRA TYPICA. Region between the Aral and Caspian Seas.
DISTRIBUTION. The species is distributed in sandy deserts
of Middle Asia, Kazakhstan, eastern Iran, adjacent regions of
Afghanistan and northern Belujistan (Pakistan). In North Eurasia it
occurs in Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, western Tajikistan and southern
Kazakhstan. The northern border of the distribution range
runs in Kazakhstan, from north-western coasts of the Caspian Sea
along the northern area adjacent to the Aral Sea and southern
area adjacent to the Balkhash Lake up to the basin of Alakul Lake
in the east.
Three subspecies are described, which differ mainly by
the color pattern of the dorsal surface of the body. E. s. scripta
Strauch, 1867 occupies the most part of the distribution range
in Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. E. s. lasdini Tzarevsky, 1918 lives in the south-east of Uzbekistan and south-western Tajikistan.
E. s. pherganensis Szczerbak et Washetko, 1973 is known from
Ferganskaya valley, mainly in the northern Tadzhikistan.
CONSERVATION STATUS. Fergana Sand racerunner E. s. pherganensis
is included into the Red Data Book of Uzbekistan (2003):
category 1, EN – endangered, locally distributed endemic subspecies,
and of Tajikistan (1997) – the category an endangered
TERRA TYPICA. Town Echmiadzin, Armenia.
DISTRIBUTION. In North Eurasia the species is distributed in the
eastern Transcaucasia: the valley of the middle current of Aras river,
from the south-eastern foothills of the Karabakh range and the
valley of Bargushat in the south-east up to the southern spurs of
the mountain Aragaz and Oktemberyanskaya steppe in the west,
in the Karabakh desert and on the plateau Zuvand, as well as in
the south-western Turkmenistan (southern slopes of the mountain
ranges Kyupendag, Karagez and Kopet Dagh). Eremias strauchi
occurs in eastern Turkey and in the north-west and north-east of
Iran, in Iranian Azerbaijan.
The species is differentiated into two subspecies. The nominative
subspecies is distributed in the eastern Transcaucasia, as well
as in the eastern Turkey and Azerbaijani provinces of north-western
Iran. The second subspecies, E. s. kopetdaghica Szczerbak
1972 is distributed in Kopet Dagh, northern Khorasan and eastern
Mazanderan (Turkmenistan and Iran).
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species does not require special protection
TERRA TYPICA. Kyrgyzstan, region of the Lake Issyk Kul, vicinity of
the town Przhevalsk.
DISTRIBUTION. This form of the complex “Eremias multiocellata”
is distributed in the basin of the Lake Issyk Kul.
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species does not require special protection
TERRA TYPICA. Kyrgyzstan, valley of Arpa River.
DISTRIBUTION. This form of the complex “Eremias multiocellata” is
distributed in the basin of the river Naryn in Kyrgyzstan, the valley
of the rivers At-Bashi and Arpa. Foothills of Moldo-Too, Baibishe-
Too, Yaman-Too, At-Bashi and Naryn-Too.
CONSERVATION STATUS. Not determined.
the Ural River).
DISTRIBUTION. Rapid racerunner is a widely distributed species,
occurring from the eastern part of the North Caucasus and lower
region of the Volga River to northern Iran, Afghanistan and eastwards
up to north-western China (Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous
Region., Inner Mongolia and Hansu Province). In North Eurasia
the distribution range of the species stretches into the eastern
Ciscaucasia, lower region of Volga River, eastern Transcaucasia in
the lowland Georgia and Azerbaijan, Middle Asia and Kazakhstan.
Several subspecies are described, of which three subspecies occur within the limits of the countries of North Eurasia. E. v. caucasica
Lantz, 1828 inhabits eastern Ciscaucasia and Transcaucasia.
The most part of the distribution range is occupied by the nominative
subspecies E. v. velox, and in the Issyk Kul hollow occurs the
subspecies E. v. borkini Eremchenko et Panfilov, 1999, described
from the Tien Shan mountains, in Kyrgyzstan (southern shore of
the Lake Issyk Kul, from the region between the rivers Ak-Terek
and Ak Sai).
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species does not require special protection
TERRA TYPICA. Eastern Turkestan, Yarkend, Kashgaria, China
(Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region).
DISTRIBUTION. The main distribution range of the species is
situated in north-western China (Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous
Region, Inner Mongolia) and in Mongolia (Gobi-Altai, Bayan-
Khongor, South-Gobi aimaks). An isolated population lives in the
Zaissan hollow in the south-east of Kazakhstan.
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species is included into the Red Data
Book of Kazakhstan (1996): category 4 – not investigated species
with a limited distribution range.
TERRA TYPICA. Town Yarkend, Kashgaria, China (Xinjiang-Uyghur
DISTRIBUTION. The distribution range of this species is marked by
the Tarim basin which includes the southern slopes of Tien Shan,
piedmont plains and foothills of Kunlun and eastern Pamir (excluding
sands Takla-Makan) in China and eastern Alai in Kirghizia. Earlier
this form was considered as a subspecies of multiocellated racerunner
E. multiocellata Gunther, 1872.
CONSERVATION STATUS. Not determined.
Ananjeva, N.B. & Tsellarius, A.Yu. (1986) -
Anatolievna, A.G. & Vitalievich, V.E. (2012) -
Анатольевна, А.Г. & Витальевич, В.Е. (2012) -
Anderson, J. (1872) -
Anderson, S.C (1999) -
Anderson, S.C. (1968) -
Anderson, S.C. (1999) -
Acanthodactylus blanfordi, Acanthodactylus boskianus, Acanthodactylus grandis, Acanthodactylus micropholis, Acanthodactylus nilsoni, Acanthodactylus opheodurus, Acanthodactylus schmidti, Eremias acutirostris, Eremias andersoni, Eremias arguta, Eremias fasciata, Eremias grammica, Eremias intermedia, Eremias lalezharica, Eremias lineolata, Eremias nigrocellata, Eremias nigrolateralis, Eremias persica, Eremias pleskei, Eremias scripta, Eremias strauchi strauchi, Eremias strauchi kopetdaghica, Eremias velox velox, Lacerta brandtii, Lacerta cappadocica urmiana, Lacerta chlorogaster, Lacerta defilippii, Lacerta media media, Lacerta mostoufi, Lacerta praticola praticola, Lacerta princeps princeps, Lacerta princeps kurdistanica. Lacerta raddei raddei, Lacerta raddei vanensis, Lacerta steineri, Lacerta strigata, Lacerta valentini valentini, Lacerta zagrosica, Mesalina brevirostris brevirostris, Mesalina brevirostris fieldi, Mesalina watsonana, Ophisops elegans.
Anderson, S.C. & Leviton, A.E. (1967) -
Anderson, S.C. & Leviton, A.E. (1969) -
The collection of amphibians and reptiles made by the Street Expedition to Afghanistan 1965 consists of 247 specimens, including six species of amphibians and 38 species of reptiles. Definite Afghan localities are recorded for the first time for the following species: Agama agrorensis, Agama erythrogaster, Agama himalayana, Agama lehmanni, Agama nuristanica (new species herein described), Agama abdakhshana (new species herein described), Cyrtodactylus watsoni, Hemidactylus flaviviridis, Eremias nigrocellata, Eryx elegans (type was recorded as coming from Afghanistan, but n precise locality was given, An analysis of the zoogeographic significance of this and other collections from Afghanistan is contemplated for the future.
Acanthodactylus cantoris, Eremias guttulata watsonana, Eremias nigrocellata, Eremias velox persica.
Andersson, L.G. (1935) -
Acanthodactylus boskianus, Eremias rubropunctata, Latastia spinalis.
Annaev, D. (1973) -
Arakelyan, M. (2009) -
Arakelyan, M. (2012) -
Arakelyan, M. & Danielyan, F. & Corti, C. & Sindaco, R. & Leviton, A. (2011) -
Arakelyan, M. & Danielyan, F. & Serobyan, V. (2005) -
Skeletochronological study of Eremias strauchi (n =18) has shown equable pattern of growth. The lizards under study reach sexual maturity after the 1st or 2nd year of life and have two clutches. Maximum age for the studied sample was 4–5 years.
Аракелян, М. & Даниелян, Ф. & Серобян, В. (2005) -
Arakelyan, M.S. (2012) -
The unique isolated population of racerunner Eremias arguta transcaucasica in Armenia is under strong human pressure and seeks urgent conservation measures. The population has a limited area (approximately 9 hectares) on the shore of Lake Sevan, in vicinity of a settlement. Հայաստանում բազմագույն մողեսիկի միակ և մեկուսացված պոպուլյացիան գտնվում է մարդածին գործոնի ուժեղ ազդեցության ներքո, և անհրաժեշտ են անհապաղ միջոցառումներ նրա պահպանության համար: Պոպուլյացիան գտնվում է Սևանա լճի ափին, բնակելի տարածքից ոչ շատ հեռու և գրավում է 9 հա տարածք:
Единственно известная изолированная популяция разноцветной ящурки в Армении находится под сильным антропогенным прессом и требует срочных мер по ее охране. Популяция занимает ограниченную площадь (около 9 гектаров) на берегу озера Севан недалеко от населенного пункта.
Arnold, E.N. (1987) -
Twenty-four species of lacertid lizards were examined at 31 sites in western Yogoslavia, Greece and Iberia. Comparative observations were made on over 4500 individual lizards, noting such features as times of activitiy, hunting methods, diet, micro- and macrohabitat, refuges used and body temperature. These data are used as a basis for assessing resource partition in related sympatric species, for find out whether different systematic groups have characteristic types of niche, and for comparing cumminity structures in the peninsulas of southern Europa.
Acanthodactylus erythrurus, Algyroides marchi, Algyroides moreoticus, Algyroides nigropunctatus, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta graeca, Lacerta horvathi, Lacerta lepida, Lacerta monticola, Lacerta oxycephala, Lacerta mosorensis, Lacerta schreiberi, Lacerta trilineata, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta vivipara, Podarcis bocagei, Podarcis erhardii, Podarcis hispanica, Podarcis melisellensis, Podarcis milensis, Podarcis muralis, Podarcis peloponnesiaca, Podarcis sicula, Podarcis taurica, Psammodromus algirus, Psammodromus hispanicus.
Arnold, E.N. (2002) -
Differences in surface structure (ober- hautchen) of body scales of lacertid lizards involve cell size, shape and surface profile, presence or absence of fine pitting, form of cell margins, and the occurrence of longitudinal ridges and pustular projections. Phylogenetic information indicates that the primitive pattern involved narrow strap-shaped cells, with low posteriorly overlapping edges and relatively smooth surfaces. Deviations from this condition produce a more sculptured surface and have developed many times, although subsequent overt reversals are uncommon. Like variations in scale shape, different patterns of dorsal body microornamentation appear to confer different and conflicting performance advantages. The primitive pattern may reduce friction during locomotion and also enhances dirt shedding, especially in ground-dwelling forms from moist habitats. However, this smooth microornamentation generates shine that may compromise cryptic coloration, especially when scales are large. Many derived features show correlation with such large scales and appear to suppress shine. They occur most frequently in forms from dry habitats or forms that climb in vegetation away from the ground, situations where dirt adhesion is less of a problem. Microornamentation differences involving other parts of the body and other squamate groups tend to corroborate this functional interpretation. Microornamentation features can develop on lineages in different orders and appear to act additively in reducing shine. In some cases different combinations may be optimal solutions in particular environments, but lineage effects, such as limited reversibility and different developmental proclivities, may also be important in their genesis. The fine pits often found on cell surfaces are unconnected with shine reduction, as they are smaller than the wavelengths of most visible light.
Arribas, O.J. (2012) -
In this paper we deal on the ultraviolet color (invisible to us): where we can find it, the capability of animals to see it and the advantages that this color perception offers to them. As the simplest way to detect it is the photography, we describe and review how to photograph the UV, as a result of 15 years of amateur experience, searching
and testing nearly in complete blindness due to the lack of practical information about “how to do it”. We describe the different kinds of photography (chemical and digital); the cameras and objectives suitable (both astronomically expensive ones and cheap options); what are the best characteristics that the objectives should have for this purpose; the films suitable for their use in chemical photography; the different filters (current or discontinued) manufactured along the years; and the subtle combinations among the different materials to obtain pure UV photographs. This
kind of scientific photography is mainly used in forensics, forgery detection, art dermatology and less in Natural History, despite the fact that a great part of animals see this color and use it in important questions of their biology as the social behavior, mate choice or the food search.
Auliya, M. (2003) -
Autumn, K. & Wang, Y.-Z. (1995) -
Bader, T. & Kopeczky, R. & Riegler, C. & Wieland, F. (2016) -
In Armenien kommen drei Arten der Gattung Lacerta (L. agilis, L. media, L. strigata), drei Arten der Gattung Eremias (E. arguta, E. pleskei, E. strauchi) sowie jeweils eine Art der Gattung Parvilacerta (P. parva) und Ophisops (O. elegans) vor. Neben Kurzbeschreibungen der einzelnen Arten wird auf Beobachtungen der Eidechsen im Gelände während einer Reise im Jahr 2015 eingegangen.
Baeckens, S. & Edwards, S. & Huyghe, K. & Van Damme, R. (2015) -
Animals communicate via a variety of sensory channels and signals. Studies on acoustic and visual communication systems suggest that differences in the physical environment contribute to the variety of signalling behaviour, with species investing in those signals that are transmitted best under the local conditions. Whether or not environmental tuning also occurs in chemical communication systems has received much less attention. In the present study, we examined the effect of several aspects of the physical environment on the chemical communication system of lacertid lizards (family Lacertidae). The numbers of femoral pores are used as a proxy reflecting how much a particular species invests in and relies upon chemical signalling. Femoral pores are specialized epidermal structures that function as a secretion channel for the waxy substance produced by glands. In some lacertid species, the secretion carries infochemicals that play an important role in social communication. The number of femoral pores varies considerably among species. We have compiled data on femoral pore numbers for 162 species and tested for the effects of climate and substrate use. After correcting for body size and taking the phylogenetic relationships among the species into account, we found no effect of climate conditions or latitude on species pore numbers. Substrate use did affect pore numbers: shrub-climbing species tended to have fewer femoral pores than species inhabiting other substrates.
Bafti, S.S. & Anderson, S. & Sharifi, M. & Papenfuss, T. (2009) -
Bahmani, Z. & Rastegar-Pouyani, N. & Gharzi, A. (2011) -
During field work in western regions of the Iranian Plateau in the Zagros Mountains, a single specimen belonging to the genus and subgenus Eremias Fitzinger, 1834 was collected from the highlands of Badr and Parishan (at about 2466 m elevation) in south of the city of Qorveh, Kurdistan Province, western Iran (47°, 47’ E; 35°, 04’ N) in July 2010. This is the first record of occurrence of Eremias (Eremias) montanus from Kurdistan Province.
Bahmani, Z. & Rastegar-Pouyani, N. & Rastegar-Pouyani, E. & Gharrzi, A. (2014) -
During field work in western regions of the Iranian Plateau in the Zagros Mountains in September 2010, a single specimen belonging to the genus and subgenus Eremias Fitzinger, 1834 was collected from the protected area of Bijar (at about 1619 m elevation) in north of the city of Bijar, Kurdistan Province, western Iran (47°, 34’ E; 36°, 00’ N).
Baig, K.J. & Masroor, R. (2006) -
A new species of Eremias has been described from the Cholistan Desert of Pakistan. It constitutes the first record of the genus Eremias from the Oriental (Indian) region. The species has been named Eremias cholistanica, after the Cholistan Desert of Pakistan. This striped desert lacerta is not only different from all its congeners in several morphological characteristics but has been collected from an area distant from the previous known range of Eremias.
Baig, K.J. & Masroor, R. & Arshad, M. (2008) -
Present studies are aimed to document the herpetofauna of Cholistan Desert and study its ecology. During the last three years from 2001 to 2003, attempts have been made to collect and observe the amphibians and reptiles in different parts of Cholistan Desert. More than four thousand specimens belonging to 44 species have so far been collected/observed from the study area. Among different collecting techniques adopted for these studies, “Pit-fall” traps and “Hand Picking” showed best results. The voucher specimens have been catalogued and are presently lying with Pakistan Museum of Natural History, Islamabad.
Bakiev, A.G. & Velmosky, P.V. & Gorrlov, R.A. & Kalmykova, O.G. & Khramova, M.A. (2016) -
The report describes the occurrence (observation) of the Steppe Runner Eremias arguta (Pallas, 1773) that took place in the summer of 2016 in Derzhavin Forestry of Buzuzluk Pine Forest National Park (Buzuluk District of Orenburg Region).
Bannikov, A.G. (1971) -
Eremias guttulata, Eremias velox, Eremias strauchi, Eremias persica, Eremias regeli, Eremias multiocellata, Eremias nikolskii, Eremias pleskei, Eremias lineolata, Eremias scripta, Eremias intermedia, Eremias nigrocellata, Eremias arguta, Eremias argus, Eremias brenchleyi, Eremias przewalskii, Eremias grammica, Lacerta strigata, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta trilineata, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta parva, Lacerta vivipara, Lacerta taurica, Lacerta brandtii, Lacerta derjugini, Lacerta praticola, Lacerta chlorogaster, Lacerta saxicola, Lacerta caucasica, Lacerta rudis, Ophisops elegans, Takydromus amurensis, Takydromus wolteri.
Bannikov, A.G. (2018) -
Bannikov, A.G. & Darevsky, I.S. & Ishchenko, V.G. & Rustamov, A.K. & Szczerbak, N.N. (1977) -
Barabanov, A.V. (2009) -
Some nomenclature problems of the Eremias (Sauria, Lacertidae) genus are discussed. Aspidorhinus Eichwald, 1841 is shown to be a senior synonym of Dimorphea Eremchenko, 1999 and so should be a valid subgeneric name for the Eremias velox species group. A list of the subgenus’ species is given.
Барабанов А.В. (2009) -
Обсуждаются некоторые номенклатурные проблемы рода Eremias. Показано, что Dimorphea Eremchenko, 1999 - младший синоним Aspidorhinus Eichwald, 1841, поэтому именно последнее название следует использовать в качестве валидного подродового для группы видов Eremias velox. Приведен список видов, входящих в данный подрод.
Baran, I. & Atatür, M.K. (1998) -
Baran, I., Kumlutaş, Y., Tok, C.V., Ilgaz, C., Kaska, Y., Olgun, K., Türkozan, O. & F. Iret (2004) -
Die Autotren berichten über zwei Aufsammlungen von Amphibien und Reptilien aus dem Gebiet der ostanatolischen Städte Erzurum, Iğdir, Kars und Ardahan. Das Material umfaßt drei Anurentaxa, eine Schildkrötenform, 11 Eidechsen- und 11 Schlangenarten in 172 Exemplaren.
Bufo viridis, Rana ridibunda complex, Rana camerani, Testudo graeca armeniaca, Phrynocephalus persicus, Eremias pleskei, Eremias strauchi, Lacerta agilis brevicaudata, Parvilacerta parva, Darevskia parvula, Darevskia raddei, Darevskia valentini valentini, Darevskia uzzelli, Lacerta trilineata, Ophisops elegans, Typhlops vermicularis, Eryx jaculus turcicus, Haemorrhois ravergieri, Hierophis schmidti, Platyceps najadum, eirenis modestus, Eirenis punctatolineatus, Coronella austriaca, natrix natrix persa, Natrix tessellata, Vipera wagneri.
Barashkina, J.V. (1987) -
Barashkina, J.V. & Kaplin, V.G. (1987) -
Basoglu, M. (1968) -
Başoğlu, M. & Hellmich, W. (1959) -
Başoğlu, M. & Hellmich, W. (1968) -
Bauer, A.M. & Günther, R. (1995) -
A complete catalogue is provided for the type specimens of lacertid lizards in the herpetological collection of the Zoological Museum, Berlin, as of December, 1993. The collection contains a total of 514 type specimens, representing 63 taxa, of which 42 are currently regarded as valid at the specific or subspecific level. Types representing an additional four taxa appear to have been lost from the collection. The collections are especially rich in African lacertid types and in historically significant specimens collected early in the Nineteenth Century by Pallas, Eversmann, and Hemprich & Ehrenberg. Also present are the type series of many subspecies of Podarcis lilfordi and P. pityusensis described by Eisentraut.
Bauer, A.M. & Günther, R. & Klipfel, M. (1995) -
A collection of 174 titles, world-wide in scope, and including Peters book, Reise nach Mossambique. Biography and annotated bibliography, and synopsis of species by Aaron M. Bauer, Rainer Günther, and Meghan Klipfel. 714 pages, 114 plates, 9 photographs, maps, index.
Bedriaga, J. von (1905) -
Bedriaga, J. von (1906) -
Bedriaga, J. von (1907) -
Bedriaga, J. von (1912) -
Belik, V. (2011) -
Belik, V.P. (2014) -
Research of the herpethofauna of the Lower Volga area began by academic expeditions of the 18 century.
As a result of these researches, many new species of amphibians and reptiles were described. Some of
these species descriptions are recognized as the priority ones. The earliest data on amphibians and reptiles
in the territory of the current Volgograd region were collected at the beginning of the 19 century (Kondratyev,
1885). Important data on the Sarepta amphibians and reptiles were also published by A. Becker
(1855). Later, a new viper species was described on the basis of the Sarepta materials (Christoph, 1861).
At the beginning of the 20 century, materials on amphibians and reptiles were collected by V. Kiziritsky
in the territory of the Tsaritsyn (currently Volgograd) region (1913). The results of these works are reflected
in A. M. Nikolsky`s reports (1915, 1916, and 1918). A next stage of research began in the middle
of the 20 century by works of the Stalingrad zoologists (N. A. Kosareva, B. S. Kubantsev, T. I. Zhukova,
N. N. Kolyakin, etc.). Later, zoologists from Moscow and other Russian cities conducted their research
there as well. The results of all these studies on inventory of the herpethofauna of the Volgograd region
are summarized in Professor B.S. Kubantsev’s works (1996, 2003, etc.). Now, local zoologists continue
studying the amphibian and reptile fauna of the Volgograd region. A significant contribution to our
knowledge on distribution, number and ecology of reptiles was brought by Saratov researchers. But the
herpethofauna inside a considerable territory of the Lower Volga area is still poorly studied.
Key words: amphibians, reptiles, fauna, study, history, Volgograd region, Russia.
Белик В.П. (2014) -
Изучение герпетофауны Нижнего Поволжья началось в академических экспедициях ХVIII в. В результате этих исследований было описано много новых видов амфибий и рептилий, часть из которых признана сейчас как валидными. Первые сведения о земноводных и пресмыкающихся на территории нынешней Волгоградской области были собраны в начале ХIХ в. (Кондратьев, 1885). Важные сведения о герпетофауне Сарепты опубликовал также A. Becker (1855). Позже по материалам из Сарепты был описан новый вид гадюки (Christoph, 1861). В начале ХХ в. на территории Волгоградской области герпетологические материалы собирал В. Кизирицкий (1913). Результаты этих работ содержатся в сводках А. М. Никольского (1915, 1916, 1918). Следующий этап исследований начался в середине ХХ в. работами сталинградских зоологов (Н. А. Косарева, Б. С. Кубанцев, Т. И. Жукова, Н. Н. Колякин и др.). Позже здесь проводили исследования также зоологи из Москвы и других городов России. Итоги всех этих работ по инвентаризации герпетофауны Волгоградской области подведены в ряде статей Б. С. Кубанцева (1996, 2003 и др.). Сейчас герпетофауну Волгоградской области продолжают изучать местные зоологи. Большой вклад в познание распространения, численности и экологии рептилий внесли также саратовские исследователи. Но герпетофауна значительной территории Нижнего Поволжья по-прежнему остается еще слабо изученной.
Bergmann, P.J. & Pettionelli, K.J. & Crockett, M.E. & Schaper, E.G. (2017) -
Animals must cope with and be able to move effectively on a variety of substrates. Substrates composed of granular media, such as sand and gravel, are extremely common in nature, and vary tremendously in particle size and shape. Despite many studies of the properties of granular media and comparisons of locomotion between granular and solid substrates, the effects of systematically manipulating these media on locomotion is poorly understood. We studied granular media ranging over four orders of magnitude in particle size, and differing in the amount of particle shape variation, to determine how these factors affected substrate physical properties and sprinting in the generalist lizard Eremias arguta. We found that media with intermediate particle sizes had high bulk densities, low angles of stability and low load-bearing capacities. Rock substrates with high shape variation had higher values for all three properties than glass bead substrates with low shape variation. We found that E. arguta had the highest maximum velocities and accelerations on intermediate size particles, and higher velocities on rock than glass beads. Lizards had higher stride frequencies and lower duty factors on intermediate particle size substrates, but their stride lengths did not change with substrate. Our findings suggest that sand and gravel may represent different locomotor challenges for animals. Sand substrates provide animals with an even surface for running, but particles shift underfoot. In contrast, gravel particles are heavy, so move far less underfoot, yet provide the animal with an uneven substrate.
Bi, J. & Wang, W. & Li, S. & Zeng, Z. (2015) -
Locomotor performance in lizards is strongly affected by structural habitat. Understanding this relationship allows us to predict species distributions across habitat types. However, little information is available about the ecological role of the locomotion of multiocellated racerunner (Eremias multiocellata) in the desert steppe ecosystem of Inner Mongolia, China. Herein, we studied the effects of habitat structure on the locomotor performance of this lizard species in the field. We found that the sprint speed of this lizard declined significantly with increasing vegetation coverage. Manipulative experiments were further conducted to examine the effects of branch barriers and surface substrates on the sprint speed of the lizard. We found that the sprint speed was significantly influenced by the surface substrates and branch barriers, and there were no interactions between them. Branch barriers impeded sprint speed, and E. multiocellata showed better locomotor performance on sandy rather than loamy substrates. Our results indicate that E. multiocellata tends to occupy open areas with sandy substrates, but its locomotor performance is not closely associated with habitat preference.
Bird, C.G. (1936) -
Bischoff, W. (1978) -
Abschluß einer in den letzten Jahren publizierten Serie über die Echsen des Kaukasus.
Der Aufsatz berichtet über Freileben, Fang und Haltung einiger Echsen des sowjeti- schen Transkaukasien. Dabei werden zum einen die Agamide Phrynocephalus helioscopus persicus, zum anderen drei in diesem Gebiet vorkommende Arten des lacertiden Genus Eremias, und zwar strau,chi, velox und pleskei, behandelt. Abschließend wird eine Liste aller heute aus diesem Gebiet bekannten Echsenarten und -unterarten gegeben.
Bischoff, W. (1991) -
Bischoff, W. (2003) -
Allgemeine Bemerkungen über Georgien als Naturraum und zu seiner Herpetofauna, mit Diskussion zur Besiedlungsgeschichte, Kurzvorstellung und Hinweise zu Verbreitung und Lebensräumen von Eremias arguta transcaucasica, E. velox caucasica, Ophisops elegans elegans, Lacerta agilis brevicaudata, L. agilis ioriensis, L. agilis grusinica, L. media media und L. strigata.
Bischoff, W. (2011) -
Bischoff, W. (2013) -
Bischoff, W. & Böhme, W. (1980) -
Biserkov, V. & Naumov, B. & Tsankov, N. & Stoyanov, A. & Petrov, B. &Dobrev, D. & Stoev , P. (2007) -
The current book provides a synthesis of the information concern-
ing field identification of all the species and subspecies of Amphibia
and Reptilia hitherto registered in Bulgaria. It comprises 61 species
and 23 subspecies, among which 5 species (Pelophylax lessonae, P.
kurtmuelleri, Hemidactylus turcicus, Eremias arguta, Montivipera
xanthina) that have not been found yet on the territory of the
country, but which are known from sites in proximity to Bulgar-
ian frontiers. The frogs and toads are represented with 14 spe-
cies, newts and salamanders with 6 species, turtles and tortoises
with 7 species (Trachemys scripta introduced; Caretta caretta and
Chelonia mydas considered extinct), and snakes with 19 species
(Vipera aspis and V. ursinii considered extinct). The structure of
each species’ description includes the following headings: Name,
Diagnosis, General Distribution, Distribution in Bulgaria, Habitats,
and Biology. Besides in Bulgarian and Latin, all species are sup-
plemented with their English, French, German and Russian names.
All synonyms in the main herpetological literature are listed after
the currently accepted Latin name. Original keys for identification
of the families, genera and species, based entirely on morphologi-
cal characters of adult specimens, as well as on the structure of
amphibians’ eggs and larvae, are elaborated to facilitate the users.
A photo gallery, comprising original colour photos shot in nature,
and numerous line drawings of different key characters are made
for better distinction between the species. For purely conservation-
al reasons, the distribution maps not only indicate the scientifically
confirmed species distribution in the country, but also show the
areas with suitable habitats where a given species is likely to oc-
cur. The degree of suitability is indicated with a different degree
of shading: optimal (black); suboptimal (80% gray); suitable (60%
gray); less suitable (20% gray); white means unsuitable. The guide
is also introducing the readers to some general aspects of the tax-
onomy, systematics, morphology, biology and ecology of herpeto-
fauna. Special chapters are devoted to the methods of observation
and capture of amphibians and reptiles, first aid after a snake’s
bite, and the relationship between herpetofauna – humans. The
status of each species according to main biodiversity conservation
acts and conventions is given in Table 1. Being the first publication
of its kind, the book is intended for professional herpetologists,
students or nature lovers.
Blanford, W.T. (1874) -
Blanford, W.T. (1875) -
Blanford, W.T. (1876) -
Blanford, W.T. (1878) -
Bobrov, V.V. (1986) -
Bobrov, V.V. (2018) -
Bodenheimer, F.S. (1944) -
Boettger, O. (1885) -
Boettger, O. (1888) -
Boettger, O. (1893) -
Böhme, W. (2010) -
In the herpetological collection of ZFMK 528 scientific species group names are represented by type materi- al. Of these, 304 names are documented by primary type specimens (onomatophores) while for 224 further names sec- ondary type specimens (typoids) are available, ranging chronologically from 1801 to 2010. The list is a shortened pred- ecessor of a comprehensive type catalogue in progress. It lists name bearing types with their catalogue numbers includ- ing information on further type series members also in other institutions, while secondary types are listed only by pres- ence, both in ZFMK and other collections including holotype repositories. Geographic origin and currently valid names are also provided.
Böhme, W. & Szczerbak, N. N. (1991) -
Eine neue Art der paläarktischen Lacertidengattung Eremias wird aus den afghanischen Hochflächen südöstlich der Hindukusch-Hauptkette beschrieben: E. (Eremias) afghanistanica sp. n. Sie unterscheidet sich von allen anderen Arten des typischen Subgenus (E. strauchi, regli, persica, velox, nikolskii und suphani) durch hohe Ventralia-Werte und den relativ kürzeren Schwanz (Kopf-Rumpflänge/Schwanzlänge 0,7 – 0,8). Darüber hinaus ist sie durch Merkmalskombinationen gegenüber jeder einzelnen der anderen Arten separat diagnostizierbar.
Eine neue Art der paläarktischen Lacertidengattung Eremias wird aus den afghanischen Hochflächen südöstlich der Hindukusch-Hauptkette beschrieben: Eremias) afghanistanica sp. n. Sie unterscheidet sich von allen anderen Arten des typischen Subgenus (E. strauchi, regli, persica, velox, nikolskii und suphani) durch hohe Ventralia-Werte und den relativ kürzeren Schwanz (Kopf-Rumpflänge/Schwanzlänge 0,7 – 0,8). Darüber hinaus ist sie durch Merkmalskombinationen gegenüber jeder einzelnen der anderen Arten separat diagnostizierbar.
Bonaparte, C.L. (1839) -
Bondarenko, D.A. & Peregontsev, E.A. (2018) -
Terrestrial route counts of reptiles in 24 localities of the plateau Ustyurt were carried out in 2007 – 2008.
474 individuals of 15 species were found along a total of 243.5 km passed. Based on the results of our
survey, the reptile population structure has been clarified in 12 landscapes. The low specific diversity and
population density of reptiles were observed everywhere. 2 to 8 species with a population density of 1.9 –
8.4 individuals per ha were found in certain landscapes. In terms of abundance, the reptiles belonged to
rare or common species. The steppe agama Trapelus sanguinolentus and the Central Asian tortoise
Agrionemys horsfieldii were the most abundant. Four racerunner species (Eremias) had a pronounced
confinement to various types of substrate, which allowed them to occupy the dominant position in the
landscapes by numbers. Four main landscape complexes of reptile communities were identified, which
changed zonally in the latitudinal direction. The attitude of the reptiles to their environmental conditions
is discussed. The plasticity of the Eremias species to substrates is estimated, and to distinguish its types is
Бондаренко Д. А. & Перегонцев Е. А. (2018) -
2007 – 2008 гг. проведены маршрутные учеты пресмыкающихся в 24 пунктах плато Устюрт. Всего пройдено
243.5 км, на которых встречено 474 особи 15 видов.По результатам учета выяснена структура населения пресмы-
кающихся в 12 ландшафтах. Повсеместно наблюдалось низкое видовое разнообразие и плотность населения
пресмыкающихся.Вотдельных ландшафтах отмечено от 2 до 8 видов при плотности населения 1.9 – 8.4 особ./га.
По уровню обилия пресмыкающиеся относились к редким или обычным видам. Наиболее распространенными
из них оказались степная агама и среднеазиатская черепаха . 4 вида
ящурок ( ) имели выраженную приуроченность к различным типам субстрата, позволявшую занимать в
ландшафтах доминирующее положение по численности. Выделено 4 основных ландшафтных комплекса сооб-
ществ населения пресмыкающихся, которые сменяются зонально в широтном направлении. Обсуждается отно-
шение пресмыкающихся к условиям среды. Оценивается пластичность видов к субстратам с предложе-
нием различать ее типы.
Borkin, L.J. (1986) -
Borkin, L.J. & Litvinchuk, S.N. & Rosano, Y.M. (1997) -
The hybrid Rana esculenta (diploid) is first recorded for Moldavia. Bombina variegata was previously
confused with B. bombina, as well as Rana dalmatina was confused with the long-legged R. arvalis. The
first confirmed locality of Lacerta vivipara is given. The occurrence of Eremias arguta in Moldavia is
mentioned. The check-list of 12 species of amphibians and 15 species of reptiles of Moldavia is published.
Borkin, L.Ya. & Darevsky, I.S. (1987) -
Боркин Л.Я. & Даревский И.С. (1987) -
Bosch, H.A.J. in den (2003) -
The physical geography of Iraq is summarised. Using data from the relevant literature and current information from the Internet, a very provisional checklist of Iraqi amphibians and reptiles is presented. Ten amphibian species are reported for Iraq, and exactly 100 reptile species.
Bosch, H.A.J. in den & Bischoff, W. (2004) -
Many regions of the former USSR still re- ceive little attention from Western visitors, herpetologists not excluded. For the Cau- casus Mountains this is all the more sur- prising since the area forms a zone where northern and Middle Eastern flora and fauna meet, and which is thus of considera- bly zoogeographical interest.
Presently we find three larger states in the Caucasus: Georgia, Azerbaijan and Arme- nia. Turkey borders to the southwest, Iran to the southeast, and in the north it is the Russian federation. Various smaller parts claim independence. The Black Sea forms the natural western boundary, the Caspian Sea the eastern one.
Herpetologically the Caucasus is historically well-known because of the work of Darev- sky and collaborators on the rock lizards (at the time still in the large genus Lacerta, now in Darevskia) and the discovery of the first case of parthenogenesis in vertebrates (DAREVSKY, 1967; DAREVSKII, 1978; DAREVSKY & KULIKOVA, 1961).
Below we will concentrate on the results of our field trip to Georgia during the last two weeks of June 2003. Predictably, because of our common interest in the group, the lacertids will receive the most attention.
Boulenger, G.A. (1887) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1890) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1913) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1918) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1920) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1921) -
Bozhansky, A.T. (2005) -
Brown, R.P. (2005) -
A phylogenetic-comparative approach was used to assess and refine existing secondary structure models for a frequently studied region of the mitochondrial encoded large subunit (16S) rRNA in two large lizard lineages within the Scincomorpha, namely the Scincidae and the Lacertidae. Potential pairings and mutual information were analyzed to identify site interactions present within each lineage and provide consensus secondary structures. Many of the interactions proposed by previous models were supported, but several refinements were possible. The consensus structures allowed a detailed analysis of rRNA sequence evolution. Phylogenetic trees were inferred from Bayesian analyses of all sites, and the topologies used for maximum likelihood estimation of sequence evolution parameters. Assigning gamma-distributed relative rate categories to all interacting sites that were homologous between lineages revealed substantial differences between helices. In both lineages, sites within helix G2 were mostly conserved, while those within helix E18 evolved rapidly. Clear evidence of substantial site-specific rate variation (covarion-like evolution) was also detected, although this was not strongly associated with specific helices. This study, in conjunction with comparable findings on different, higher-level taxa, supports the ubiquitous nature of site-specific rate variation in this gene and justifies the incorporation of covarion models in phylogenetic inference.
Burrage, B.R. (1978) -
A collection of reptiles and new locality records are reported from the littoral Southern Namib Desert, Northwestern Cape Province, Republic of South Africa. The new localities, by species, are: Chersina angulata, Swartlintjies River; Chondrodactylus angulifer, Swartlintjies River and Kleinsee; Agama atra, Papendorp, Swartlintjies River, and Kleinsee; Chamaeleo pumilus, MacDougall`s Bay; Mabuya occidentalis, Hondeklipbaal, Swartlintjies River, and Kleinsee; Acontias lineatus, Hondeklipbaal; Nucras tessellata, Kleinsee, and MacDougall`s Bay; Eremias capensis, Papendorp, Hondeklipbaal, and Kleinsee; Meroles knoxii, Elandsbaal; Meroles ctenodactyla, Papendorp, and Kleinsee; Psammophylax rhombeatus, Elandsbaal; Psammophis crucifer, Elandsbaal; and Naja nivea, Kreefbaal, and Kleinsee, 1978.
Casimir, M.J. (1970) -
Casimir, M.J. (1971) -
Castilla, A.M. & Van Damme, R. & Bauwens, D. (1999) -
We discuss three aspects of the thermal biology of lacertid lizards. First, we provide an overview
of the available data on field body temperatures (Tb), the thermal sensitivity of various performance
functions and selected body temperatures in different species of lacertid lizards. We also
briefly summarise information on the mechanisms of thermoregulation. Second, we discuss recent
developments to estimate the »precision« of thermoregulation, and the contribution of distinct behavioural
mechanisms. Finally, we revise available evidence for the existence of evolutionary adjustments
of thermal characteristics in lacertid lizards. Existing studies have mainly dealt with
within- and among-species differences in thermoregulatory behaviour (selected temperatures) and
thermal physiology of adults (optimal temperatures, heating rates). Available data provide only
limited evidence for clear-cut evolutionary shifts in thermal physiology characteristics along climatic
Chang, J. & Hao, W. & Xu, YX. & Xu, P. & Li, W. & Li, J. & Wang, H. (2018) -
The disturbance of the thyroid system and elimination of chiral pyrethroid pesticides with respect to enantioselectivity in reptiles have so far received limited attention by research. In this study, bioaccumulation, thyroid gland lesions, thyroid hormone levels, and hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis-related gene expression in male Eremias argus were investigated after three weeks oral administration of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) enantiomers. In the lizard liver, the concentration of LCT was negatively correlated with the metabolite-3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) level during 21 days of exposure. (+)-LCT exposure induced a higher thyroid follicular epithelium height than (−)-LCT exposure. The thyroxine levels were increased in both treated groups while only (+)-LCT exposure induced a significant change in the triiodothyronine (T3) level. In addition, the expressions of hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis-related genes including thyroid hormone receptors (trs), deiodinases (dios), uridinediphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (udp), and sulfotransferase (sult) were up-regulated after exposure to the two enantiomers. (+)-LCT treatment resulted in higher expression of trs and (−)-LCT exposure led to greater stimulation of dios in the liver, which indicated PBA-induced antagonism on thyroid hormone receptors and LCT-induced disruption of thyroxine (T4) deiodination. The results suggest the (−)-LCT exposure causes higher residual level in lizard liver while induces less disruption on lizard thyroid activity than (+)-LCT.
Chang, J. & Li, J. & Hao, W. & Wang, H. & Li, W. & Guo, B. & Li, J. & Wa, Y. & Xu, P. (2018) -
Dermal exposure is regarded as a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticides uptake in terrestrial reptiles. In this study, a native Chinese lizard was exposed to control, diflubenzuron or flufenoxuron contaminated soil (1.5 mg kg−1) for 35 days. Tissue distribution, liver lesions, thyroid hormone levels and transcription of most target genes were examined. The half-lives of diflubenzuron and flufenoxuron in the soil were 118.9 and 231.8 days, respectively. The accumulation of flufenoxuron in the liver, brain, kidney, heart, plasma and skin (1.4–35.4 mg kg−1) were higher than that of diflubenzuron (0–1.7 mg kg−1) at all time points. The skin permeability factor of flufenoxuron was more than 20-fold greater than that of diflubenzuron at the end of exposure. However, the liver was more vulnerable in the diflubenzuron exposure group. The alterations of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) level after diflubenzuron or flufenoxuron exposure were accompanied with the changes in the transcription of target genes involved not only in hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis (sult, dio2, trα and udp) but also in metabolism system (cyp1a and ahr). These results indicated that flufenoxuron produced greater body burdens to lizards through dermal exposure, whereas both diflubenzuron and flufenoxuron have the potential to disturb metabolism and thyroid endocrine system.
Chang, J. & Li, J. & Wang, H. & Wang, Y. & Guo, B. & Yin, J. & Hao, EW. & Li, W. & Li, J. & Xu, P. (2016) -
Lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) is a widely used pyrethroid with neurotoxicity. However, little is known about the toxicokinetics of LCT in reptiles. In this study, the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of LCT in Chinese lizards (Eremias Argus) were determined following a single dose (10 mg kg−1) treatment. In the liver, brain, gonads and skin, LCT levels peaked within several hours and then decreased rapidly. However, the concentration of LCT gradually increased in the fat tissue. More than 90% of the LCT dose was excreted in the faeces. One LCT metabolite, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA), was detected in lizard plasma and tissues. PBA preferentially accumulates in the brain and plasma. The half-life of PBA in the brain was 3.2 days, which was 35.4-fold greater than that of LCT. In the plasma, the concentration of PBA was significantly higher than that of LCT. The bioaccumulation of LCT in tissues was enantioselective, and the enantiomeric fractions (EF) ranged from 0.72 to 0.26. The preferential accumulation of enantiomers changed according to exposure time, but the reasons behind this phenomenon were not clear. For pathological analysis, vacuolation of the cytoplasm and large areas of necrosis were observed in the liver sections after 168 h of dosing. The liver tissues exhibited both decreases in the hepatosomatic index and histopathological lesions during the exposure period. In this study, the effect concentration of LCT in lizards was 200-fold lower than its LD50 value used in risk assessments for birds. These results may provide additional information for the risk assessment of LCT for reptiles and indicate that birds may not be an ideal surrogate for reptile toxicity evaluation.
Chang, J. & Li, W. & Gio, B. & Xu, P. & Wang, Y. & Li, J. & Wang, H. (2017) -
Flufenoxuron is a widely used pesticide to inhibit the synthesis of chitin during insect development and its effect on the growth of lizards has been little addressed. The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis plays an important role on the development of lizards. In this study, the lizards at different development stages (proliferation and resting stages) were exposed to flufenoxuron for 21 days. The plasma thyroid hormone levels, thyroid gland histopathology and expression profiles of thyroid hormone receptors (trα, trβ), deiodinases (dio1, dio2), and transthyretin (ttr) genes were measured to evaluated the toxic effect of flufenoxuron on the HPT axis at different stages. The flufenoxuron exposure showed more seriously effect on the triiodothyronine (T3) level at resting phase than that at proliferation stage. The follicle epithelium cell height in the thyroid was only significantly increased when the exposed male lizards were at proliferation stage. The alteration of HPT axis-related genes expression was gender and tissue dependent after flufenoxuron treatment. The lizards exposed to flufenoxuron showed that the trα, trβ, dio1, dio2, and ttr genes in the female liver were more sensitive at the proliferation stage than that at the resting stage. In the male brain, the expressions of trα, trβ, dio1, and dio2 gene were significant decreased at proliferation stage while significant increased at resting stage after flufenoxuron exposure. Therefore, the thyroid endocrine system of lizards could be affected by the flufenoxuron exposure and the different development stage should also be considered when study the toxic effect of contaminants on the lizards.
Chang, J. & Li, W. & Xu, P. & Guo, B. & Wang, H. (2018) -
More and more studies are focusing on toxic effect of pesticides on lizards. However, the responses of different life-stage lizards to pesticides have not been reported. In this study, according to RNA-seq library data, thyroxine 5′-deiodinase activity showed significant difference between mature and immature lizard liver. In addition, triiodothyronine (T3) level in immature lizard serum was higher than that in mature lizard serum. Thus, we investigated the thyroid disruption of flufenoxuron with different concentrations (0, 5, 20 mg/kg) to both mature lizards and their offspring. No significant differences were observed in immature lizard body weight compared between control and exposure groups while the body weight of mature lizards was significantly decreased after flufenoxuron exposure. Moreover, the levels of thyroid hormones and the expression of thyroid related genes changed with exposure concentration of flufenoxuron and exhibited different regulation mechanism between mature and immature lizards. In immature lizard liver, trα, trβ, dio1 and ugt genes controlled the thyroid hormone levels interfered by flufenoxuron. In contrast, the thyroxine (T4) pathway in mature lizard liver was significantly disrupted especially by 20 mg/kg flufenoxuron exposure. This study elucidated the different thyroid disruption effects of flufenoxuron to lizards based on different exposure doses and lizard life stages.
Chang, J. & Li, W. & Xu, P. & Guo, B. & Wang, Y. & Li, J. & Wang, H. (2017) -
Benzoylurea pesticides (BPUs) are widely used to control the locust, but the toxicokinetics and hepatotoxicity of BPUs in lizards have not been investigated. In this study, the tissue distribution, metabolism and liver toxicity of diflubenzuron and flufenoxuron were assessed in the Eremias argus following a single oral exposure. Diflubenzuron preferred to accumulate in the fat and brain (>1.0 mg kg−1) and was rapidly eliminate in other tissues. In the liver, 4-chloroaniline was one of diflubenzuron metabolites, although with a concentration less than 0.05% of the accumulated diflubenzuron. No significant difference was observed in the liver histopathology between the control and diflubenzuron exposure group. The expressions of Cyp1a and Ahr gene which control the cell apoptosis were also equal to the control level. After flufenoxuron exposure, biomodal phenomenon was observed in the liver, skin, brain, gonad, kidney, heart and blood circulation was an important route for the flufenoxuron penetration. The concentrations of flufenoxuron in all tissues were greater than 1.0 mg kg−1 at 168 h. The excretion of flufenoxuron in the faeces was 1.5 fold higher than diflubenzuron. The hepatocytes in the flufenoxuron treated group showed vacuolation of cytoplasm and decreased nucleus. In addition, the Cyp1a and Ahr genes were significantly up-regulated in the flufenoxuron exposure group. These results suggested that the higher hepatotoxicity of flufenoxuron may be attributed to the higher residual level in the lizard tissues and the Cyp1a and Ahr genes can serve as biomarkers to assess the liver toxicity.
Chang, J. & Wang, H. & Xu, P. & Guo, B. & Li, J. & Wang, Y. & Li, W. (2017) -
Diflubenzuron (DFB) is a potential endocrine-disrupting chemical. However, its thyroid endocrine effect on reptiles has not been reported. In this study, immature lizards (Eremias argus) were exposed to 20 mg kg−1 DFB once a week for 42 days through oral or dermal routes. Their body weight, plasma thyroid hormone levels, thyroid gland histology and the transcription of hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis-related genes in different tissues were assessed to explore the effects of DFB on the HPT axis of lizards. The body weight decreased significantly only after the dermal exposure to DFB. Triiodothyronine (T3) to thyroxine (T4) ratio in the male plasma also significantly increased after the dermal exposure. After oral exposure, the activity of thyroid gland was positively related to the thyroid hormone levels. Furthermore, the alterations in thyroid hormone levels affected the HPT axis-related gene expression, which was tissue dependent and sexually selected. The thyroid hormone receptor genes (trα and trβ) in the brain and thyroid were more sensitive to oral exposure. However, only the dermal treatment affected the trα, trβ and type 2 deiodinase (dio2) genes in the male liver. These results suggest that DFB exposure caused sex-specific changes in the thyroid function of lizards, and the dermal treatment may be an important route for the risk assessment of reptiles.
Chang, J. & Xu, P. & Li, W. & Li, J. & Wang, H. (2019) -
In this study, the different metabolic pathways of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) enantiomers in Eremias argus feces and enantioselective disruption on hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) system were investigated. After 7 days oral exposure to LCT enantiomers, the concentration of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA), hydroxylated and sulfated LCT were higher in the (+)-LCT exposure group than that in the (−)-LCT exposure group, which indicated a higher metabolic rate of (+)-LCT than (−)-LCT. Although no significant differences were seen on lizard body weight after enantiomers’ exposure, the gonadosomatic index was dramatically decreased. The testicular impacts such as increased seminiferous tubule diameters were only observed in the (+)-LCT exposure group. Consistent with this result, the expression of ar gene in the (+)-LCT exposure was significantly higher than that in the (−)-LCT exposure group. In addition, the stronger binding affinity of AR with (+)-LCT further demonstrated the more serious disruption of (+)-LCT on lizard HPG axis than (−)-LCT. This study first elucidated the metabolic pathway and endocrine effects of LCT in lizards at enantiomeric level and provided some evidence for lizard population decline.
Chang, M.H. & Oh, H.S. (2012) -
This study was conducted to find the sexual size dimorphism(SSD) in morphometric characters of three species , Eremias argus, Takydromus amurensis and T. wolteri in lacertid lizard from Korea. Six external traits, snout‐vent length, tail length, head length, head width, forelimb length and hind-limb length were focused to compare two sexes among the each three lizards. Student`s t‐test was used to compare the adult SVL between the sexes for each species. For the other parts of the body, a one‐way analysis of covariance(ANCOVA) with SVL as the covariate was used. In all these species, males have longer tail and head than females like general lacertid lizard. In addition, male E. arugus have broader head and longer forelimbs and hind-limbs than conspecific females. Likewise, male T. wolteri have broader head than females. In the three lacertid lizards from Korea, snout‐vent length did not significantly differ between the sexes. To understand the causes for SSD in SVL, ecological information, such as the presence/absence of male-male combat and the correlation between the SVL of female and litter size, is required. Therefore, further ecological study on the three species of lacertid lizard from Korea will make it possible to explain the reason SSD is not found in SVL.
Chen, D. & Su, X. & Liu, J. & Guo, X. (2019) -
The Variegated Racerunner, Eremias vermiculata, is widespread in Northwest China, southern Mongolia, and Zaisan Basin of Kazakhstan. In this study, a nearly complete mitochondrial genome (17,972 bp in length) of E. vermiculata from the Dunhuang Basin in Northwest China was determined by next-generation sequencing. Similar to the typical mtDNA of vertebrates, it contained two ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, and one control region (CR). With exception to the CR, all of the 37 genes were completely recovered. The concatenated PCGs were used to conduct Bayesian phylogenetic analyses together with mitogenome data of lacertids in GenBank. The resulting phylogenetic tree confirmed the monophyly of genus Eremias and its viviparous species as well as E. vermiculata, respectively. The mitogenome presented here will contribute to the examination of phylogeographic structure for E. vermiculata and understanding of mitochondrial DNA evolution in Eremias.
Chen, L. & Diao, J. & Zhang, W. & Zhang, L. & Wang, Z. & Li, Y. & Deng, Y. & Zhou, Z. (2018) -
Numerous studies suggested that reptiles are sensitive to environmental pollution and the abundance of many species are in decline. Our research is aim to assess the toxic effects of pesticide in reptiles. And we also want to supply some data about nondestructive samples for environmental risk assessment in reptiles. Lizards were orally administered a single-dose of beta-cypermethrin (BCP) or myclobutanil (MC) at the concentration of 20 mg/kg body weight (bw). The results showed that pesticides could induce changes in enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, LDH, AChE) and MDA levels in organs or tissues of lizards. BCP could cause more severe oxidative damage than that of MC. Salivary enzymes activities showed sensitivity changes to the toxicity of pesticides. We could use saliva to reflect whether the reptiles are toxic by pesticides. We also agree that buccal swabs could be used as a tool for saliva sampling.
Chen, L. & Guo, J. & Zhou, Z.-S. & Li, H. (2012) -
Eleven polymorphic microsatellite loci are described for the multi-ocellated racerunner Eremias multiocellata (Squamata: Lacertidae). Loci were screened in 33 individuals of E. multiocellata. The number of alleles ranged from 11 to 17. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.515 to 0.939, and the expected heterozygosity from 0.875 to 0.925. These microsatellite markers provide a valuable set of tools for population genetic studies of E. multiocellata.
Chen, L. & Li, R. & Diao, J. & Tian, Z. & Di, S. & Zhang, W. & Cheng, C. & Zhou, Z. (2017) -
In recent years, serious environmental pollution has caused a decrease in the abundance of many species worldwide. Reptiles are the most diverse group of terrestrial vertebrates. There are large amounts of toxicological data available regarding myclobutanil, but the adverse effects of myclobutanil on lizards has not been widely reported. In this study, treatment groups were orally administered a single-dose of myclobutanil (20mg/kg body weight (bw)). Subsequently, it was found that there were differences in myclobutanil levels between the different tissues and concentrations also changed with degradation time. The tissue concentrations of myclobutanil decreased in the order of: stomach > liver > lung > blood > testis > kidney > heart > brain. Based on our results, the liver and testis were considered to be the main target organs in lizards, indicating that the myclobutanil could induce potential hepatic and reproductive toxicity on lizards. Meanwhile, it was also demonstrated that the toxic effects of myclobutanil was different in different species, and the distribution of different pesticides in lizards were different.
Chen, L. & Wang, D. & Tian, Z. & DI, S. & Zhang, W. & Wang, F. & Zhou, Z. & Diao, J. (2017) -
Soil contamination caused by the widespread use of pesticides is one of the main environmental problems facing conservation organizations. (S)-metolachlor (SM) is a selective pre-emergent herbicide that poses potential risks to soil-related organisms such as reptiles. The present study elucidated the toxic effects of SM (3 and 30 mg/kg soil weight) in Eremias argus. The results showed that growth pattern was similar between the sexes in breeding season. For males, both kidney coefficient (KC) and testis coefficient in the exposure group were significantly different from those in the control group, while only KC in the high-dose group was significantly higher for females. Based on histopathological analysis, the livers of female lizards were more vulnerable than those of males in the exposure group. A reduction in total egg output was observed in SM exposed lizards. Accumulation studies indicated that skin exposure may be an important route for SM uptake in E. argus, and that the liver and lung have strong detoxification abilities. In addition, the body burdens of the lizards increased with increasing SM concentration in the soil.
Chen, L. & Xu, P. & Diao, J. & Di, S. & Li, R. & Zhou, Z. (2016) -
Beta-cypermethrin (BCYP), a synthetic pyrethriod (PYR) pesticide which is a mixture of the alpha- and theta- cypermethrin, have been reported various toxicological profiles to non-target organisms. But little is known about assimilation, accumulation and toxic effects of BCYP in reptiles. The present study firstly elucidated absorption, tissue distribution, excretion of BCYP in Eremias argus . Treated group were administered orally with BCYP 20 mg/kg body weight (bw) dissolved in corn oil. Neurotoxicity was observed at 24 h after gavage, and the poisoning symptom ameliorated at 72 h. The changes of BCYP concentration depended on degradation time and tissues. Lizards had a strong capacity to eliminate BCYP with different tissue distribution. The tissues concentration of BCYP from high to low were intestine, stomach, heart, kidney, blood, lung, liver and brain. Bimodal phenomena were observed in lung, liver and kidney. These results may be due to the activities of enzymes, circadian rhythm, and enterohepatic circulation in lizards. Based on the results of organ coefficient and histopathology analysis in liver, the liver was confirmed as the main target organ.
Chen, Q. (1994) -
陈强 (1994) -
摘要 本文研究丽斑麻蜥Eremias argus和草原沙蜥Phrynocephalus frontalis的静止代谢率(RMR)与环境温度及体重的关系，并测定了RMR的昼夜节律。
Chen, Q. & Wang S.-Y. (1992) -
Chernov, S.A. (1934) -
Chernov, S.A. (1948) -
Chirikova, M.A. (1999) -
Chirikova, M.A. (2000) -
Chirikova, M.A. (2004) -
Sexual dimorphism, age and geographical variability of 254 specimens of Eremias velox from 20 localities of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan were studied. Sexual dimorphism found to be clearly manifested in some metric characters, amount of abdominal shields and peculiarities of preanal region pholidosis. It is suggested to use males for the examining of ecological relations, as they demonstrate more adaptive peculiarities of given characters, whereas females are more suitable for phylogenetic analysis. Some peculiarities of age variability are demonstrated. Cline variability is shown from west to east for the following characters: body length, head length, head width, rear limb length. The rate of cline variability is less in Alakol Depression. Females, however, demonstrated the decreasing of body length meaning from west to east. The largest body size in South-East Kzyl-Kum population suggesting, probably, that the most favorable conditions for this species is located in the region mentioned. Contrary, the conditions in the Alakol Depression are less favorable. Variations of coloration are described for E. velox. It is shown that the specter of head pholidosis is distinct from other species within Eremias genus, having 1-7 scales in between of parietal and interparietal shields. Eastern Kazakhstan populations are distinct from others by several characters, including peculiarities of pholidosis.
Чирикова М.А. (2014) -
Изучены половой диморфизм, возраст и географическая изменчивость 254 особей Eremias velox из 20 населенных пунктов Казахстана и Узбекистана. Установлено, что половой диморфизм отчетливо проявляется в некоторых метрических признаках, количестве щитов живота и особенностях фолидоза преанальной области. Предлагается использовать мужчин для изучения экологических отношений, так как они демонстрируют более адаптивные особенности данных персонажей, тогда как женщины больше подходят для филогенетического анализа. Показаны некоторые особенности возрастной изменчивости. Изменчивость клина показана с запада на восток для следующих символов: длина тела, длина головы, ширина головы, длина задней конечности. Скорость вариабельности клина меньше при депрессии Алаколя. Самки, однако, продемонстрировали уменьшение длины тела с запада на восток. Самый большой размер тела в популяции Юго-Восточного Кызылкума, что, вероятно, указывает на то, что наиболее благоприятные условия для этого вида находятся в упомянутом регионе. Наоборот, условия в Алакольской депрессии менее благоприятны. Вариации окраски описаны для E. velox. Показано, что спектр головного фолидоза отличается от других видов рода Eremias, имеющих 1-7 чешуй между париетальным и межпариетальным щитами. Население Восточного Казахстана отличается от других несколькими признаками, включая особенности фолидоза.
Chirikova, M.A. (2005) -
407 specimens of Eremias arguta, 140 specimens of E. intermedia and 271 specimens of E. velox from Kazakhstan and adjacent areas were examined in respect of pholidosis variability. 24 pholidosis characters of head and preanal region and 2 pholidosis characters of rear limbs were analyzed. Resulting from analysis, we divide E. arguta into three main groups. First group comprises animals from Volgograd District (Russia) and, partially, animals from Western Kazakhstan. Second group includes the rest of Western Kazakhstan samples, North Aral Sea Region, Eastern Kazakhstan and some specimens from Semirechje. Specimens from Kzylkum sands, Karatau ridge and environs of Kopa station were referred to as third group. The rate of specimens with increased amount of shields before the 2nd supraocular shield trends to gradual grow westward and southward. E. intermedia shows no significant differences within range of species distribution in Kazakhstan. Most variable E. velox from Western Kazakhstan are characterized with absente or only single scute between frontal and supraocular shields. Most variable temporal region were documented for eastern samples.
Chirikova, M.A. (2006) -
In present work the data on morphological variability of the Stepperunner
from 6 populations of the Aral Sea Basin are resulted. Data analysis has shown that
the lizards from the northern regions of Aral Sea Basin reliably differ from those
inhabited the southwestern regions in length and width of a head, attitude of head
length to length of a trunk, length of hind limb and its attitude to trunk length,
number of scales around 9-10 tail segments and pattern of coloration.
Chirikova, M.A. (2007) -
Chirikova, M.A. (2010) -
77 specimens of the Sand Racerrunner, Eremias scripta (Strauch, 1867) from 5 populations of
Kazakhstan were studied and compared in respect of 9 metric and 6 pholidosis characters. The
differences between the lizards from Aral Sea Basin and Balkhash Lake Basin regions have been
shown in number of scales around body (Sq), scales around 9-10 tail rings (SQCD) and color pattern.
The differences in number of SQCD and color pattern were also revealed between the specimens from
the sands of South Balkhash Region and isolated Barmakkum Sands in Alakol Depression.
Chirikova, M.A. & Kolbinzev, W.G. (2003) -
Es wurde die externe Morphologie von Eremias arguta in Kasachstan untersucht. Analysiert wurden drei metrische und zehn meristische Merkmale sowie die Dorsalzeichnung von 206 Individuen aus 13 Populationen in Süd-, Südost- und Ost-Kasachstan. Ein Geschlechtsdimorphismus wurde bei den Merkmalen relative Schwanzlänge (♀♀ > ♂♂), Anzahl der Femoralporen (♀♀ < ♂♂) sowie Anzahl der Gularia entlang der Kehlmitte (♀♀ < ♂♂) festgestellt. Bei einigen Merkmalen (Anzahl Dorsalia, Gularia, Femoralporen, Schuppenzahl zwischen den beiden Femoralporenreihen) besteht eine klinale Variation. Die meisten der Stichproben weisen ein Zeichnungsmuster aus großen, weißen, unregelmäßigen Flecken und einer dunklen Querstreifung auf. In Ost-Kasachstan treten dagegen Individuen auf, die kleine weiße Flecken und eine dunkle unregelmäßige zusammenfließende Querstreifung besitzen. Die Tiere der südlichsten Stichproben haben dagegen längliche weiße und unregelmäßige schwarze Flecken. Die systematische Position der ost-kasachischen Populationen ist nicht deutlich und benötig weitere Untersuchungen. Südost-kasachische Populationen gehören dagegen zu E. a. potanini, süd-kasachische Populationen zu E. a. uzbekistanica.
Clark, R.J. & Clark, E.D. (1973) -
Clark, R.J. & Clark, E.D. & Anderson, S.C. (1966) -
Clark, R.J. & Clark, E.D. & Anderson, S.C. & Leviton, A.E. (1969) -
Cogălniceanu, D. & Rozylowicz, L. & Székely, P. & Samoilă, C. & Stănescu, F. & Tudor, M. & Székely, D. & Iosif, R. (2013) -
e reptile fauna of Romania comprises 23 species, out of which 12 species reach here the limit of their geographic range. We compiled and updated a national database of the reptile species occurrences from a variety of sources including our own eld surveys, personal communication from specialists, museum collections and the scienti c literature. e occurrence records were georeferenced and stored in a geoda- tabase for additional analysis of their spatial patterns. e spatial analysis revealed a biased sampling e ort concentrated in various protected areas, and de cient in the vast agricultural areas of the southern part of Romania. e patterns of species richness showed a higher number of species in the warmer and drier regions, and a relatively low number of species in the rest of the country. Our database provides a starting point for further analyses, and represents a reliable tool for drafting conservation plans.
Covaciu-Marcov, S.D. & Ghira, I. & Cicort-Lucaciu, A.-St. & Sas, I. & Strugariu, A. & Bogdan H.V. (2006) -
In Dobrudja we encountered 10 species of amphibians (Triturus dobrogicus, Bombina bombina, Hyla arborea, Pelobates fuscus, Pelobates syriacus, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Rana dalmatina, Rana ridibunda, Rana lessonae), 16 species of reptiles (Emys orbicularis, Testudo graeca, Ablepharus kitaibelli, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta trilineata, Podarcis taurica, Podarcis muralis, Eremias arguta, Coronella austriaca, Zamensis longissimus, Elaphe quatuorlineata, Dolichophis caspius, Natrix natrix, Natrix tessellata, Vipera ammodytes) and also Rana kl. esculenta populations. Some species of amphibians (Pelobates fuscus, Pelobates syriacus) that were only previously known inform the lower regions of the Danube’s meadow and in the vicinity of the Black Sea, were recorded in the high areas of northern Dobrudja. Also here, all three forms of the green frogs’ complex documented for Romania have been encountered, but Rana lessonae and Rana esculenta are very rare, being found only in the north. The central sectors of Dobrudja are severely impacted by human activities, almost completely cleared as a result of agriculture and showed very low number of herpetofauna species as being present. The most important areas for the herpetofauna are the northern and south-western regions.
Czernay (1851) -
Dai, X. & Chen, B. & Zhang, Z.-W. & Wang, Y.-Z. (2006) -
This paper analyzed the morphological differences among the 8 Eremias species distributed in China.258 specimens were collected and measured.15 countable characters were selected to principal component analysis of data reduction.Based on the loudings of the first three principal components, scatterplots were figured out for further analysis.The results showed that 8 species located in three different regions in the scatterplots.They were E. argus species group (E. argus and E. brenchleyi), E. velox species group (E. velox and E. vermiculata), and E. multiocellata species group (E. multiocellata, E. arguta, E. przewalskii and E. grammica).The main differences between E. argus species group and other two species groups were presented on fn、pfa、scc、nvll and fprs, and it indicated that E. argus and E. brenchleyi were distinctly different from other species of Eremias.E. velox species group could be distinguished from E. multiocellata species group mainly by the character vbfp.The character pfa was found unstable in E. argus, and in 107 specimens there are five types on the numbers of prefrontal and most of them have 4 prefrontals.This article suggested that the character of prefrontal in E. argus was in the stage of intensive evolution, which indicated the formatting of new subspecies of E. argus.This research also agreed that E. quadrifrons Strauch (1876) was an invalid species.The character sisl could be used to distinguish E. argus from E. brenchleyi, which was regarded as a valid species and this character was treated as the difference to classify different species.E. velox and E. vermiculata could be easily distinguished by the characters nvll and clov.The character oa indicated E. grammica should be a group independent among all 8 species.The research showed that the difference between E. m. yarkandensis and E. m. multiocellata was sisl and larger than the differences in E. m. multiocellata、E. arguta and E. przewalskii.We speculated that E. m. yarkandensis should be a valid species but not a subspecies of E. multiocellata.E. m. multiocellata and E. przewalskii were so similar that it was difficult to distinguish them by morphological countable characters.We doubted the validity of the E. przewalskii.Finally based on the results of this research, 8 species were divided into four species groups: E. argus group (E. argus and E. brenchleyi), E. velox group (E. velox and E. vermiculata), E. multiocellata group (E. multiocellata, E. arguta and E. przewalskii), and E. grammica group.
Dai, X. & Zeng, X.-M. & Chen, B. & Wang, Y.-Z. (2004) -
Damadi, E. & Karamiani, R. & Rastegar-Pouyani, N. & Gholamifard, A. (2017) -
During herpetological fieldwork from April 2013 to March 2014 on the herpetofauna of the counties of Saravan, Sib and Suran, Zaboli, Sarbaz, and Chabahar in south east of Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Southeastern Iran a total of 97 specimens of lizards belonging to 19 species and five subspecies, 16 genera, and six families were collected and identified as follows: Calotes versicolor, Laudakia nupta nupta, L. n. fusca, Phrynocephalus scutellatus, Trapelus agilis agilis (Agamidae); Agamura persica, Bunopus tuberculatus, Cyrtopodion scabrum (Gekkonidae); Acanthodactylus blanfordii, A. micropholis, Eremias fasciata, E. persica , Mesalina watsonana, Ophisops elegans (Lacertidae); Ablepharus grayanus, Eumeces schneiderii zarudnyi, Ophiomorus brevipes, O. tridactylus (Scincidae); Uromastyx asmussi (Uromastycidae); and Varanus griseus caspius (Varanidae). The most diverse families of the present collection are the Lacertidae with six species, followed by Agamidae and Scincidae each with four species. Detailed information of each lizard species was also provided.
Darevsky I.S. (1957) -
Даревский, И.С. (1957) -
Darevsky, I.S. (1953) -
Darevsky, I.S. & Shcherbak, N.N. (1978) -
Eremias andersoni is a new species from Descht-i-Kevir desert (Iran). It differs from the closely related psammophile species E. fasciata, E. lineolata and E. scripta by the absence of uninterrupted rows of granules between frontal and frontoparietal shield.
Darvish, J. & Rastegar-Pouyani, E. (2012) -
The reptile and mammals fauna of North-East of Iran were investigated and the
contraction and fragmentation of some species due to climatic changes and human
activities were analyzed. The sampling was carried out in selected stations throughout
the Great Khorsan. The results showed that there are approximately 71 reptiles
(including 39 species of lizards, 32 snakes and one turtle) and 83 species of mammals.
The exact number of vulnerable and threatened reptile and mammal species in Khorasan
provinces is not clear, but there are at least 33 reptiles and 10 mammals categorized as
threatened species. The distribution and population size of some species has greatly
changed during recent years, most probably as a result of recent global warming, i. e.
temperature rise, decrease of precipitation, drought and human harmful activities. The
human activity in this region, especially urbanization, agricultural activities and cutting
of shrubs has caused fragmentation and serious decline of population size in some
species and even elimination of some local endemic population of relict species. The
conservation of mammals and reptiles in the North-East of Iran demands organized
collaborations including education of native people for protection of valuable vertebrate
faunae of the area.
Das, I. (1996) -
Davletbakov, A.T. & Kustareva, L.A. & Milko, D.A. & Ostastshenko, A.N. & Sagymbaev, S.S. & Toropov, S.A. & Trotchenko, N.V. (2015) -
The Cadastre of the Genetical Fund is the of cial directory on biodiversity – the annotated check-list of living creatures registered on the territory of the country, re ecting the current state of the biotic inventory.
The present volume IV is devoted to the chordates and contains general distributional data about representatives of ve classes of vertebrate animals: ray- nned shes (Actinopterygii), amphibians (Amphibia), reptiles (Reptilia), birds (Aves), and mammals (Mammalia). This volume completes the national faunal inventory (the check-list of all invertebrate animals is presented in volumes II and III).
In total, there are listed 602 species (with all local subspecies) represents 325 genera belongs to 119 families. There are also included 14 species doubtfully recorded in Kyrgyzstan, and 36 species names are expunged from faunal list. Each taxon name is supplied with the main synonymy, most accepted Russian, Kyrgyz, and English names. Data on current distribution within Kyrgyzstan and endemicity level are provided for each species (subspecies), as well as main references. The guide book also contains 74 color photographs in the annex.
It is destined for experts in ecology, zoologists, specialists and employers of the institutions for the management of the natural resources, nature conservation and biological education.
Dehgani, A. & Karamiani, R. & Rastegar-Pouyani, N. & Banan-Khojasteh, S.M. (2016) -
The Arasbaran Protected Area is a forested and mountainous area, which is located in northern part of East Azerbaijan province and bordered to the north by Armenia and Azerbaijan and southern Aras River of the Iranian Plateau confined to 38°40` to 39°08`N and 46°39` to 47°02`E. A study on the status of Sauria in this area was carried out from June to September 2011 and 2013. A total of 141 specimens were collected and identified, which represented four families, 11genera, and 12 species and subspecies, including collected Agamidae: Paralaudakia caucasia, Phrynocephalus persicus, Trapelus lessonae, Anguidae: Pseudopus apodus, Lacertidae: Darevskia raddeii, Iranolacerta brandtii, Eremias strauchi, Lacerta media, Lacerta strigata, Ophisops elegans and Scincidae: Eumeces schneideri Ablepharus bivittatus. The Lacertidae with six species, showed the highest diversity among the families represented here. In this study a new locality was found for Lacerta strigata 30 km north of kalibar, in the Arasbaran.
سید مهدی بانان خجسته امیر دهقانی، رسول کرمیانی،، نصراله رستگار-پویانی، (1396) -
ارسباران یک منطقه کوهستانی با کوههای دارای شیب تند و جنگلی است که در شمال استان آذربایجانشرقی و در همسایگی کشور های جمهوری آذربایجان، ارمنستان و جنوب رود ارس، در محدوده `۴۴ ۳۳° تا `۳ °۳3 شمالی و`۳3 °۴1 تا `۲ °۴۴ شرقی واقع شده است. در طی مطالعه و نمونهبرداری فون خزندگان منطقه ارسباران که از تیر ماه سال 3۴ تا تیر سال 3۲ انجام شد. مجموعا۱۴۱ نمونه از ۴ خانواده، ۱۱ جنس و ۱۲ گونه و زیر گونه سوسمار جمعآوری و
شناسایی شد. که این نمونهها شامل:
Paralaudakia caucasia, Phrynocephalus persicus, Trapelus lessonae, Anguidae: Pseudopus apodus, Lacertidae: Darevskia raddeii, Iranolacerta brandtii, Eremias strauchi, Lacerta media, Lacerta strigata, Ophisops elegans and Scincidae: Eumeces schneideri, Ablepharus bivittatus
که در بین اینها خانواده سرتیده با 1 گونه با ترین تنوع را
نشان میدهد و گونه Darevskia raddeii بیشترین پراکنش را دارد. در این مطالعه گونه Lacerta strigata برای اولین بار از
Dely, O.G. (1979) -
The variability of some Mongolian populations of three species from the genus Eremias (Eremias argus W. Peters, E. multiocella Günther and E. przewalskii (Strauch)) was studied. Not only the intraspecific variability of a number of morphological characters, especially that of the pholidose of the pileus, but the homologous variability between the different species, were also analysed. Some of these characters reveal a close relationships between the different species of the genus. Some new locality data are also published
Dely, O.G. (1980) -
Dely, O.G. (1981) -
The morphological variability of some specimens of Eremias argus argus W. Peters from the Democratic People´s Republic of Korea and from Peopleé Republic of China was studies. Both samples reveal about the same variation of the analysed characters.
Dieckmann, M. (2008) -
Dieckmann, M. (2011) -
Diesener, G. & Reichholf, J. (1986) -
Dixon, J.R. (1956) -
Dolotovskaya, S.I. & Chirikova, M. & Solovyeva, E.N. & Poyarkov, N.A. & Wan, L. & Orlova, V.F. (2007) -
Doronin, I.V. & Ermolina, L.P. (2012) -
A reptile catalogue of the Zoological Museum, Stavropol State University, is presented. 1,019 specimens of 88 species collected within the territories of Russian Federation, Ukraine, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and some other areas are listed. The history of the Museum and the formation of its collection are given.
Доронин И.В., Ермолина Л.П. (2012) -
Представлен каталог рептилий Зоологического музея Ставропольского государственного университета, в котором дается информация о 1019 экз. 88 видов, собранных на территориях России, Украины, Грузии, Казахстана, Узбекистана, Туркмении. Рассмотрена история создания музея и формирования коллекции.
Du, Y. & Qiu, Q.B. & Tong, Q.L. & Lin, L.H. (2016) -
In this paper, the complete mitochondrial genome of Eremias przewalskii (Squamata: Lacertidae) is reported, which is a circular molecule of 18,225 bp in size. The base composition of mtDNA is as follows: 30.3% A, 27.9% T, 27.9% C and 13.9% G. The genome consists of 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and one putative control region.
Dugarov, Z.N. & Baldanova, D.R. & Khamnueva, T.R. (2017) -
The effects of the degree of urbanization on the composition and mean abundance of helminth species and the structure of helminth communities in the Mongolian racerunner were investigated along a rural–urban gradient in the region of Ulan-Ude city (the Republic of Buryatia, Russia) and neighbouring rural districts. Racerunners were obtained from key areas and categorized into three grades based on the degree of urbanization. In this study, a total of 208 lizards were examined. The helminth communities in the Mongolian racerunner were studied at the infracommunity and component community levels. The nematode Spauligodon pseudoeremiasi was a sensitive bioindicator of the degree of urbanization in our study. All parameters of helminth infracommunities in the Mongolian racerunner were significantly reduced with increasing degree of urbanization of the key areas. Two parameters of helminth component communities (the proportion of hosts infected with parasites and the Shannon index) were significantly reduced with increasing degree of urbanization. The decline recorded in parameters of helminth infracommunities and component communities in the Mongolian racerunner were probably connected with the attenuation of the relationships between helminths, having a complex life cycle with intermediate hosts along the rural–urban gradient.
Dujsebayeva, T.N. (2010) -
Dujsebayeva, T.N. & Barabanov, A.B. & Ananjeva, N.B. (2018) -
In this article, a list of lizards of fauna of Kazakhstan, compiled according to the latest taxonomic revisions with the aim of unifying the taxonomy is presented, and a short outline of the history of views on the composition of fauna of Kazakhstan lizards are presented. The tasks of this work are explained by a significant increase in the number of special publications and frequent changes in views on the phylogenetic position and taxonomic status of species.
Т.Н. Дуйсебаева & А.В. Барабанов & Н.Б. Ананьева (2018) -
В настоящей статье приведен список ящериц фауны Казахстана, составлен- ный согласно последним таксономическим ревизиям с целью унификации таксономии на данном отрезке времени, а также представлен краткий очерк истории взглядов на состав фауны ящериц Казахстана. Задачи этой рабо- ты продиктованы существенным ростом числа специальных публикаций и частыми изменениями во взглядах на филогенетическое положение и так- сономический статус видов.
Dujsebayeva, T.N. & Belyalov, O.V. & Orlova, V.F. & Chirikova, M.A. (2007) -
Dujsebayeva, T.N. & Chirikova, M.A. & Belyalov, O.V. (2009) -
New finds of the lizards of Eremias multiocellata complex became known for extreme southeast of Kazakhstan. In 2006-2007 re recorded the lizards in the mountain valleys of Kegen and Tekes Rivers creossing an intermountain depression located between Ketmen’ and Terskey-Alatau at altitude 1850-1950 m a.s.l. Morphological analysis revealed the reliable differences of the specimens collected from other species of multiocellata complex inhabited the close areas – E. stummeri from Issyk-Kul’ Depression and E. kokshaaliensis from Sary-Dzhaz River Basin of Kyrgyzstan. Morphological peculiarity of the populations recorded may be caused by their isolative position in extreme southeast of Kazakhstan and needs future elucidation.
Duméril, A.M.C. & Bibron, G. (1839) -
Dunaev, E.A. & Orlova, V.F. (2017) -
From the publisher:
Before you a unique atlas-determinant. For the first time in one edition descriptions of all species of amphibians and reptiles living on the territory of Russia are presented, illustrated with beautiful color photographs. The book is written by E.A. Dunaev and V.F. Orlova, the famous Russian herpetologists, researchers of the Zoological Museum of Moscow State University named after MV Lomonosov. Lomonosov. A simple and accessible form of presentation, detailed descriptions of the external appearance, lifestyle and behavior, photographs reflecting all variants of the variability of these animals, will help the curious reader to become more familiar with turtles, snakes, lizards, frogs and other representatives of the herpetofauna. And special keys will allow you to determine who you met on a country walk, in a city park, at a dacha or while traveling to different corners of our country.
The book is of great interest not only for nature lovers, but also for specialists in herpetology and students of biological faculties of universities. It lists the amphibians and reptiles of the native fauna, reflects the latest changes in the taxonomy of these groups, lists species included in the Red Book of Russia and regional Red Books, lists reference and scientific publications on reptiles and amphibians of Russian fauna.
Дунаев, Е.A. & Орлова, B.Ф. (2017) -
Перед вами уникальный атлас-определитель. Впервые в одном издании представлены описания всех видов земноводных и пресмыкающихся, обитающих на территории России, проиллюстрированные прекрасными цветными фотографиями. Книга написана Е.А. Дунаевым и В.Ф. Орловой, известными отечественными герпетологами, научными сотрудниками Зоологического музея Московского государственного университета имени М.В. Ломоносова.Простая и доступная форма изложения, подробные описания внешнего облика, образа жизни и поведения, фотографии, отражающие все варианты изменчивости этих животных, помогут любознательному читателю ближе познакомиться с черепахами, змеями, ящерицами, лягушками и другими представителями герпетофауны. А специальные ключи позволят определить, с кем именно вы встретились на загородной прогулке, в городском парке, на даче или во время путешествий по различным уголкам нашей страны.
Книга представляет большой интерес не только для любителей природы, но и для специалистов-герпетологов и студентов биологических факультетов вузов. В ней приведен полный список амфибий и рептилий отечественной фауны, отражены новейшие изменения в таксономии этих групп, указаны виды, включенные в Красную книгу России и региональные Красные книги, перечислены справочные и научные издания, посвященные рептилиям и амфибиям фауны России.
Düsen, S. & Kumlutaş, Y. & Ilgaz, C. & Yaka, H. & Karadayi, F. (2013) -
In this investigation, a total of 44 racerunner lizard samples (Eremias pleskei, Eremias strauchi, and Eremias suphani) collected from eastern part of Turkey were examined for the first time for helminths. Eremias pleskei was harboured 1 species of acanthocepalan (in cystacanth stage), E. strauchi was harboured 2 species of nematodes, and E. suphani was harboured 3 species of nematodes and 1 species of cestode. E. strauchi represents a new host record for Spauligodon eremiasi, and Spauligodon saxicolae E. suphani represents a new host record for Spauligodon eremiasi, S. saxicolae, Physaloptera sp., and Oochoristica tuberculata, and also, E. pleskei represents a new host record for unidentified acanthocepalan (in cystacanth stage). Also, Turkey is a new locality record for Spauligodon eremiasi.
Dzukic, G. & Kalezic, M.L. (2001) -
Ebrahimipour, F.E. & Rastegar-Puyani, E. & Ghorbani, B. (2016) -
We have studied the terrestrial reptile fauna of the northwest Yazd province (Iran) and present here some of the characters that we examined for common species in the region. In total, 50 specimens from eight families (six lizard families and two snake families) were collected from the region. The collected lizards belonging to 13 species were Laudakia nupta, Phrynocephalus maculatus, Phrynocephalus scutellatus, and Trapelus agilis (Agamidae); Agamura persica and Bunopus crassicaudus (Gekkonidae), Teratoscincus bedriagai (Sphaerodactylidae); Eremias fasciata, Eremias persica, Mesalina watsonana, and Ophisops elegans (Lacertidae); Varanus griseus (Varanidae), and finally Uromastix asmussi belonging to the Uromastycidae. The two species of snakes were Spalerosophis diadema schiraziana (Colubridae) and Psammophis schokari (Lamprophiidae). Based on these results, Agamidae and Lacertidae are the families with highest number of genera and the genera Eremias and Phrynocephalus had the most species. Among the collected lizards, Trapelus agilis, Mesalina watsonana, and Bunopus crassicaudus were the most abundant species in the northwest Yazd province.
Eichwald, E. (1830) -
Eichwald, E. (1840) -
Eplanova, G.V. (2004) -
Eplanova, G.V. (2008) -
Seasonal activity of three species of lizards (Lacertidae) — Eremias arguta (Pallas, 1773), Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758, Zootoca vivipara (Lichtenstein, 1823), living in Samara Region, was analyzed. Periods of seasonal activity for E. arguta and L. agilis (on dates of the fi rst occurrence in the spring and last meeting before hibernation) are adduced according to the author’s observation in 2001—2006. Differences in period of activity of adult and young individuals are marked.
Eplanova, G.V. (2011) -
The data on the population of Eremias arguta (Pallas, 1773) from the vicinity of Togliatti in this article are presented. Age structure and sex ratio in populations studied is determined.
Eplanova, G.V. & Bakiev, A.G. (2002) -
Eplanova, G.V. & Bakiev, A.G. & Lysenko, T.M. (2001) -
Eplanova, G.V. & Bakiyev, A.G. & Rem, S.V. (2003) -
Eremchenko, V.K. (1999) -
Eremchenko, V.K. & Panfilov A.M. (1999) -
Eremchenko, V.K. & Panfilov, A.M. (1999) -
Eremchenko, V.K. & Panfilov, A.M. & Tzarinenko, E.I. (1992) -
Eversmann, E. (1834) -
Eversmann, E. (1844) -
Fedorov, A.N. & Fedorova, L.V. & Grechko, V.V. & Ryabinin, D.M. & Sheremet`eva, V.A. & Bannikova, A.A. & Lomov, A.A. & Ryskov, A.P. & Darevsky, I.S. (1999) -
A specially optimized restriction analysis of
highly repetitive DNA elements, called DNA taxonprint,
was applied for phylogenetic study of primates and lizards.
It was shown that electrophoretic bands of DNA
repeats revealed by the taxonprint technique have valuable
properties for molecular systematics. Approximately
half of taxonprint bands (TB) are invariable and
do not disappear from the genomes during evolution or
change spontaneously. Presumably these invariable
bands are restriction fragments of dispersed DNA repeats.
Another group represents variable taxonprint
bands that differ even between closely related species.
These variable bands are probably represented by tandem
DNA repeats and could be used as species-specific
markers. It was shown that taxonprint bands are independent
characters since the appearance of a new taxonprint
band does not change the previous band pattern.
Phylogenetic reconstruction carried out on taxonprint data
demonstrated that this approach could be of general utility
for molecular systematics and species identification.
Feng, Z. & Sun, J. & Zhao, Y. & Lui, C. (2005) -
冯照军 孙建梅 赵彦禹 刘缠民 (2005) -
山地麻蜥主要栖息在市郊海拔大于100 m的山丘上部及山顶.研究结果表明,山地麻蜥正常密度大约为1只/100 m2,其数量与山丘土石状况、植被盖度及海拔高度有一定关系,与植被类型关系不大.山地麻蜥似乎有一定的`护洞`行为.主食昆虫和蜘蛛,春季食物生态位宽度大于秋季,食物生态位重叠度为0.61.性比变化较大,出蛰初期和冬眠前期雄多雌少;而5～10月份期间,性比接近1.幼体至成体发育期间,雄性生长快于雌性;但成年期后,雌性头体部分的生长快于雄性,可能与怀卵有关.山地麻蜥种群可分为4个年龄组,个体数量比约为幼年:亚成年:成年A:成年B≈1.8:1.9:3.1:1,但成体与非成体的数量比约为1.2:1,应属于稳定型种群.个体自然寿命约为5.5～6周年.人类干扰是山地麻蜥种群下降的原因之一.
Fischer, J.G. (1888) -
Fitch, H.S. (1970) -
Fitzinger, L.I. (1843) -
Forcart, L. (1950) -
Franzen, M. (1990) -
Franzen, M. & Heckes, U. (1999) -
Unterscheidungsmerkmale für adulte Eremias strauchi und E. suphani sind das Vorhandensein einer doppelten oder einfachen, die Schuppen des dritten Submaxillariapaares trennenden Gulariareihe bei E. suphani (drittes Submaxillariapaares bei E. strauchi in Kontakt), das Vorhandensein von vergrößerten Gularia am dritten Submaxillariapaares bei E. strauchi (keine vergrößerten Gularia bei E. suphani), das Vorhandensein einer ventrolateralen Reihe scharf abgrenzender, großer, runder, weißer Flecken, die zu einem Band zusammenfließen können bei E. suphani (diffus angrenzende, kleine, längliche Flecken oder eine diffuse Längslinie bei E. strauchi) sowie verschiedene Dorsalzeichnungen.
In der Türkei leben die Arten schwerpunktmäßig in zwei unterschiedlichen Steppenklimata, die durch jeweils vier humide, semihumide und aride Monate (E. strauchi) beziehungsweise acht humide und vier aride Monate (E. suphani) gekennzeichnet sind. E. strauchi und E. suphani treffen in der Senke von Doğubayazit aufeinander, wo sie parapatrisch leben. Die Habitate beider Arten sind ähnlich; es werden jeweils hat verbackene, lehmige Böden oder lockere, sandige Substrate mit einer spärlichen Vegetationsdecke besiedelt.
Frotzler, N. & Bader, T. (2007) -
Frynta, D. & Moravec, J. & Čiháková, J. & Sádlo, J. & Hodková, Z. & Kaftan, M. & Kodym, P. & Král, D. & Pitule, V. & Šejna, V. (1997) -
Fu, J. (1998) -
A phylogeny of the family Lacertidae was derived from mtDNA gene sequence data. Seventeen species, representing 16 currently recognized genera and subgenera, were included in the analysis. A total of 954 bp was obtained and aligned from 12S and 16S partial gene sequences. A preferred tree was selected based on weighted parsimony and functional ingroup and outgroup analyses. Decay analysis, bootstrapping, and permutation tail probability were used to evaluate support for the recovered nodes. The genus Gallotia was resolved as the basal taxon and the sister group of all remaining lacertids.Takydromus branched off next. All African lacertids grouped together and formed a monophyletic clade with the Eurasian genera Eremiasand Ophisops. The remaining Eurasian lacertids sequentially branched off near the base of the tree in a “comb-like” fashion. The basal position of Gallotia and the monophyly of African lacertids are consistent with previous hypotheses. The European-origin hypothesis of lacertids is favored, and the distribution of lacertids in Africa is likely a Miocene dispersal event. Most of the extant European lacertids probably arose after the Eocene. The classification of the family needs to be revised.
Fu, J. (2000) -
A phylogeny of the family Lacertidae was derived from DNA sequences of six mitochondrial genes. Only a few nodes were confidently resolved using maximum parsimony, although the data yielded a total of 1664 phylogenetically informative characters. The lacertids grouped into two subfamilies, the Gallotiinae which includes genera Gallotia and Psammodromus, and the Lacertinae which includes the remaining lacertids. The Lacertinae split into two additional groups. The African group included all African and Arabian lacertids and two Eurasian genera, Eremias and Ophisops; the remaining Eurasian lacertids were included in the Eurasian group. Most of the relationships within the African and Eurasian groups cannot be confidently resolved. A permutation tail probability test suggested that there is very little character covariance in the data to support these unresolved relationships. A recent explosive speciation hypothesis was invoked to explain the lack of structure of the data. The common ancestor of the Eurasian group, as well as the ancestor of the African group, experienced simultaneous, or almost simultaneous, multiple speciation events, which left none or very few characters fixed on the internodes. The phylogenetic reconstruction at the family level will be very difficult, if not impossible. Future phylogenetic research should focus on lower levels.
Fuhn, I.E. & Vancea, S. (1961) -
Gallina, S. & Maury, Ma. E. & Rogovin, K. & Semenov, D. (1985) -
Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo comparar las comunida- des de lagartijas de habitats similares: dunas de la Reserva de la Biosfera de Mapimí, México y dunas semimóviies de la Reserva de la Biosfera de Repetek, URSS, a través del análisis de la riqueza específica, diversidad, abundancia y ciclos de actividad. Mapimí resultó ser una comunidad más diversa (2.38) y con mayor abundancia de lagartijas (16.9 ind/ha) que Repetek (1.62 y 9.07 ind/ha respectivamente). En relación a los ciclos de actividad se encontraron dos tipos en ambas zonas; el continuo y el discontinuo. los valores más altos en amplitud de nichos para especies de ciclo continuo fueron para Urna exsul (Ds = 0.704) y Phrynocephalus interscapularis (Ds = 0.647), mientras que para especies de ciclo discontinuo fueron para Cnemidophorus tigris (Ds = 0.404) y Eremias grammica (0.368). la sobreposición del nicho temporal en Mapimí fue entre Uta stansburiana y C. tigris (R = 0.86) y en Repetek P. interscapularis y E. grammica (R=0.65). Se identificaron como equivalentes ecológicos y otológicos, en las comunidades de Mapimí y Repetek a: Urna exsul con Phrynocephalus interscapularis y Cnemidophorus tigris con Eremias grammica.
Ganschuk, S.V. & Sivkova, T.N. (2014) -
It is known that parasitic worms are an integral part of the natural ecosystem, performing a complex regulatory function. The aim of our study was to investigate the pathological changes that occur in the tissues of lizards exposed to parasites. In histological specimens of small intestine we observed cross sections of nematodes. The bodies of parasites with vaguely expressed organ structure and rounded formations of a small size, were surrounded by a wide strip of acellular eosinophilic mass; in the central parts there was a single rounded basophilic inclusion. On this basis we can assume that there is a formation of fibrosis, a protection against the parasite. Intestinal nematode parasitism in the studied lizards causes building of a xenoparasite barrier. The formation of the xenoparasite barrier is due to the adaptation of a parasitic agent and the host.
Garanin, V.I. (1983) -
Georgi, J.G. (1801) -
Ghaemitalab, V.S. & Kami, H.G. (2016) -
Squamata or scaled Reptiles are the largest order of new Reptiles including Lizards, Snakes and Amphisbaenia. They have formed 95 precent of new Reptiles. Our goal is Lizard Biodiversity of Torbat-e Heydaryeh in Razavi Khorasan Province. The study of Lizards Biodiversity of Torbat-e Heydaryeh in Razavi Khorasan Province was carried out in 2012 until 2013. In this research 132 specimens were collected and observed and identified on the basis of morphological, morphometric and meristic characters. The collected and observated Lizards belonging to 5 families: Agamidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae, Gekkonidae and Varanidae including 8 genera and 12 species. Results showed that Agamidae and Lacertidae families have the most frequency. The Agamidae family has the most genera and Lacertidae family has the most species. laudakia caucasia, laudakia microlepis, Trapelus sanguinolentus and Mesalina watsonana were the dominant species in this region and had a wider distribution rang in coparision with other species.
وجیهه السادات قائمیطلب1، حاجی قلی کمی2* (1396) -
Squamata یا خزندگان فلسدار بزرگترین راسته از خزندگان عصر حاضر هستند که دربرگیرنده همه سوسمارها و مارها و سوسمارهای کرممانند هستند و 33 درصد همه خزندگان امروزی را دربرمیگیرند. هدف ما مطالعه تنوع زیستی مارمولکها در منطقه تربتحیدریه در استان خراسان رضوی است. برای مطالعه تنوع زیستی سوسماران شهرستان تربتحیدریه در استان خراسان رضوی نمونهبرداری در بهار 1931 آغاز و تا تابستان 1932 به طول انجامید. در این پژوهش 192 نمونه جمعآوری و مشاهده گردید و بر اساس ویژگیهای مورفولوژیک، مورفومتریک و مریستیک شناسایی گردیدند. نتایج مطالعات نشان داد سوسمارهای جمعآوری و مشاهده شده متعلق به 3 خانواده آگامیده (Agamidae)، گکونیده (Gekkonidae)، سرتیده (Lacertidae)، سینسیده (Scincidae) و وارانیده (Varanidae)، شامل 8 جنس و 12 گونه میباشند. نتایج نشان داده خانواده آگامیده و سرتیده بیشترین فراوانی را دارا بوده و خانواده آگامیده بیشترین تعداد جنس و خانواده سرتیده بیشترین تعداد گونه را در منطقه دارا میباشند که گونههای laudakia Trapelus ،laudakia microlepis ،caucasia sanguinolentus و Mesalina watsonana نمونههای بارز منطقه میباشند و دامنه پراکندگی گستردهای در مقایسه با سایر
Gherghel, J. & Strugariu, A. & Galvan T. (2007) -
The present paper proves that the endangered steppe runner (Eremias argutadeserti) still exists in the “Hanu Conachi River Sand Dunes” Nature Reserve. Prior to thisstudy it had not been recorded for almost 40 years and had been reported as extinct inthis region by the Romanian Red Data Book of Vertebrates. However, the majority of itsnatural habitat has been destroyed by the Robinia pseudoacacia plantations from thereserve. In order to ensure the survival of Eremias arguta deserti in the reserve, and inRomanian Moldavia, urgent measures have to be taken to reconstruct its natural habitatthrough the development of a management plan under the supervision and guidance ofexperts. At present, the steppe runner population from Hanu Conachi is extremelythreatened.
Gholamifard, A. (2011) -
Iran contains 36 named endemic reptile species in 17 genera and seven families. The
most endemic and speciose family is the Gekkonidae, followed by the Lacertidae. These
two families collectively dominate with 22 species (or 60.1%) of the total endemic
herpetofauna. Twenty one endemics are known only from a single location or restricted
area within a single physiographic region. An analysis of endemicity is given in terms of
systematics and distribution.
Gholamifard, A. & Rastegar-Pouyani, N. (2015) -
The genus Eremias, Fitzinger, 1834, with 35 species of mostly sand, steppe, and desert dweller lizards, is one of the most specious genera of the diverse family of Lacertidae. Here, we record E. fasciata from Hormozgan Province, a new location in southern Iran, and describe the specimens morphometrics. Previously published localities for E. fasciata in Iran lie between 450 and 1700 m elevation, while the elevation of this new locality is at about 15 m a.s.l.
Glandt, D. (2010) -
Glandt, D. (2011) -
Gmelin, J.F. (1789) -
Goncharov, A.G. (2013) -
Gong, D.J. & Li, C.I. & Yao, C.Y. (1992) -
Gong, D.J. & Zhou, K. (2000) -
Gorbacheff, Z.A. (1934) -
Gordeev, D.A. (2017) -
The tail regeneration frequency in 55 lizards from the Volgograd region was analyzed, among which were 12 steppe-runners (Eremias arguta (Pallas, 1773)) and 43 sand lizards (Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758). The following cases of tail regenerates were observed: 0) a normal tail; 1) regeneration in the distal third; 2) a tail regenerated from the middle part; and 3) autotomy near the base (the proximal third). The majority of the lizards had normal tails (60.0% of E. arguta and 83.2/57.1% of L. agilis in females/males). Only 16.7% of the steppe-runners had regenerated tails in the distal part whereas 8.4% of females and 28.6% of males had autotomy with subsequent regeneration in the proximal third of the tail; 5.6% of females and 14.3% of males had regenerated autotomy in the distal part, and 2.8% of females had it in the middle part of the tail. Two lizards with bifurcated tails were found and described: a male of E. arguta and a female of L. agilis. A case of complicated abnormality of tail regeneration in a male of L. agilis is also described. An X-ray study has shown that caudal bifurcation may appear as a result of both the primary and secondary (in the cartilage tube) regeneration.
Гордеев Д.А. (2017) -
Приводится анализ частоты регенерации хвоста у 55 ящериц, из которых 12 особей разноцветной ящурки (Eremias arguta (Pallas, 1773)) и 43 - прыткой ящерицы (Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758) из Волгоградской области. Наблюдались следующие случаи наличия регенератов хвоста: 0) нормальный хвост; 1) регенерация в дистальной трети; 2) хвост регенерирован из середины хвоста; 3) автотомия вблизи основания (проксимальной трети). Большинство ящериц имело нормальные хвосты (60.0% E. arguta и 83.2/57.1% L. agilis самки/самцы). Лишь 16.7% особей разноцветной ящурки были с регенерированными хвостами в дистальной его части, тогда как у 8.4% самок и 28.6% самцов произошла автотомия с последующей регенерацией в проксимальной трети хвоста; у 5.6% самок и 14.3% самцов - в дистальной части и у 2.8% самок посередине хвоста. Выявлено и описано две особи с бифуркацией хвоста: один самец E. arguta и одна самка L. agilis. Также описан случай сложного нарушения регенерации хвоста у самца L. agilis. Рентгенографическое исследование показало, что каудальная бифуркация может возникать как результат первичной, так и вторичной (на хрящевой трубке) регенерации.
Grechko, V.V. et al. (1997) -
Multiple band patterns of DNA repeats in
the 20–500-nucleotide range can be detected by digesting
genomic DNA with short—cutting restriction endonucleases,
followed by end labeling of the restriction
fragments and fractionation in nondenaturing polyacrylamide
gels. We call such band patterns obtained from
genomic DNA ‘‘taxonprints’’ (Fedorov et al. 1992).
Here we show that taxonprints for the taxonomic groups
studied (mammals, reptiles, fish, insects—altogether
more than 50 species) have the following properties: (1)
All individuals from the same species have identical taxonprints.
(2) Taxonprint bands can be subdivided into
those specific for a single species and those specific for
groups of closely related species, genera, and even families.
(3) Each restriction endonuclease produces unique
band patterns; thus, five to ten restriction enzymes (about
100 bands) may be sufficient for a statistical treatment of
phylogenetic relationships based on polymorphisms of
restriction endinuclease sites. We demonstrate that taxonprint
analysis allows one to distinguish closely related
species and to establish the degree of similarity among
species and among genera. These characteristics make to use this phenomenon for phylogenetic aims (Cooke
1975; Christie and Skinner 1979; Brown and Dover
1979, 1980; Elizur et al. 1982; Hembelen et al. 1982;
Buckland 1983; Dandieu et al. 1984; Lima de Faria et al.
1984; Shubina and Mednikov 1986; Turner et al. 1991),
but this approach has not been extensively applied. In
this paper we have reexamined the problem on the basis
of our own preliminary results, partly published in Russian
journals, confirming the ideas about possible correlations
between evolution of DNA repeats and speciation
(Fedorov et al. 1992; Grechko et al. 1993; Potapov and
We have demonstrated that the modified method designated
‘‘DNA taxonprint’’ (Fedorov et al. 1992) can be
effectively used for revealing species—specific genomic
markers in different taxonomic groups. These taxonprint
markers are found to be helpful for evaluation of the
degree of species similarity between species, genera, and
families. More than 50 species from different taxa were
Günther, A. (1872) -
Guo, X. & Dai, X. & Chen, D. & Papenfuss, T.J. & Ananjeva, N.B. & Melnikov, D.A. & Wang, Y. (2011) -
Eremias, or racerunners, is a widespread lacertid genus occurring in China, Mongolia, Korea, Central Asia, Southwest Asia and Southeast Europe. It has been through a series of taxonomic revisions, but the phylogenetic relationships among the species and subgenera remain unclear. In this study, a frequently studied region of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA was used to (i) reassess the phylogenetic relationships of some Eremias species, (ii) test if the viviparous species form a monophyletic group, and (iii) estimate divergence time among lineages using a Bayesian relaxed molecular-clock approach. The resulting phylogeny supports monophyly of Eremias sensu Szczerbak and a clade comprising Eremias, Acanthodactylus and Latastia. An earlier finding demonstrating monophyly of the subgenus Pareremias is corroborated, with Eremias argus being the sister taxon to Eremias brenchleyi. We present the first evidence that viviparous species form a monophyletic group. In addition, Eremias przewalskii is nested within Eremias multiocellata, suggesting that the latter is likely a paraphyletic species or a species complex. Eremias acutirostris and Eremias persica form a clade that is closely related to the subgenus Pareremias. However, the subgenera Aspidorhinus, Scapteira, and Rhabderemias seem not to be monophyletic, respectively. The Bayesian divergence-time estimation suggests that Eremias originated at about 9.9 million years ago (with the 95% confidence interval ranging from 7.6 to 12 Ma), and diversified from Late Miocene to Pleistocene. Specifically, the divergence time of the subgenus Pareremias was dated to about 6.3 million years ago (with the 95% confidence interval ranging from 5.3 to 8.5 Ma), which suggests that the diversification of this subgenus might be correlated with the evolution of an East Asian monsoon climate triggered by the rapid uplift of the Tibetan Plateau approximately 8 Ma.
Guo, X.-G. & Chen, D.-L. & Wan, H.-F. & Wang, Y.-Z. (2010) -
The lacertid genus Eremias Fitzinger in Wiegmann,1834,consists of approximately 36 species of racerunners,distributed throughout the desert and semi-desert regions from northern China,Mongolia,Korea,central and southwest Asia to southeastern Europe.This short review represents the history of taxonomic studies in the genus Eremias,including affirmation of the genus and its species,distribution characteristics,phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography.Traditional taxonomic methods,as well as new approaches(mtDNA analysis) are discussed.Future potential research projects on Eremias are outlined,such as phylogeny,phylogeography and speciation process.
Habeeb, I.N. (2018) -
n this study the Check list lizards of Iraq were investigated. by reviewing the old and new data as well as carrying out field work and study of material in the Natural history Museum of Iraq as well as many departments and colleges in various universities, are discussed.Further, various relevant websites in the Internet specialized lizards. I found in this study 7 families, 27 genera and 50 species distribution in the different parts of Iraq. During this study I found Asaccus saffinae (Afrasiab & Mohamad, 2009) the first time in SheraSwar Cave in the Saffine Mountain near Erbil, Kurdistan and the first record new species in Iraq and found Ptyodactylus puiseuxi (Boutan, 1893) the first time in same area . Also found Carinatogecko heteropholis(Minton, S. Anderson, and J. A. Anderson, 1970) Which is one of the endemic species in western Iran in the Erbil western Zagros foothills in Erbil. Trapelus ruderatus (Olivier, 1804) found in the central of Iraq. Cyrtopodion scaber (Heyden, 1827) Previously found in southern Iraq But recently also recorded in the center and northern Iraq. Varanus nesterovi (Bohme, Ehrlich, Milto, Orlov & Scholz, 2015) new species in the northern of Iraq. Lacerta media (Lantz & Cyren, 1758) found newly in central and northern of Iraq and Timon kurdistanicus, Apathya cappadocica (Werner, 1902) (Suchow, 1936) northern of Iraq. I note the two families were finding Previously in Iraq and they did not record any new genus and species in Iraq.
Hao, Q.-L. & Liu, H.-X. & Ji, X. (2006) -
We used the Mongolian racerunner Eremias argus as a model animal to evaluate the effects of constant versus fluctuating incubation temperatures on hatching success and hatchling phenotypes. Eggs were incubated under four constant [24, 27, 30 and 33 (±0.3) °C] and one fluctuating temperature regimes. Hatching success did not differ among treatments, and incubation temperature did not affect the sexual phenotype of hatchlings. Incubation length decreased exponentially as incubation temperature increased, and eggs incubated at fluctuating temperatures took a longer time to complete development than did those incubated at constant temperatures with the same mean. Of the hatchling phenotypes examined, body dry mass, carcass dry mass, residual yolk dry mass and locomotor performance of hatchlings were more likely to be affected by incubation temperature. Overall, locomotor performance was best in the low temperature treatments (24 °C and 27 °C) and worst in the high temperature treatment (33 °C), with the moderate temperature treatments (30 °C and fluctuating temperatures) in between. Our data show that: (1) daily exposure of eggs to extreme temperatures that are potentially lethal to embryos for brief periods does not have detectable adverse effects on hatching success and morphological phenotypes in E. argus; and (2) thermal fluctuations exert no positive effects on locomotor performance of hatchlings but influence incubation length differently than constant temperatures with the same mean.
Hao, W. & Zhang, Y. & Xie, Y. & Guo, B. & Chang, J. & Li, J. & Hu, P. & Wan, H. (2018) -
Enantioselective toxicokinetics, accumulation, and toxicity of myclobutanil were investigated by oral exposure of myclobutanil enantiomers to lizards. After a single oral administration, the absorption half-lives () and elimination half-lives () were in the range of 0.133–14.828 and 3.641–17.682 h, respectively. The absorption and elimination half-lives of (+)-myclobutanil showed no significant differences from those of (-)-myclobutanil in lizard blood, whereas preferential enrichment of (-)-enantiomer was observed in the liver, fat, skin, intestine, lung and kidney. In the bioaccumulation experiments, the residue of (-)-myclobutanil was detected in most tissues at 7, 14, and 28 days, while (+)-myclobutanil was found only in lizard skin, at a concentration lower than that of (-)-myclobutanil. Thus, (-)-myclobutanil was preferentially accumulated in lizards. The transcriptional responses of metabolic enzyme genes indicated that cytochrome P450 1a1 (cyp1a1), cyp2d3, cyp2d6, cyp3a4 and cyp3a7 played a crucial role in the metabolism of (+)-myclobutanil, whereas cyp1a1, cyp2d3, cyp2d6, cyp2c8, and cyp3a4 contributed to the metabolism of (-)-myclobutanil. The difference in metabolism pathways may be a reason for the enantioselectivity of myclobutanil in lizard. Myclobutanil also affected the expression of antioxidant enzyme genes, and the (+)-myclobutanil treatment might produce higher oxidative stress in lizard liver when compared with its antipode. Hepatic histopathological changes such as hepatocellular hypertrophy, nuclear pyknosis, vacuolation, and non-zonal macrovesicular lipid accumulation were observed in the liver of lizards for both (+)-myclobutanil and (-)-myclobutanil treatments. Thus, myclobutanil could affect lizard liver upon multiple exposure. The findings of this study provide specific insights into the enantioselective metabolism and toxicity of chiral triazole fungicides in lizards.
Harris, D.J. & Arnold, E.N. & Thomas, R.H. (1998) -
DNA sequences from parts of the 12S, 16S and cytochrome b mitochondrial genes, which totalled 1049 aligned base pairs, were used to estimate the relationships of 49 species of Lacertidae, including representatives of 19 out of the 23 recognized genera and 23 species of the paraphyletic genus Lacerta. These data were used, together with morphological information, to estimate the relationships within the family. Molecular evidence corroborates the monophyletic status of many genera and species groups originally based on morphology. It indicates that Psammodromus forms a clade with Gallotia, which is the sister taxon of all other lacertids. These comprise three units: the primarily Afrotropical armatured group; the largely Oriental Takydromus; and the west Palaearctic Lacerta and its derivatives, Podarcis and Algyroides. Morphology also supports the first three assemblages, but suggests that they are derived from a paraphyletic Lacerta. Within Lacerta and its allies, DNA sequence analysis corroborates the affinity of some members of each of the subgenera Lacerta s. str. and Timon, and of the L. saxicola group. It also supports the relationship of L. monticola, L. bonnali and L. horvathi, and suggests that the L. parva–L. fraasi clade and L. brandti are not related to Psammodromus–Gallotia, as morphology indicates, but instead are associated respectively with the L. danfordi and L. saxicola groups. DNA sequence data provide additional evidence that the eastern Arabian `Lacerta` jayakari and `L.` cyanura are members of the armatured clade and also sister species. Our analysis supports an origin for present lacertids in west Eurasia. The armatured clade invaded Africa, probably in the mid-Miocene, spreading widely and evolving increasingly xeric-adapted forms, one lineage of which later moved back into the Palaearctic. `Lacerta` jayakari and `L.` cyanura are assigned to Omanosaura, Lutz and Mayer 1986. The name Gallotiinae Cano, Baez, Lopez-Jurado and Ortega, 1984 is available for the Gallotia–Psammodromus clade, Eremiainae Shcherbak 1975 for the armatured clade and Lacertinae for Lacerta, Podarcis and Algyroides. Two new subgenera of Lacerta are proposed here: Caucasilacerta for L. saxicola and its allies, and Parvilacerta for L. parva and L. fraasi.
Hellmich, W. (1969) -
Hemmerling, J. & Meusel, W. & Obst, F.J. (1974) -
This publication on the herpetofauna oft he Caucasus is a compilation oft wo articles published in 1967 and 1970 (Zool. Abh. SStaatl. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 29, pp. 85-93 and Aquarien terrarien 17, pp. 120-123.
Hillmann, B. (2003) -
Den Iran als Urlaubsziel zu wählen, dies dürfte wohl den wenigsten Deutschen einfallen. Dabei verfügt dieses riesige Land über eine reichhaltige Kultur und ist auch unter herpetologischen Gesichtspunkten sehr interessant. Andererseits bietet der Iran fast keine touristische Infrastruktur und ist dem Tourismus auch nicht wirklich aufgeschlossen - angefangen dabei, dass Kreditkarten nicht akzeptiert werden, bis hin zur Kopftuchpflicht für alle Frauen, egal welcher Nationalität oder Glaubensrichtung sie angehören. Dies alles schreckte uns jedoch nicht davon ab, per Fahrrad ca. 3600 Kilometer von Istanbul bis nach Tehran zu fahren, weitestgehend entlang der alten Seidenstrasse.
Hipsley, C. (2012) -
The evolutionary diversification of many terrestrial vertebrate groups is strongly linked to climatic events in the Cenozoic, the period from 65 Million years ago to today when modern animals first appeared. I investigated the effects of Cenozoic climate change on the taxonomic and morphological diversification of the Old World lizard family Lacertidae, with particular emphasis on the African radiation. African lacertids exhibit an unusual pattern of diversification, in which their highest species richness occurs in deserts north and south of the equator, despite being spread throughout the continent. This disparity is particularly surprising given that desert lacertids are thought to be evolutionarily younger than their mesic-dwelling relatives, suggesting increased diversification rates in arid habitats. To identify the evolutionary factors underlying this pattern, I use a combination of phylogenetic, morphological and ecological techniques. In Chapter 1, I apply Bayesian methods and fossil-based calibrations to molecular sequence data to construct a time-calibrated phylogeny for Lacertidae. I estimate that the family arose in the early Cenozoic, with the majority of their African radiation occurring in the Eocene and Oligocene. In Chapter 2, I describe changes in lacertid body shape across biomes and substrates, and find widespread morphological convergence in similar habitat types. I suggest that in addition to foraging demands, fluctuating and extreme climatic conditions, largely driven by precipitation and temperature, contribute to morphological convergence across independent arid-dwelling clades. Finally, I test if ancestral transitions in ecology, morphology, and rates of diversification temporally coincide with paleoclimatic events in the Cenozoic. I use High Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography to characterize changes in the skull related to life in arid habitats, and apply maximum likelihood methods to test if the origins of those traits temporally coincide with significant shifts in habitat, diversification rates and climatic changes. My results show that African lacertids experienced three major peaks in diversification, accompanied by the evolution of suites of arid-adapted morphological traits. These changes coincide with climatic shifts in Africa, including the transition from closed forests to open grasslands and savanna in the late Oligocene, prior to the peak temperatures of the mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, and following the formation of the Benguela current leading to hyper-aridity in southern Africa. I conclude that deserts are important centers for reptile evolution, but that expected changes in climate due to global warming may outpace the ability of arid-dwelling species to adapt and persist in the future.
Hipsley, C. & Himmelmann L. & Metzler D. & Müller J. (2009) -
Background: Although current molecular clock methods offer greater flexibility in modelling
evolutionary events, calibration of the clock with dates from the fossil record is still problematic
for many groups. Here we implement several new approaches in molecular dating to estimate the
evolutionary ages of Lacertidae, an Old World family of lizards with a poor fossil record and
uncertain phylogeny. Four different models of rate variation are tested in a new program for
Bayesian phylogenetic analysis called TreeTime, based on a combination of mitochondrial and
nuclear gene sequences. We incorporate paleontological uncertainty into divergence estimates by
expressing multiple calibration dates as a range of probabilistic distributions. We also test the
reliability of our proposed calibrations by exploring effects of individual priors on posterior
Results: According to the most reliable model, as indicated by Bayes factor comparison, modern
lacertids arose shortly after the K/T transition and entered Africa about 45 million years ago, with
the majority of their African radiation occurring in the Eocene and Oligocene. Our findings indicate
much earlier origins for these clades than previously reported, and we discuss our results in light
of paleogeographic trends during the Cenozoic.
Conclusion: This study represents the first attempt to estimate evolutionary ages of a specific
group of reptiles exhibiting uncertain phylogenetic relationships, molecular rate variation and a
poor fossil record. Our results emphasize the sensitivity of molecular divergence dates to fossil
calibrations, and support the use of combined molecular data sets and multiple, well-spaced dates
from the fossil record as minimum node constraints. The bioinformatics program used here,
TreeTime, is publicly available, and we recommend its use for molecular dating of taxa faced with
Hipsley, C.A. & Miles, D.B. & Müller, J. (2014) -
While global variation in taxonomic diversity is strongly linked to latitude, the extent to which morphological disparity follows geographical gradients is less well known. We estimated patterns of lineage diversification, morphological disparity and rates of phenotypic evolution in the Old World lizard family Lacertidae, which displays a nearly inverse latitudinal diversity gradient with decreasing species richness towards the tropics. We found that lacertids exhibit relatively constant rates of lineage accumulation over time, although the majority of morphological variation appears to have originated during recent divergence events, resulting in increased partitioning of disparity within subclades. Among subclades, tropical arboreal taxa exhibited the fastest rates of shape change while temperate European taxa were the slowest, resulting in an inverse relationship between latitudinal diversity and rates of phenotypic evolution. This pattern demonstrates a compelling counterexample to the ecological opportunity theory of diversification, suggesting an uncoupling of the processes generating species diversity and morphological differentiation across spatial scales.
Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S: & Yousefi, M. (2016) -
In north Khorasan province, Iran, we compared the effectiveness of two types of traps for collecting reptiles: funnel traps and pitfall traps. Three stations were monitored over three 10-day periods and in total 544 individuals (including 200 re-captures) belonging to 5 species and 4 families of lizards (Lacertidae) were collected. Funnel traps with 280 captures were more efficient than pitfall traps with 264 captures, but the differences between the two traps are not significant. Three species were captured most often in the three different stations respectively: station 1, Bunopus crassicauda (22% relative frequency); station 2, Eremias fasciata (29% relative frequency); and station 3, Trapelus agilis (32% relative frequency). Shannon species richness indices were higher for pitfall than funnel traps (i.e., 1.45 vs. 1.40), but the difference was not significant. Pitfall traps were better for capturing species that search widely for food, while the funnel traps preferentially captured species that climb plants, such as Trapelus agilis. We recommend using both types of trap to capture the various types of species in any one region.
Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S. & Oraei, H. & Khosravani, A. & Rastegar-Pouyani, E. (2013) -
During a field survey in the Sistan region of Iran in October 2011, habitat of Eremias acutirostris was surveyed and four specimens of the species were collected. We report a locality situated along the road from Zabol to Doost Mohammad, near the town of Bonjar. The fragile habitat, consist of immobile sand dunes, is situated in proximity to an industrial zone, placing this remnant population under threat of pollution and other anthropogenic edge effects. We call the Zabol Environmental Protection Agency to act and insure the species’ future in Iran.
Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S. & Rastegar Pouyani, E. (2013) -
Eremias lalezharica MORAVEC, 1994 was until recently known only from its terra typica near Lalehzar village in the Lalehzar Mountains, in the center of Kerman province, Iran. During a recent survey, a new locality was found for Eremias lalezharica on the road from Jiroft to Darb-e Behesht, in the Babgorgi region, 100 km to the south-east of the terra typica along the Lalehzar Mountains, with coordinates 29º 05’ N and 57º 32’ E, and an elevation of 2890 m (8670 ft). This new locality is also mountainous with relatively rich vegetation.
Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S. & Rastegar Pouyani, E. & Keyvanloo Shahrestanaki, A. & Yousefi, M. & Zarrintab, M. (2012) -
Im Iran ist Eremias grammica vom Aussterben bedroht und nur von einer einzigen Population im Osten der Provinz Khorasan Razavi bekannt. Während einer neuen Untersuchung in diesem Bereich im September 2011 hat sich herausgestellt, dass diese Population aufgrund der Zerstörung des Lebensraumes nicht mehr existiert. Allerdings wurde eine neue Population von Eremias grammica in ähnlichen Sanddünen um die Stadt Jangal gefunden, für die nun ein Biotopschutz vorgeschlagen wird.
Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S. & Rastegar-Pouyani, E. (2013) -
Eremias intermedia and Eremias lineolata are two species from the genus Eremias that are found in the Sarakhs region (at the border of Iran and Turkmenistan) (N: 36º 19’ 32.4” ; E: 61º 08’ 35.4”; altitude: 330 m). That particular region has very unfavorable conditions for lizards. Aridity and Human activity (agriculture) affected on their habitat. A water channel was being constructed to carry water to the city and for this reason, machines were employed which destroyed the sand dunes.
Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S. & Rastegar-Pouyani, E. & Aliabadian, M. (2016) -
Eremias strauchi strauchi and Eremias strauchi kopetdaghica are genetically and morphologically distinct and are distributed allopatrically in northeastern and northwestern Iran. E. s. strauchi is distinguishable by having green spots on lateral parts of the body, while E. s. kopetdaghica is characterized by white spots and irregular black dots on lateral parts of the body. Recent molecular studies have suggested that these are two distinct species, but other types of analyses leave their classification unclear. In this study, we evaluated their taxonomic status using additional data (including ecological niches) to confirm the hypothesis that they are two species. All known records of their occurrence were employed to predict and evaluate the suitable areas where they may be expected to be found in Iran. We then performed niche similarity tests (niche identity and background tests) and point-based analyses to compare their ecological niches and explain ecological differentiation. Niche models of E. s. strauchi and E. s. kopetdaghica had good results and powerful performance based on high area under the curve (AUC) values [E. s. strauchi = 0.992, standard deviation (SD) = ± 0.008; E. s. kopetdaghica = 0.978, SD = ± 0.032]. Ecological differentiation has been found across the entire range, indicating that ecological differentiation had an important role in species differentiation. Environmental conditions for the species diverged along environmental variables, as precipitation of coldest quarter for the “Strauch” subspecies and precipitation of warmest quarter for the “Kopet dagh” subspecies were most important in determining habitat suitability, respectively. These two factors are important in niche differentiation between the two species and influenced their genetic divergence. Finally, our results confirmed the niche differentiation between E. s. strauchi and E. s. kopetdaghica and added new insights into the taxonomic distinction between E. s. strauchi and E. s. kopetdaghica.
Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S. & Yousefi, M. & Rastegar Pouyani, E. & Khani, A. (2013) -
Huang, X. & Wu, H. & Tu, X. & Zhang, Z. & Su, H. & Shi, Y. & Wang, G. & Cao, G. & Nong, X. & Zhang, Z. (2015) -
Outbreaks of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) often cause serious ecological damage. Recently, there has been interest in using natural enemies of grasshopper for their biological control. This study examined the biology and predation on grasshoppers by Eremias argus, a common lizard in Inner Mongolia. Its developmental duration and life history are consistent with adaptation to grasshopper phenology. The diet structure of E. argus included grasshoppers, beetles, ants, leafhoppers, moths, bees and spiders. A positive correlation between E. argus population numbers and grasshopper population numbers was highly significant. We built models describing the functional response and intraspecific competition for E. argus adults. The functional feeding response of E. argus on grasshopper was classed as Holling type III. The maximum number of grasshoppers consumed by female and male adults were 11.2 and 7.0 individuals per day, respectively. Predatory ability was strongest in female adults, with the second and third instars of Oedaleusasiaticus preferred. The predation ratios(E) of E. argus on grasshoppers declined with increasing lizard density, especially for female adult E. argus. E. argus could play an important role in grasshopper control and maintaining a population of E. argus in the grassland ecosystem could effectively control low-density grasshopper populations on grassland. Suggestions on how E. argus could fit into an IPM programme for biological control of grasshopper are discussed.
Ineich, I. & Doronin, I. (2017) -
Ineich, I. & Doronin, I. & Lescure, J. (2017) -
The life and work of the Alsatian Louis Amédée Lantz (1886-1953), a pioneer of European herpetology. A trained and professional research-chemist, the Alsatian Louis Amédée Lantz was an active and particularly dynamic herpetologist. His residence of nearly twelve years in Russia enabled him to make several field trips to regions such as the Caucasus and Iran. He always carried with him a home made telescopic net that he used to catch lizards. That net became symbolic of Lantz for most people around him. He realized significant herpetological collections mainly deposited in the Museum of the Zoology Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg. Soon after the Russian Revolution in 1917, he had to leave the country and stayed for a few years in France before joining England. During this period, Lantz visited the French Pyrenees and the Mediterranean border (Hyeres Islands, Bandol), enabling him to discover for the first time oviparous populations of common lizard and also to describe a new species of lizard from the French Pyrenees. Lantz is also at the origin of the discovery of unisexual reproduction by parthenogenesis in reptiles. His collaboration with the Swedish amateur herpetologist Otto Cyrén, whom he met through the German herpetologist Willy Wolterstorff, was particularly successful throughout his career. Lantz died at the age of 66 years, in Switzerland, as he was about to join the team of herpetologists at the Natural History Museum in Paris.
Ineich, I. & Doronin, I.V. & Cheylan, M. & Campbell, P.D. (2019) -
Several recent papers have reviewed the life and work of French herpetologist Louis Amédée Lantz. They have detailed the composition of his collections deposited in several museums. However, since then, several other important specimens from his collections deposited at the Natural History Museum (NHM, UK) have come to light and we here present all of them in detail. We discovered paralectotypes of Lacerta saxicola obscura Lantz & Cyrén (BMNH 1922.214.171.124–7), syntypes of Lacerta boemica Sukhov (BMNH 19126.96.36.199–30, BMNH 1965.337–342) and Lacerta viridis media Lantz & Cyrén (BMNH 19188.8.131.52, 1966.512). We also identified numerous specimens from the French Mediterranean islands in Lantz’s collection deposited at the NHM, some of which represent the first reported specimens of their species from certain islands. We here provide data on all these specimens. We also place the Mediterranean island specimens from the Lantz collection in their historical context and emphasize the historical and taxonomic value of these collections.
Inukai, T. (1938) -
Ivanov, V.G. & Federova, T.A. (1973) -
Ivanova, N.N. (1985) -
Jablonski, D. & Koleska, D. (2017) -
Jan, G. (1865) -
Jeong, J.-C. & Song J.-Y. (2010) -
In order to analyze food item of Eremias argus collected in Taeanhaean national park, we analyzed six
specimens, 4 females and 2 males, and these specimens maesured the morphological characteristics such as Snout-vent
length (SVL), Head width (HW) to 0.01 mm using digital caliper. Additionally we analyzed statistical analysis by SPSS
11.0 program. As a results, Food item of E. argus appeared 8 orders, 13 families in stomach content, then food item
composed Lepidoptera (30.6%), Araneae (20.4%), Dermaptera (18.4%), Amphipoda (10.2%), Coleoptera (8.2%),
Homoptera (6.1%), Orthoptera (4.1%) and Neuroptera (2.0%).
Jeriomtschenko V.K. & Panfilov A.M. & Tzarinenko E.I. (1992) -
Jiang, Z. et al. (2016) -
Joger, U. & Dujsebayeva, T. & Belyalov, O. V. & Chikin, Y. & Guicking, D. & Grachev, Y. A. (2012) -
Kafash, A. & Ashrafi, S. & Ohler, A. (2018) -
Little is known about altitudinal distribution of lizards in Iran. In the present study we studied distribution pattern of members of family Lacertidae along the eleveatinal gradient in Iran. To determine environmental drivers of distribution pattern of 48 lizard species, all known valid members of family Lacertidae, along elevational gradient in Iran. Firstly, we classified Iran digital elevation model (DEM) based on 100m intervals, that resulted in 56 altitudinal bands and number of species in each band was recorded. Secondly, we extracted mean value of following variables; altitude, slop, area, solar radiation index (SRI), normalized differences vegetation index (NDVI), annual precipitation, precipitation of wettest month, precipitation of driest month precipitation, precipitation of wettest quarter, precipitation of driest quarter, and precipitation of warmest quarter, and using VIF measure correlated variables were removed. Finally, we performed a multiple regression and found that area and precipitation of warmest quarter are the most important drivers of distribution pattern of family Lacertidae along elevational gradient in Iran. General distribution pattern of family Lacertidae was unimodal and maximum number of species living from 1475 m to 1675 m.
انوشه کفاش؛ سهراب اشرفی ؛ آنماری اوهلر (1397) -
اطلاعات اندکی در ارتباط با توزیع ارتفاعی سوسماران در ایران در دسترس است. در حالی که تعیین مناطق ارتفاعی با بیشترین تعداد گونه میتواند برای انتخاب مناطق حفاظت شده مفید باشد. در مطالعه حاضر الگوی توزیع ارتفاعی 48 گونه از سوسماران ایران متعلق به خانواده لاسرتیده در امتداد شیبهای ارتفاعی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. به منظور تعیین الگوی توزیع ارتفاعی اعضای خانواده لاسرتیده مدل رقومی ارتفاع کشور به طبقات ارتفاعی صد متری تقسیم شد و تعداد گونه در هر طبقه ارتفاعی ثبت شد. ارزش عددی متغیرهای شیب، مساحت، ارتفاع، شاخص تشعشع حرارتی، شاخص نرمال شده پوشش گیاهی، بارش سالیانه، بارش در مرطوب ترین ماه سال، بارش در خشک ترین ماه سال، بارش در مرطوب ترین فصل سال، بارش در سردترین فصل سال، بارش در خشک ترین فصل سال و بارش در گرم ترین فصل سال در هر طبقه ارتفاعی از طریق جعبه ابزار Raster استخراج شده و بعد از بررسی میزان همبستگی بین این متغییرها با استفاده از معیار VIF متغیرهای با همبستگی بالا حذف شدند. سپس با اجرای آنالیز رگرسیون چندگانه مهمترین متغییرهای موثر بر توزیع ارتفاعی گونه های خانواده لاسرتیده دو متغییر مساحت و بارش در گرمترین فصل سال شناسایی شد. الگوی کلی توزیع سوسماران خانواده لاسرتیده در امتداد شیب های ارتفاعی به صورت تک اوجی بوده و بیشترین تعداد گونه ها در ارتفاع 1475 تا 1675حضور دارند.
Kamali, K. (2012) -
Kapli, P. & Poulakakis, N. & Lymberakis, P. & Mylonas, M. (2011) -
the Lacertidae is one of the most diverse and widespread lizard families throughout Eurasia and Africa. Several studies so far have attempted to unravel the phylogeny of Lacertidae using morphological and mole- cular data. However, the intra-family relationships remain unclear. in an effort to explore the phylogenetic relationships within the family Lacertidae, a concatenated dataset of 5727 bp from six genes (two nuclear and four mitochondrial) and 40 genera was assembled based on GenBank database. Phylogenetic inference analy- ses were conducted using Maximum Parsimony (MP), Bayesian inference (Bi) and Maximum Likelihood (ML), revealing that even a combined dataset of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes is not able to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of the Lacertidae family under the tribe level.
Karmishev, Y. & Yarigin, O. (2013) -
This work presents data on reproductive features of Ukrainian fauna Lacertidae lizards in laboratory conditions and comparative data on lizards clutches in wild nature. Terms of egg incubation of these lizards in the laboratory in a stable, relatively low temperatures can significantly exceed those in nature, which allows to obtain embryonic material with a smooth, long process of development. The most prolific representatives of different major types - green lizard (Lacerta viridis) and nimble (Lacerta agilis). Females sand lizard can be aggressive towards other females clutches, which is manifested in the destruction of nests.
Kashchenko, N.T. (1909) -
Kaska, Y. & Kumlutaş, Y. & Kaya, U. & Avci, A. & Üzüm, N. & Yeniyurt, C. & Akarsu, F. (2009) -
Kessler, K.F. (1878) -
Khan, M.S. (1999) -
Khan, M.S. (2002) -
In den vergangenen Jahren wurden der Liste der Eidechsen Pakistans verschiedene Taxa hinzugefügt, wobei
die zugrundeliegenden Beschreibungen und Neunachweise weit über die herpetologische Literatur verstreut sind.
Die vorliegende Arbeit stellt diese Informationen zusammen und liefert eine umfangreiche Bibliographie neuerer
Publikationen über die Eidechsen von Pakistan.
Khan, M.S. (2004) -
Khosravani, A. & Rastegar-Pouyani, N. & Oraie, H. (2011) -
Kidov, A.A. (2019) -
Materials and methods. Observations of Amphibians and Reptiles were carried out during two tourist trips in March 2016 and in May 2018 in the Iranian provinces of Gilan and Ardebil.
Results. New data on the distribution of 6 species of Amphibians (Bufo eichwaldi, Bufotes variabilis, Hyla orientalis, H. savignyi, Pelophylax ridibundus, Rana pseudodalmatina) and 21 species of Reptiles (Emys orbicularis, Paralaudakia caucasia, Trapelus ruderatus, Darevskia chlorogaster, D. defilippii, D. raddei, Eremias strauchi, Iranolacerta brandtii, Lacerta strigata, Ophisops elegans, Ablepharus bivittatus, Heremites auratus, Pseudopus apodus, Eryx jaculus, Eirenis punctatolineatus, Hemorrhois ravergieri, Platyceps najadum, Telescopus fallax, Xerotyphlops vermicularis, Natrix natrix, N. tessellata) in the study area were obtained. The author compares the obtained data with the results of other Herpetological researches in the region.
Conclusions. In general, the herpetofauna of the Caspian slopes of the Talysh Range in Iran is an inseparable part of mesophilic herpetocomplexes with the prevalence of gyrcan elements common from the north-western foothills of Talysh in Azerbaijan to the Western Kopetdag in Turkmenistan.
Кидов, А.А. (2019) -
Актуальность и цели. Изученность герпетофауны иранской части гор Талыша и Ленкоранской низменности остается низкой. Цель настоящей работы – уточнить распространение земноводных и пресмыкающихся на территории иранского Талыша.
Материалы и методы. Наблюдения за земноводными и пресмыкающимися осуществляли в ходе двух туристических поездок в марте 2016 г. и в мае 2018 г. на территории иранских провинций Гилян и Ардебиль.
Результаты. Были получены новые данные о распространении на изучае- мой территории 6 видов земноводных (Bufo eichwaldi, Bufotes variabilis, Hyla orientalis, H. savignyi, Pelophylax ridibundus, Rana pseudodalmatina) и 21 вида пресмыкающихся (Emys orbicularis, Paralaudakia caucasia, Trapelus ruderatus, Darevskia chlorogaster, D. defilippii, D. raddei, Eremias strauchi, Iranolacerta brandtii, Lacerta strigata, Ophisops elegans, Ablepharus bivittatus, Heremites aura- tus, Pseudopus apodus, Eryx jaculus, Eirenis punctatolineatus, Hemorrhois ravergieri, Platyceps najadum, Telescopus fallax, Xerotyphlops vermicularis, Natrix natrix, N. tessellata). Автор проводит сравнение полученных данных с результатами других герпетологических исследований в регионе.
Выводы. В целом герпетофауна прикаспийских склонов Талышского хребта в Иране является неразрывной частью мезофильных герпетокомплексов с превалированием гирканских элементов, распространенных от северо-западных предгорий Талыша в Азербайджане до Западного Копетдага в Туркменистане.
Kim, B.-N. & Kim, J.-K. & Park, D. (2012) -
Information about the mating behaviors of an endangered species is critical for the understanding of the natural history of the species as well as in situ and ex situ breeding programs designed to rehabilitate field populations. We describe the mating behaviors of the Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus), an endangered species in South Korea. The mating of this species consists of precopulatory, copulatory, and postcopulatory stages and is composed of 12 different mating behaviors. During the postcopulatory stage, other males or females not involved in mating show more interference behaviors than during the precopulatory and copulatory stages. The male E. argus has an extraordinarily long postcopulatory bite, which may function as a type of mate-guarding behavior. This study is the first report on the mating behavior of a South Korean reptile.
Kim, B.N. & Kim, I.H. & Kim, J.K. & Park, D. (2010) -
Kim, I.H. (2012) -
Kim, I.H. & Ra, N.Y. & Park, D. (2012) -
Information on habitat use is critical in sizing protected areas for endangered reptile species.To investigate habitat use,home range,and hibernaculum of the endangered Mongolian Racerunner (Eremias argus),we radio-tracked 40 specimens in a coastal sand dune in South Korea.Of the 163 locations recorded during the breeding season,150 (92.0％) were in grass sand dunes,and the rest (8.0％),all associated with the same lizard,were in shrub sand dunes.All of the 123 locations recorded during the non-breeding season were in grass sand dunes.No lizards were found in the grasslands abutting the dunes.The four lizards with identifiable hibernation sites were found under an average of 17.8 cm of sand and were all located in grass sand dunes.The lizards moved approximately 5 m daily and used 162 m2 of home range (computed by minimum convex polygon,MCP) during the breeding season,and they moved approximately 2 m and used 68 m2 of home range during the non-breeding season.However,the mean daily moved distances and MCP home ranges were not statistically significantly different between the seasons or between males and females.Our results suggest that in coastal sand dunes,E.argus uses grass sand dunes as its main habitat throughout the year.This finding could be used to determine the appropriate habitat size and to designate for the conservation of this endangered species.
Kim, J.-K. & Kim, I.-H. & Kim, B. & Park, D. (2010) -
Kim, J.-K. & Song, J.-Y. & Lee, J.-H. & Park, D. (2010) -
In this study, we have evaluated the physical characteristics of neonate, female, and male Mongolian racerunners (Eremias
argus) and determined the age structure of a population of the species in a field located in Taean-gun, Chungnam,
South Korea. The physical parameters of females and males, including snout-vent length (SVL), head length, head width,
and body mass were found to be significantly interrelated. Male Mongolian racerunners exhibited significantly longer
heads than the females, but other physical parameters, such as SVL, head width, and body mass did not differ between
the female and male specimens. In the study population, the females ranged in age from two to eleven years old and the
males ranged between two to eight years of age. The number of females and males, when separated into different age
classes, did not differ within each age class. Male Mongolian racerunners evidenced greater SVL growth coefficients than
the females, but asymptotic SVL did not differ between the females and males.
Kim, J.K. (2010) -
Kim, J.K. & Kim, I.H. & Kim, B.N. & Ra, N.Y. & Park, D. (2011) -
Kolora, S.R. & Faria, R. & Weigert, A. & Schaffer, S. & Grimm, A. & Henle, K. & Sahyoun, A.H. & Stadler, P.F. & Nowick, K. & Bleidorn, C. & Schlegel, M. (2017) -
We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the Western green lizard (Lacerta bilineata) using Illumina technology and additional Sanger sequencing. The assembled 17 086 bp mitogenome had a GC content of 40.32% and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and one control region (CR), with a gene order identical to the chordate consensus. In addition, we re-sequenced the mitogenome of the closely related Eastern green lizard L. viridis using the same techniques as for L. bilineata. The mitogenomes of L. bilineata and L. viridis showed a sequence identity of 94.4% and 99.9%, respectively, relative to the previously published L. viridis mitogenome. The phylogenetic reconstruction based on 17 Lacertinae mitogenomes using Anolis carolinensis as the outgroup supported L. bilineata and its sister species L. viridis as distinct lineages.
Konstantin, A. & Rogovin, D. & Semenov, V. & Shenbrot, G.I. (2001) -
Kotenko, K. & Szczerbak, N.N. (1995) -
Kotenko, T. (1986) -
Kotenko, T.I. (1986) -
Kretzschmar, K.G. (1995) -
Es wird Ober die Gefahr des Befalls von Eidechsen durch Würmer, vor allem durch Nematoden und Cestoden, berichtet. Ansteckungsmöglichkeiten, Erkennen der Infektion und deren Behandlung werden beschrieben.
Kroniger, M. & Zawadzki, M. (2005) -
Krymov, N.G. (2017) -
Summer counts of Phrynocephalus helioscopus (Pallas, 1771) and Eremias arguta (Pallas, 1773) were conducted in the Altai Region during April – September, 2016. A sharp decline in the activity of lizards in June and July was noted, due to the high temperatures and dry weather. As a result of excavation of some burrows, lizards in a non-active state were found. The possibility of summer hibernation (estivation) of the species is considered.
Крымов Н.Г. (2017) -
Алтайском крае проведены учеты Phrynocephalus helioscopus (Pallas, 1771) и Eremias arguta (Pallas, 1773) в период апрель - сентябрь 2016 г. Отмечен резкий спад активности ящериц в июне - июле в связи с высокими температурами и засушливой погодой. В результате раскопок нор обнаружены ящерицы в неактивном состоянии. Рассматривается вероятность летней спячки (эстивации) у данных видов.
Kudakina, E.J. (1981) -
Kukushkin, O.V. & Doronin, I.V. & Tuniyev, B.S. & Ananjeva, N.B. & Doronina, M.A. (2017) -
An overview of the cases of introduction (both accidental and intentional) of amphibians and reptiles in
the Caucasus and Crimea is provided. The introduction cases are systemized in accordance with the goals
and ways of introduction and with regards to the expected scale of the impact and its nature. No negative
consequences of the introduction of amphibian and reptile species in the Crimea and Caucasus are currently
observed on any of the known examples. No cases of species naturalization, which the “invasion”
term can be applied to, have been revealed. The importance of allochthonous populations as experimental
sites to study microevolutionary processes and ecological adaptations of the species in new environmental
conditions is discussed.
Кукушкин О.В., Доронин И.В., Туниев Б.С., Ананьева Н.Б., Доронина М.А. (2017) -
Представлен обзор случаев интродукции (как случайной, так и преднамеренной) земноводных и пресмыкаю- щихся на Кавказе и в Крыму. Факты интродукции систематизированы по целям и путям проникновения живот- ных с учетом предполагаемого масштаба воздействия и характера влияния на природные комплексы. Негатив- ные последствия интродукции видов земноводных и пресмыкающихся в Крыму и на Кавказе в настоящее время не прослеживаются ни на одном из известных нам примеров; случаи натурализации видов, к которым обосно- ванно может быть применен термин «инвазия», не выявлены. Рассмотрено значение аллохтонных популяций как экспериментальных полигонов для изучения микроэволюционных процессов и экологических адаптаций видов в новых для них условиях.
Kupriyanova, L.A. (1992) -
Kupriyanova, L.A. (1994) -
he chromosomes of eight lacertid species were studied by standard and banding techniques (C- and NOR-banding, telomeric sequences) and chromosomal interlocation during mitosis and meiosis was investigated. The data obtained are discussed in the light of modern ideas of the interrelation between DNA changes, karyotype evolution, and speciation. The assumption is voiced on the optimal number of arms and, consequently, the “optimal” number of functional telomeres in the Lacertidae, which in its turn may be associated with the structure of the nucleus and with canalization of the genome as a whole.
Kupriyanova, L.A. & Arronet, U.N. (1964) -
Lambert, M.R.K. (2002) -
Langerwerf, B. (1980) -
Lantz, L.A. (1918) -
Lantz, L.A. (1928) -
Leviton, A.E. (1959) -
Leviton, A.E. & Anderson, S.C. (1970) -
Leviton, A.E. & Anderson, S.C. (2010) -
Leviton, A.E. & Anderson, S.C. & Adler, K. & Minton, S.A. (1992) -
Li G. (2005) -
In the shrub land habitat,E.argus lives in the shrub community but P.frontalis lives mainly on the field among the shrub land. The overlap of their spatial niche was small ( 0.15) but the overlap of the trophic niche was high( 0.82, Aug.).The potential competitive ability between the two species was measured by Nelson similarity coefficient.The competitive ability of P.frontalis for space was stronger than that of E.argus,but for trophic E.argus was stronger than that of P.frontalis.Measured by several factors,the Adaptability of E.argus was superior to that of P.frontalis in the shrub land.
Li, D. & Liu, J. & Zhou, T. & Guo, X. (2015) -
In this study we observed the embryonic development processes and compared the weight of eggs with neonates to identify the form of nutritional provisioning in Eremias multiocellata. We also used light microscopy to determine the features of chorioallontoic placenta during late stages of gestation. Neonatal dry weight was approximately 10.3% smaller than egg dry weight. Chorioallantoic membrane and uterine epithelium exhibited an indirect apposition without any fusion. No specialized region, placentome, has been found for nutrition transfer between these membranes. The chorioallontoic placenta of E. multiocellata is consistent with the simplest and most common type, Weekes type I. We infer that E. multiocellata is predominately lecithotrophic, meaning that nourishment for embryonic development is primarily supplied by the yolk. This kind of embryonic nutrition confirms the pattern found in most squamates with a simple placenta. This simple placenta adds anatomical evidence to understand the weak immune interaction between matrix and fetus in E. multiocellata. Finally, we discussed the implications for interpreting the evolution of viviparity and placentation.
Li, H. & Ji, X. & Qu Y.-F. & Gao J.-F. & Zhang, L. (2006) -
Reproductive success and morphological traits are intimately linked in lizards. We collected adult multi-ocellated racerunners Eremias multiocellata from a population in Inner Mongolia (northern China) to quantify sexual dimorphism and female reproductive characteristics of this poorly studied viviparous, lacertid lizard, testing for the prediction that the evolution of sexual dimorphism is promoted by between-sex differences in reproductive success relating to adult morphological traits. Adults are sexually dimorphic in head size but not in body size, with males having longer and wider heads than do females of the same body length. Females ovulate from May to June and, under laboratory conditions, they give birth to young from late June to late July. Litter size ranges from two to four young. Litter mass is positively correlated with female SVL, but female SVL only explains a small portion (approximately 19%) of variation in litter mass. Both litter size and neonate mass are not correlated with female SVL. Neonate mass is negatively correlated with relative fecundity (litter size relative to female SVL), suggesting a trade-off between size and number of offspring in E. multiocellata. Overall, selective pressures towards large male and large females are both relatively weak in E. multiocellata, and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in head size results mainly from between-sex differences in reproductive success relating to adult head size
Li, H. & Qu, Y.-F. & Ding, G.-H. & Ji, X. (2011) -
We compared adult size, female reproductive traits, and offspring phenotypes between multiocellated racerunners (Eremias multiocellata) from two thermally different sites (populations) in Inner Mongolia (North China): the colder one in Wulatehouqi (WQ) and the warmer one in Dalateqi (DQ). Both adults and neonates were smaller in the colder site. Females from the two sites both produced a single litter of 2–5 young per season, and did not differ in allocation of energy to reproduction after accounting for differences in body size. Female neonates had more ventral scales than did males, and the WQ neonates had fewer ventral scales than did the DQ neonates. The WQ neonates were slower than the DQ neonates. When body length was normalized across populations, we found that (1) hindlimb length correlated positively with sprint speed in both WQ and DQ neonates, (2) forelimb length correlated positively with sprint speed only in the DQ neonates, and (3) tail length correlated positively with sprint speed only in the WQ neonates. Hindlimb length played a more important role in locomotion than did tail length or forelimb length. Though differing in size and morphology, neonates from the two sites did not differ in early growth and survival under identical laboratory conditions. Our data are consistent with many studies that have shown countergradient variation in physiological traits (growth rate and reproductive output) and cogradient variation in morphological traits.
Li, H. & Qu, Y.-F. & Hu, R.-B. & Ji, X. (2009) -
We used a cold-climate viviparous lacertid lizard (Eremias prezwalskii) as a model system to test the maternal manipulation hypothesis. Twenty-four gravid females collected from a population in Inner Mongolia (northern China) were maintained in the laboratory for the whole gestation length, with 12 allowed to bask for 14-h daily and the other 12 for 10-h daily. Females selected lower body temperatures but did not thermoregulate more precisely when gravid. The mean gestation length was shorter in females provided with longer basking opportunity. Neonates in the two treatments differed in tail length and the number of ventral scales but not in other examined morphological traits, with offspring born in the 14-h treatment having longer tails but fewer ventral scales. Offspring were sexually dimorphic at birth, with females being smaller in tail length, head length and fore-limb length but having more ventral scales than males of the same size. Offspring born in the 14-h treatment were not only faster runners but also grew faster than did offspring born in the 10-h treatment. Our data validate the main predictions of the maternal manipulation hypothesis that females should shift selected body temperatures during gestation to provide optimal thermal conditions for developing embryos and that phenotypic traits determined by maternal thermoregulation should enhance offspring fitness. Our study is the first to demonstrate that the maternal manipulation hypothesis applies to cold-climate viviparous reptiles.
Li, H. & Wang, Z. & Mei, W.-B. & Ji, X. (2011) -
We acclimated adult males of three Eremias lizards from different latitudes to 28 °C, 33 °C or 38 °C to examine whether temperature acclimation affects their thermal preference and tolerance and whether thermal preference and tolerance of these lizards correspond with their latitudinal distributions. Overall, selected body temperature (Tsel) and viable temperature range (VTR) were both highest in E. brenchleyi and lowest in E. multiocellata, with E. argus in between; critical thermal minimum (CTMin) was highest in E. multiocellata and lowest in E. brenchleyi, with E. argus in between; critical thermal maximum (CTMax) was lower in E. multiocellata than in other two species. Lizards acclimated to 28 °C and 38 °C overall selected lower body temperatures than those acclimated to 33 °C; lizards acclimated to high temperatures were less tolerant of low temperatures, and vice versa; lizards acclimated to 28 °C were less tolerant of high temperatures but had a wider VTR range than those acclimated to 33 °C and 38 °C. Lizards of three species acclimated to the three temperatures always differed from each other in CTMin, but not in Tsel, CTMax and VTR. Our results show that: temperature acclimation plays an important role in influencing thermal preference and tolerance in the three Eremias lizards, although the degrees to which acclimation temperature affects thermal preference and tolerance differ among species; thermal preference rather than tolerance of the three Eremias lizards corresponds with their latitudinal distributions
Li, H. & Zhou, Z.-S. & Lin, L.H. (2012) -
We isolated and characterizated 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the rapid racerunner Eremias velox (Squamata: Lacertidae). The loci were screened in 37 E. velox individuals. The number of alleles ranged from 6 to 16. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.432 to 0.919, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.685 to 0.902. These microsatellite markers should prove useful for population genetic studies of E. velox and other Eremias species.
Li, J. & Chang, J. & Li, W. & Guo, B. & Li, J. & Wang, H. (2017) -
Triadimefon (TF) is a widely used chiral fungicide with one chiral centre and two enantiomers (TF1 and TF2). However, little is reported about the ecological toxicity of reptiles on an enantioselective level. TF is a potential endocrine disruptor that may interfere with sex steroid hormones, such as testosterone (T) and 17beta-estradiol (E2). In our study, the lizards Mongolia Racerunner (Eremias argus) were orally exposed to TF and its enantiomers for 21 days. Plasma sex steroid hormones and steroidogenic-related genes, including 17-beta-hydroxysteroid (hsd17β), cytochrome P450 enzymes (cyp19 and cyp17), and steroid hormone receptors (erα and Ar) were evaluated. After exposure, the plasma testosterone level in the 100 mg/kgbw group was elevated, while the oestradiol level was reduced. This phenomenon may be caused by the transformation of cyp19, which may inhibit the conversion of testosterone to oestradiol and affect sexual behaviour. In addition, the two enantiomers have different effects on hormone levels, which testified to the previously reported biotoxic dissimilarity between TF1 and TF2 in organisms. Furthermore, the cyp19 mRNA level in liver and gonad of the TF2 and TF group (100 mg/kgbw) were significantly down-regulated, while the cyp17 and hsd17β mRNA levels were up-regulated. The expression of erα and Ar mRNA levels were up-regulated in males but not in females, which may indicate that TF has sex differences on these two genes. As seen from the above results, TF and its enantiomers may have endocrine-disrupting effects on lizards (E. argus) by acting sensitively on sex steroid hormones and steroidogenic-related genes.
Li, J. & Nie, L. & Zheng, P. & Song, J. & Rui, J. (2006) -
The Sox family of genes shares a high sequence similarity with the HMG box region of the human Y chromosomal gene, SRY. We used highly degenerate primers to clone and sequence seven Eremias breuchleyi Sox genes (EbSox2, EbSox3, EbSox4, EbSox11, EbSox12, EbSox14 and EbSox21). A database search for the cloned sequences revealed the following percentage identity with the homologous human SOX genes: EbSox2 = 96%, EbSox3 = 88%, EbSox4 = 94%, EbSox11 = 99%, EbSox12 = 96%, EbSox14 = 98%, EbSox21 = 97%. Cluster analysis indicates that they seem to belong to group B and group C of Sox gene family, respectively.
Li, R.-D. & Chen, Q. & Liu, N-.F. (1998) -
Electrocardiograms (ECG) of Eremias multiocellata were studied at 5-35 ℃ in body temperature.Electrocardiogram wave intervals (R-R,P-R,QRS,T-P,and R-T) shortened while heart rate increased with the increasing of body temperature.The average heart rate was 14.6/min at 5 ℃,whereas it was 201/min at 35 ℃.The duration of wave intervals of ECG and the heart rate were related significantly to the body temperature (P<0.001).Among the components of a cardiac cycle the cardiac rest period (TP intervals) and the atria-ventricular conduction time (PR interval) were affected mostly by body temperature.In the other hand the ventricular depolarization and repolarization (QRS and R-T intervals) were relatively less affected by the body temperature.The increasing of heart rate with body temperature was mainly caused by the shortening of ECG wave intervals,and the T-P interval (the cardiac rest period) was shortened more noticeably than other intervals.
李仁德 陈强 刘nai发 (1998) -
采用甘肃省民勤县荒漠半荒漠环境中的卵胎生蜥蜴密点麻蜥(Eremias mutiocellata)为材料，研究其心电活动随体温变化的规律以及对环境温度的适应特点。共记录密点麻蜥125只，每只蜥蜴记录5、10、15、20、25、30、35 ℃7个温度等级，每个等级15-20只；少数蜥蜴记录的温度范围扩展到40、42、44、45和46℃。环境温度采用由电接点温度计和继电器控制的电冰箱和恒温箱来控制。体温测量采用SY-2型数字式温度计，测定时插入泄殖腔2 cm。心电描记采用LMS2B型二道生理记录仪。电极为不锈钢针形电极。实验前将蜥蜴放入待测温度环境中适应2 h。被测蜥蜴背位固定于木板上，不麻醉，将记录电极的正极插入左前肢皮下，负极插入右前肢皮下，地线插入后肢皮下，插入深度均为5 mm。电极固定后待蜥蜴的体温达到预定崐温度5 min后再开始心电记录。在实验记录纸上测量各波的电压值及各间期的时间，其中R-T间期即S-T段，表示从QRS波结束到T波结束的时间，T-P间期表示从T波结束到P波开始时的时间，P-R间期表示从P波开始到QRS波开始的时间，以t测验检验相关系数的显著性。体温为5-35 ℃时的心电图中P波和T波是正向的，且幅度很低，R波幅度高于P波和T波。P波电压值为0.027-0.0525 mV，多在5-25 ℃时出现，高体温(25 ℃以上)时大多数蜥蜴心电图上P波和T波重叠，不易分辨。Q波很小，大多不易辨认，S波在15 ℃以上时均可出现，且为负向波。体温由5 ℃上升至35 ℃时，心率由14.6次/min增加为201次/min。P-R、R-T和T-P间期的值都随之缩短。各间期值在各温度等级之间的差异都极显著(P<0.001)。在相同体温条件下，密点麻蜥的心率范围较一些作者报道的其他蜥蜴的心率都快，且差别很大。心率和体重之间有R＝153 Wt[0.207]的关系(Licht，1965)，密点麻蜥的体重小则心率快，但是密点麻蜥(E.Multiocellata)和荒漠沙蜥(Phrynocephalus przewalskii)的体重相似，心率却有差异，除种属差异外，也与生态环境的差异有关。 QRS/RR和RT/RR的值与体温呈正相关，而TP/RR和PR/RR的值与体温呈负相关。说明在体温升高时心动周期中各间期缩短的程度不同，即心脏的静息期(TP)和房室传导时间(PR)相对缩短，而心室开始去极化至复极化结束的时间(QRS和RT)相对延长。这一特征说明了密点麻蜥的心率随体温升高而加快的原因是静息期缩短和房室传导速度加快，而静息期缩短是最重要的因素。
Li, R.D. & Liu, N.F. (1992) -
The paper deals with the relationship between the body temperatures of Phrynocephalus przewalskii (Sthauch) and Eremias multiocellata (Guenther) and the environmental temperatures,their selections of environmental temperatures and their resistance against low and high temperatures.The body temperatures of przewalskii and Multiocellata were negatively interrelated to environmental temperatures (P<0.001).Under the same temperatures.The body temperatures of przewalskii were 3 ℃ higher than that of multiocellata.The environmental temperatures selected by the former were 38-40 ℃,whereas the latter required only 35-37 ℃.The hot and dead temperatures of przewalskii were higher than those of multiocellata.The threshhold of the hot and dead temperatures in przewalskii varied from 44 ℃ to 48 ℃ and its highest dead temperature (TL) was up to 48℃,and that in multiocellata was 42-46 ℃ and its highest hot temperature (TL) was 46 ℃.The ability that two species can resist against low temperatures was equal.The cold and dead temperatures varied from 0 ℃ to -3 ℃.The cold and dead temperatures (TL) of przewalskii were -2.3 ℃,but those of multiocellata were -2.5 ℃.These significant differences between the two species are concerned with the characteristics of each,habitats and sizes of the bodies.
李仁德,刘nai发 (1992) -
摘要 荒漠沙蜥和密点麻蜥的体温都随环境温度的变化而变化，相关非常显著（P<0.001）。在相同环境温度条件下，荒漠沙蜥的体温约高于密点麻蜥3 ℃。荒漠沙蜥集中选择38-40 ℃的环境，密点麻蜥选择35-37 ℃的环境。荒漠沙蜥的热僵死阈值为44-48 ℃，致死温度（TL）为48 ℃，密点麻蜥的热僵死阈值为42-46 ℃，致死温度（TL）为46 ℃。两种蜥蜴对低温的耐受性基本相似，冷僵温度为0- -3 ℃，致死低温（TL）：荒漠沙蜥为-2.3 ℃，密点麻蜥为-2.5 ℃。两种蜥蜴的这些差异与种的特征、栖息环境及体形的大小有关。
Li, S.-R. & Wang, Y. & Ma, L. & Zeng, Z.-G. & Bi, J.-H. & Du, W.-G. (2017) -
How ectotherms exploit thermal resources has important implications for their habitat utilization and thermal vulnerability to climate warming. To address this issue, we investigated thermal relations of three sympatric lizard species (Eremias argus, Eremias multiocellata, and Phrynocephalus przewalskii) in the desert steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. We determined the thermoregulatory behavior, body temperature (Tb), operative temperature (Te), selected body temperature (Tsel), and critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of adult lizards. Based on these physiological parameters, we quantified the accuracy and effectiveness of thermoregulation as well as thermal-safety margin for these species. The three species were accurate and effective thermoregulators. The P. przewalskii preferred open habitats, and had a higher Tb than the two Eremias lizards, which preferred shade habitats and shuttled more frequently between the shade and sun. This indicated that the three sympatric lizards have different thermoregulatory behavior and thermal physiology, which might facilitate their coexistence in the desert steppe ecosystem. In addition, the P. przewalskii had higher Tsel and CTmax, and a wider thermal-safety margin than the two Eremias lizards, suggesting that the two Eremias lizards would be more vulnerable to climate warming than P. przewalskii.
Li, X. & Wang, C. & Tang, G. & Li, S.-R. & Ma, L. & Sun, B. & Zhang, Y.-P. (2019) -
Light is essential for embryonic development in many oviparous animals including fish, amphibians, and birds. However, light may be harmful for reptile embryos developing underground where they are in complete darkness and beneath thin eggshells. Nonetheless, how embryonic light conditions affect reptile development and offspring remains largely unknown. Here we incubated eggs in dark and light conditions to determine the effects of light exposure on embryonic development and offspring visual ability, spatial cognitive ability and growth in a lacertid lizard, Eremias argus. Our experiments demonstrated that light stimulation shortened incubation duration of eggs, but did not affect hatching success, offspring size, visual ability or survival. More interestingly, light exposure during incubation decreased spatial cognitive ability and post-hatching growth of offspring. On the basis of negative effects on offspring growth rates, our study indicates that in squamate reptiles with thin eggshells, light exposure in early development has negative effects on offspring cognitive ability.
Lichtenstein, H. (1823) -
Lichtenstein, H. & Martens, E. von (1856) -
Liesack, H. (1984) -
Litvinov, N. & Ganshchuk, S. (2005) -
Liu, J. & Ananjeva, N.A. & Chirikova, M.A. & Milto, K.D. & Guo, X. (2014) -
The rapid racerunner, Eremias velox, is a widely distributed lizard from the northern Caucasus across entire Central Asia eastward to China. It is increasingly common to accept E. velox as a species complex in its entire range. To date, published morphological and molecular systematic hypotheses of this complex are only partially congruent, and its taxonomic status and evolutionary history are still far from clear. The mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and 12S rRNA sequences were used to evaluate the taxonomy of this complex, with particular attention to the phylogenetic placement of populations in northwestern China. Examination of the phylogenetic analyses recovers seven distinct, biogeographically discrete, and well-supported clades, revealing genetically identifiable populations corresponding to some previously morphology-defined subspecies. Chinese E. v. roborowskii appears to have split from other Central Asian rapid racerunner lizards well before differentiation occurred among the latter taxa. Specifically, we corroborate that there are two subspecies occurring in China, i.e., E. v. velox and £. v. roborowskii. We recommend a novel subspecific status for the phenotypically and genetically distinct populations in southern Aral Sea region of Uzbekistan previously assigned to E. v. velox. Finally, each of the three independently evolving lineages from Iranian Plateau should be recognized as three species new to science under the general lineage concept.
Liu, J. & Guo, X. & Chen, D. & Li, J., & Yue, B. & Zeng, X. (2018) -
Late Cenozoic stepwise aridification has transformed Central Asia into an arid environment, and the Pleistocene climatic oscillations exerted further ecological impact. Therefore, both aridification and glaciation would have considerably influenced the evolution of many midlatitude species in arid Central Asia (ACA). However, strong biotic evidence supporting this role is still lacking. Here, we test this perspective using a phylogeographic study of Eremias velox, which is an arid-adapted lizard, across ACA using sequences from mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated data, including 595 specimens from 107 localities, revealed ten geographically correlated lineages that diverged by 1.1–15.4% for the cytochrome b gene and 1.0–10.3% for the 12S rRNA gene, which were estimated to have coalesced ∼6.23 million years ago. Ancestral area estimations suggested that E. velox originated from the Iranian Plateau and then dispersed into Central Asia. The intensification of aridification across Central Asia during the Late Pliocene may have facilitated the rapid radiation of this arid-adapted lizard throughout this vast territory. Subsequently, the geological events (e.g., uplift of the Kopet-Dagh, Tianshan and Greater Caucasus Mountains) and glacial oscillations during the Pleistocene triggered the progressive diversification of E. velox. The most recent common ancestor of the Caucasus-Central Asia clade was dated to approximately 2.05 Ma. Specifically, the diversification between the Caucasus clade (VI, VII) and the Central Asia clade (VIII, IX, X), and within the Central Asia clade may have been established and partially maintained by repeated transgressions of the Caspian Sea during the Pleistocene and Holocene. In contrast to demographic and/or range contractions in response to climatic changes during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) of the populations (Clades VI and X) from the Caucasus-Central Asia clade, mitochondrial evidence and ecological niche modeling support the signature of demographic and range expansions during the LGM for the Clade V populations (E. v. roborowskii, being endemic to the Turpan Depression). The effect of Pleistocene climatic changes on the historical demography of this arid-adapted species may be lineagespecific, depending predominantly on animal physiology and geography. Finally, we discuss the taxonomic implications, such as the appearance of the Turkmenistan populations as a distinct species, and E. v. roborowskii deserving a full species status.
Liu, J.-L. & Yuan, X.-Y. & Zhou, T.-H. & Li, D.-J. & Dujsebayeva, T.N. & Gio, X.-G. (2014) -
During the survey on the amphibians and reptiles diversity in Jinhe County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in June 2013, over twenty specimens of the racerunners were captured at the town of Bujiahu. Among them, four were identified as variegated racerunner, Eremisa vermiculata Blanford, 1875, which is the first record in the north of the Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. This discovery enriches our understanding of the distribution data of the variegated racerunner, and will facilitate the investigation of its phylogeographical pattern and testing the barrier effect of the Tianshan Mountains to gene flow.
刘金龙, 原秀云, 周天和, 李大江, Dujsebayeva, T.N. & 郭 宪 光 (2014) -
`#$’ 年 * 月! 在新疆维吾尔族自治区精河县两栖爬行动物多样性调察中! 采集到麻蜥属 `M*%?#+标本 `# 余号! 经鉴定其中 % 号为虫纹麻蜥`MK>%*?#3),+4+#! 为该种在新疆维吾尔自治区天 山以北地区的首次发现! 增加了其在国内的分布点& 此发现能为研究虫纹麻蜥的地理分布和生物地理 格局提供基础资料&
Liu, N.F. & Geng, Z.R. (1995) -
Food composition in stomaches of 209 adults and 43 juveniles of Eremiqs multiocellata in Minqin area of Gansu Province is analyzed. The results show that Eremias multiocellata is a kind of omnivorous animal which mainly feeds on beetles and Nitraria fruits. After its dormancy, this animal begins to strongly ingest, its ingesting rate being more than 83%.It has an obvious seasonal variation of feeding habit, i.e. only animals are ingested inspring, half of animal and plant in summer, and third of plant in autumn. The diversityof food and the breadth of trophic niche are increased with its increasing size growth.
Long-Ying W. (2007) -
In order to get the information about the population structure of lizards,107 lizards are trapped from the outskirts of Lanzhou in Gansu province.There are 52 E.argus and 55 P.frontalis respectively.The population density of E.argus is 129/hm2 and P.frontalis is 100/hm2.Every population is divided into two classes(the submature class and the mature class).For E.argus the average of SVL is 34.2 mm of the submature class and that of the mature class is 54.5 mm.For P.frontalis the average of SVL is 35.4 of the submature class,and that for the mature class is 57.9 mm.The sex ratio(♀:♂) of the population is 1∶1.07 for E.argus and 1∶0.94 for P.frontalis,so they are close to 1∶1.The results show that the two populations can live in one and the same area.Eremias argus wakes earlier than Phrynocephalus frontalis.The body temperature of lizards is influenced by the ambient temperature of the environment and their physiology can be maintained by their behaviors.
Loughland, R.A. & Cunningham, P.L. (2002) -
Lukina, G.P. & Kravchenko, T.F. (1982) -
Some data are presented on the ecology of two lizard species: Eremias velox and E. arguta inhabiting the so-called Ciscaucasian area of the USSR. Both species prefer sandy areas, but E. arguata being more eurytopic, is more tolerant to the anthropogenic disturbing effects in the Kalmykian region. Activity diagrams of both species have two maxima during the day. Beetles seem to be the dominant items in the diet of both species.
Luo, L.-G. & Qu, Y.-F. & Ji, X. (2006) -
We collected adult Eremias argus (Lacertidae) from a population in Yangquan (Shanxi, northern China) to study thermal dependence of food assimilation and sprint speed. Selected body temperature (Tsel) measured on a laboratory thermal gradient was 36.0 °C; critical thermal minimum (CTMin) and critical thermal maximum (CTMax) averaged 1.0 °C and 44.9 °C, respectively. Differences in Tsel, CTMin and CTMax were not found between-sex. Within the range of body temperatures considered, food passage time, daily food intake, daily production of feces and urates, apparent digestive coefficient (ADC) and assimilation efficiency (AE) were all affected by body temperature. Food passage time decreased with increase in body temperature within the range from 26 °C to 34 °C, and then increased at higher body temperatures. Lizards at 30, 32, 34 and 36 °C ate more food and produced more feces and urates than did those at 28 °C and 38 °C. Although ADC and AE were both higher at 34 °C and 36 °C than at other lower or higher temperatures, no clear patterns associated with temperature could be discerned for these two variables. Sprint speed increased with increase in body temperature within the range from 18 °C to 36 °C, and then decreased at 38 °C. The body temperatures maximizing sprint speed was around 36 °C, which was much close to the mean value of body temperatures selected by lizards on the thermal gradient. This result adds evidence that the range of optimal body temperatures for sprint speed is tightly coupled with Tsel in lizards [Acta Zoologica Sinica 52(2):256–262, 2006].
Ma, L. & Guo, K. & Su, S. & Lin, L.-H. & Xia, Y. & Ji, X. (2019) -
The reproductive maturation hypothesis, the terminal investment hypothesis, and the senescence hypothesis are the most extensively evaluated hypotheses proposed to explain age‐related patterns of reproduction in iteroparous organisms. Here, we evaluated these hypotheses for the Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus), a short‐lived lacertid lizard, by comparing reproductive traits between females that completed reproductive cycles under the same laboratory conditions in two consecutive years (2008 and 2009). Reproductive females gained linear size (snout‐vent length) not only as they got 1 year older but also during the breeding season. Larger females generally laid eggs earlier and invested more in reproduction than did smaller ones. Females switched from laying smaller eggs in the first clutch to larger eggs in the subsequent clutches but kept clutch size and postpartum body mass constant between successive clutches in a breeding season and between years. Females that laid more clutches or eggs in 2008 did not lay fewer clutches or eggs in 2009. Of the traits examined, only clutch frequency, annual fecundity, and annual reproductive output were susceptible to ageing. Specifically, the clutch frequency was reduced by 1.1 clutches, annual fecundity by 3.1 eggs and annual reproductive output by 1.0 g in 2009 compared with 2008. Our results suggest that the reproductive maturation hypothesis better explains patterns of reproduction in young or prime‐aged females of E. argus, whereas the senescence hypothesis better explains reproductive patterns in old females. The terminal investment hypothesis does not apply to any trait examined because no trait value was maximized in old females.
Ma, L. & Sun, B.-J. & Cao, P. & Li, X.-H. & Du, W.-G. (2018) -
Temperature variability is predicted to increase in the coming century due to climate change. However, the biological impact of increased temperature variability on animals remains largely unexplored. Here, we experimentally exposed gravid viviparous lizards (Eremias multiocellata) to two thermal environments [constant daily maximum (CDM) versus variable daily maximum (VDM) treatment with the same average temperature] to address maternal and offspring responses to increased variability in ambient temperature. Females from the VDM treatment delayed parturition, but produced similar litter sizes and litter masses as did CDM females. Offspring from the VDM treatment selected higher body temperatures, had higher metabolic rates and higher growth rates, and grew to a similar size as those from the CDM treatment despite having a shorter growth period prior to hibernation. Therefore, phenotypic plasticity may be critical for lizards to respond effectively to climate change, and its role in responding to increasingly variable temperatures warrants further attention.
Ma, L. & Sun, B.-J. & Li, S.-R. & Hao, X. & Bi, J.-H. & Du, W.-G. (2018) -
The vulnerability of species to climate warming varies along latitudinal and elevational clines, but how sympatric species vary in vulnerability to climate warming remains largely unknown. We experimentally simulated nest temperatures of two sympatric lizards with divergent microhabitat preferences (Phrynocephalus przewalskii and Eremias argus), under climate warming senarios, to determine the response of embryos to increased mean temperatures and heat waves. Our study demonstrated that simulated climate warming reduced hatching success and hatchling size and growth in E. argus (that prefers closed microhabitats), but had less effect in P. przewalskii (that occupies open microhabitats). The reduced growth rate of E. argus hatchlings was associated with a decrease in metabolic rate, which was more evident in hatchling E. argus than in P. przewalskii. Our results suggest lizards that prefer closed microhabitats may be more vulnerable to climate warming than those that prefer open microhabitats; further studies are needed to test this hypothesis. More generally, the divergent responses of sympatric species to climate warming highlights the importance of distinguishing the thermal sensitivity of behavior and physiology for each species of a community, in order to make predictions about the impacts of climate warming at regional scales.
Martin, T.E. & Guillemin, M. & Nivet-Mazerolles, V. & Landsman, C. & Dubos, J. & Eudeline, R. & Stroud, J.T. (2017) -
The diverse habitats of central Uzbekistan support a rich herpetofaunal community, but distributions and relative abundances of the species comprising this community remain poorly known. Here, we present an annotated species inventory of this under-explored area, with detailed notes on distributions and population statuses. Fieldwork was concentrated in southern Navoi and western Samarkand provinces, although some records were also made in the far north of Navoi province, near the city of Uchkuduk. Data were collected between March and May/June in 2011, 2012, and 2013, with herpetofaunal records being made opportunistically throughout this period. Survey effort was concentrated in semi-desert steppe area located to the south of the city of Navoi and an expanse of unnamed steppe located to the north of Navoi. Further records were made in a range of other habitat types, notably wetlands, sand dune fields, and low rocky mountains. Total fieldwork equated to approximately 8,680 person-hours of opportunistic survey effort. In total, we detected two amphibian and 26 reptile species in our study area, including one species classified as Globally Vulnerable by the IUCN. We present distributional data supporting the first record of regional range extensions of five species from within our study area. Our results represent the most detailed data concerning reptile and amphibian diversity and distributions produced from Uzbekistan in recent years. We conclude by recommending that further, systemized survey work needs to be conducted within the area to supplement our findings with more robust estimates of species abundances supported by more detailed information on specieshabitat relationships.
Maslova, I.V. (2016) -
Data on the distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the Russian Far East in the reserves and national parks of federal importance are presented, as well as the information on the representation of these groups of animals in regional Red Data Books and the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation is provided.
Mayer, W. (1989) -
Taxonomic changes and new findings concerning the subfamily Eremiainae in
Africa are summarized to update SZCZERBAK`s (1975) catalogue of the African Sand Lizards.
Furthermore, a key to the species and subspecies of the genus Pedioplanis is provided.
Mayer, W. (2013) -
A commented lacertids list for Europe, Africa, the Middle East, including the Arabian Peninsula and Asia is given.
Mayer, W. & Benyr, G. (1994) -
Die Albumine von 41 Arten der Familie Lacertidae, die einen maßgeblichen Anteil der Gattungen sowie
von infragenerischen Gruppen der Sammelgattung Lacerta s.l. repräsentieren, wurden mittels der MC`F-
Technik untersucht. Die Daten gestatten eine zeitliche Abschätzung der wesentlichsten Radiationsereignisse
und deren Korrelation mit paläogeographischen Gegebenheiten. Unsere Resultate stehen zum Teil in bemer-
kenswertem Widerspruch zu Ergebnissen von ARNOLD (1989a), die auf der Analyse vor allem
morphologischer Merkmale beruhen. Im wesentlichen ergaben sich folgende phylogenetische Beziehungen:
1. Die Gattungen Gallona und Psammodromus sind bereits seit dem Oligozän von den übrigen Taxa
isoliert. Wir taxieren diese beiden Hauptäste als Unterfamilien Gallotiinae und Lacertinae.
2. Lacerta s.str. und Lacerta Subgenus Zootoca stehen gemeinsam den restlichen Lacertinae als
3. Eine Besiedlung Afrikas im unteren Miozän führte zu einer Auftrennung in zwei Linien mit
hauptsächlich eurasischen beziehungsweise afrikanischen Vertetern.
4. ARNOLD`S (I.e.) `Ethiopian and advanced Saharo-Eurasian clade` erweist sich als paraphyletische
Einheit, denn ein Teil der Gattungen ist eng mit europäischen Formen verwandt.
Alle bisher in der Lacertidensystematik eingesetzten Methoden werden kritisch diskutiert. Eine Hypothese
zur raum-zeitlichen Erklärung der Phylogenie der Lacertidae wird präsentiert.
Mayer, W. & Pavlicev, M. (2007) -
The family Lacertidae encompasses more than 250 species distributed in the Palearctis, Ethiopis and Orientalis. Lacertids have been
subjected in the past to several morphological and molecular studies to establish their phylogeny. However, the problems of convergent
adaptation in morphology and of excessively variable molecular markers have hampered the establishment of well supported deeper phylogenetic
relationships. Particularly the adaptations to xeric environments have often been used to establish a scenario for the origin and
radiation of major lineages within lacertids. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic study based on two nuclear marker genes and
representatives of 37 lacertid genera and distinct species groups (as in the case of the collective genus Lacerta). Roughly 1600 bp of
the nuclear rag1 and c-mos genes were sequenced and analyzed. While the results provide good support to the hitherto suggested main
subfamilies of Gallotiinae (Gallotia and Psammodromus), Eremiainae and Lacertinae [Harris, D.J., Arnold, E.N., Thomas, R.H., 1998.
Relationships of lacertid lizards (Reptilia: Lacertidae) estimated from mitochondrial DNA sequences and morphology. Proc. R. Soc.
Lond. B 265, 1939–1948], they also suggest unexpected relationships. In particular, the oriental genus Takydromus, previously considered
the sister-group to the three subfamilies, is nested within Lacertinae. Moreover, the genera within the Eremiainae are further divided into
two groups, roughly corresponding to their respective geographical distributions in the Ethiopian and the Saharo-Eurasian ranges. The
results support an independent origin of adaptations to xeric conditions in different subfamilies. The relationships within the subfamily
Lacertinae could not be resolved with the markers used. The species groups of the collective genus Lacerta show a bush-like topology in
the inferred Bayesian tree, suggesting rapid radiation. The composition of the subfamilies Eremiainae and Lacertinae as well as their
phylogeography are discussed.
Mazanayeva, L.F. & Tuniyev, B.S. (2011) -
The paper describes the history of biogeographic views on the herpetofauna of both Dagestan and the Caucasus as a whole. The species are grouped into eight zoogeographic groups on the basis of our de- tailed chorological analysis. Mesophilous and xerophilous refuges of the Dagestan herpetofauna are de- scribed. Our herpeto-geographical subdivision of the territory is given. The territory of Dagestan is lo- cated in the Palaearctic subkingdom of Holarctic kingdom and divided between two areas, namely, the Turanian and Mediterranean ones. The boundary between the regions is the junction of the northern foot- hills and plains of the Eastern Caucasus. A possible reconstruction of the regional herpetofauna genesis is considered.
Мазанаева Л.Ф. & Туниев Б.С. (2011) -
Рассмотрены история биогеографических взглядов о герпетофауне Дагестана и Кавказа в целом. На базе детального анализа хорологии виды сгруппированы в 8 зоогеографических групп. Описа- ны мезофильные и ксерофильные рефугиумы герпетофауны Дагестана, дано герпетогеографиче- ское районирование его территории. Территория Дагестана расположена в Палеарктическом под- царстве Голарктического царства и подразделяется между двумя областями: Туранской и Среди- земноморской. Граница между областями проходит по стыку северных предгорий и равнин Вос- точного Предкавказья. Рассмотрены возможные пути исторического формирования герпетофауны региона.
Méhely, L. (1901) -
Méhely, L. (1909) -
Meiri, S. (2008) -
Aim Body size is instrumental in influencing animal physiology, morphology, ecology and evolution, as well as extinction risk. I examine several hypotheses regarding the influence of body size on lizard evolution and extinction risk, assessing whether body size influences, or is influenced by, species richness, herbivory, island dwelling and extinction risk.
Methods I used literature data and measurements of museum and live specimens to estimate lizard body size distributions.
Results I obtained body size data for 99% of the world`s lizard species. The body size–frequency distribution is highly modal and right skewed and similar distributions characterize most lizard families and lizard assemblages across biogeographical realms. There is a strong negative correlation between mean body size within families and species richness. Herbivorous lizards are larger than omnivorous and carnivorous ones, and aquatic lizards are larger than non-aquatic species. Diurnal activity is associated with small body size. Insular lizards tend towards both extremes of the size spectrum. Extinction risk increases with body size of species for which risk has been assessed.
Main conclusions Small size seems to promote fast diversification of disparate body plans. The absence of mammalian predators allows insular lizards to attain larger body sizes by means of release from predation and allows them to evolve into the top predator niche. Island living also promotes a high frequency of herbivory, which is also associated with large size. Aquatic and nocturnal lizards probably evolve large size because of thermal constraints. The association between large size and high extinction risk, however, probably reflects a bias in the species in which risk has been studied.
Meiri, S. & Bauer, A.M. & Chirio, L. & Colli, G.R. & Das, I. & Doan, T.M. & Feldman, A. & Herrera, F.-C. & Novosolov, M. & Pafilis, P. Pincheira-Donoso, D. & Powney, G. & Torres-Carvajal, O. & Uetz, P. & Van Damme, R. (2013) -
Aim Temperature influences most components of animal ecology and life history
– but what kind of temperature? Physiologists usually examine the influence of
body temperatures, while biogeographers and macroecologists tend to focus on
environmental temperatures. We aim to examine the relationship between these
two measures, to determine the factors that affect lizard body temperatures and to
test the effect of both temperature measures on lizard life history.
Methods We used a large (861 species) global dataset of lizard body temperatures,
and the mean annual temperatures across their geographic ranges to examine
the relationships between body and mean annual temperatures.We then examined
factors influencing body temperatures, and tested for the influence of both on
ecological and life-history traits while accounting for the influence of shared
Results Body temperatures and mean annual temperatures are uncorrelated.
However, accounting for activity time (nocturnal species have low body temperatures),
use of space (fossorial and semi-aquatic species are ‘colder’), insularity
(mainland species are ‘hotter’) and phylogeny, the two temperatures are positively
correlated. High body temperatures are only associated with larger hatchlings and
increased rates of biomass production. Annual temperatures are positively correlated
with clutch frequency and annual longevity, and negatively correlated with
clutch size, age at first reproduction and longevity.
Main conclusions Lizards with low body temperatures do not seem to have
‘slower’ life-history attributes than species with high body temperatures. The longer
seasons prevalent in warm regions, and physiological processes that operate while
lizards are inactive (but warm enough), make environmental temperatures better
predictors of lizard life-history variation than body temperatures. This surprisingly
greater effect of environmental temperatures on lizard life histories hints that global
warming may have a profound influence on lizard ecology and evolution.
Meiri, S. & Brown, J.H. & Sibly, R.M. (2011) -
Aim We provide a new quantitative analysis of lizard reproductive ecology. Comparative
studies of lizard reproduction to date have usually considered life-history
components separately. Instead, we examine the rate of production (productivity
hereafter) calculated as the total mass of offspring produced in a year. We test
whether productivity is influenced by proxies of adult mortality rates such as
insularity and fossorial habits, by measures of temperature such as environmental
and body temperatures, mode of reproduction and activity times, and by environmental
productivity and diet. We further examine whether low productivity is
linked to high extinction risk.
Methods We assembled a database containing 551 lizard species, their phylogenetic
relationships and multiple life history and ecological variables from the literature.
We use phylogenetically informed statistical models to estimate the factors
related to lizard productivity.
Results Some, but not all, predictions of metabolic and life-history theories are
supported. When analysed separately, clutch size, relative clutch mass and brood
frequency are poorly correlated with body mass, but their product – productivity –
is well correlated with mass. The allometry of productivity scales similarly to
metabolic rate, suggesting that a constant fraction of assimilated energy is allocated
to production irrespective of body size. Island species were less productive than
continental species.Mass-specific productivity was positively correlated with environmental
temperature, but not with body temperature. Viviparous lizards were
less productive than egg-laying species. Diet and primary productivity were not
associated with productivity in any model. Other effects, including lower productivity
of fossorial, nocturnal and active foraging species were confounded with
phylogeny. Productivity was not lower in species at risk of extinction.
Main conclusions Our analyses show the value of focusing on the rate of annual
biomass production (productivity), and generally supported associations between
productivity and environmental temperature, factors that affect mortality and the
number of broods a lizard can produce in a year, but not with measures of body
temperature, environmental productivity or diet.
Meiri, S., Bauer, A.M., Allison, A., et al. (2018) -
Aim: Small geographic ranges make species especially prone to extinction from an- thropogenic disturbances or natural stochastic events. We assemble and analyse a comprehensive dataset of all the world’s lizard species and identify the species with the smallest ranges—those known only from their type localities. We compare them to wide-ranging species to infer whether specific geographic regions or biological traits predispose species to have small ranges.
Methods: We extensively surveyed museum collections, the primary literature and our own field records to identify all the species of lizards with a maximum linear geo- graphic extent of <10 km. We compared their biogeography, key biological traits and threat status to those of all other lizards.
Results: One in seven lizards (927 of the 6,568 currently recognized species) are known only from their type localities. These include 213 species known only from a single specimen. Compared to more wide-ranging taxa, they mostly inhabit relatively inaccessible regions at lower, mostly tropical, latitudes. Surprisingly, we found that burrowing lifestyle is a relatively unimportant driver of small range size. Geckos are especially prone to having tiny ranges, and skinks dominate lists of such species not seen for over 50 years, as well as of species known only from their holotype. Two- thirds of these species have no IUCN assessments, and at least 20 are extinct.
Main conclusions: Fourteen per cent of lizard diversity is restricted to a single location, often in inaccessible regions. These species are elusive, usually poorly known and little studied. Many face severe extinction risk, but current knowledge is inadequate to properly assess this for all of them. We recommend that such species become the focus of taxonomic, ecological and survey efforts.
Melnikov, D.A. (2011) -
The distribution of steppe-runners in the surveyed region depends on the presence of sandy substrates. Eremias arguta inhabits sandy steppes with low vegetation. The northern distribution limit of steppe- runners in the south of European Russia lies about 50 – 53°N. The morphological character of steppe- runners there shows both cline and discrete variations. The cline variations are independent in the Don and Volga basins, which supports the idea of past distribution ways of the species. A gradient of discrete characters also occurs in the Don and Volga interfluves. There are some populations in the Taman penin- sula and Daghestan which are characterized by a unique combination of characters. Some individuals from the right-side Volga-river populations are characterized by a morphology intermediate between E. a. arguta and E. a. deserti, because of the intergradation zone adjacency. Substrate «loose sand» and «im- movable sand» forms in the Middle Don-river populations were discovered.
Мельников Д.А. (2011) -
В результате проведенного исследования удалось установить, что распространение вида на территории России определяется наличием песчаных грунтов. Разноцветная ящурка населяет песчаные степи ранних стадий зарастания. Северная граница распространения вида на исследуемой территории проходит примерно на 50 - 53° с.ш. Разноцветная ящурка на территории Европейской части России имеет сложную популяционную структуру. Количественные и качественные признаки характеризуются клинальной и дискретной изменчивостью. Клинальная изменчивость выражена в бассейнах Дона и Волги независимо - в прошлом продвижение вида на север происходило по пескам речных долин. Перепад частот дискретных признаков также наблюдается в Волго-Донском междуречье. Имеются изолированные популяции вида, характеризующиеся особым сочетанием признаков на Таманском полуострове и на Червленых Бурунах. У особей некоторых популяций разноцветной ящурки с правобережья Волги имеются признаки промежуточного характера между западным и номинативным подвидами - это обусловлено близостью зоны интерградации этих подвидов. На песках Среднего Дона у разноцветной ящурки есть эдафические формы, соответствующие условиям обитания на сыпучих или закрепленных песках.
Melville, R.V. (1981) -
Ménétries, E. (1832) -
Mertens, R. (1921) -
Mertens, R. (1952) -
Mertens, R. (1957) -
Mertens, R. (1969) -
Mertens, R. & Müller, L. (1928) -
Mertens, R. & Wermuth, H. (1960) -
Mikaili, P. & Shayegh, J. (2011) -
The etymology of the reptiles, especially the lizards of Iran has not been completely presented in
other published works. Iran is a very active geographic area for any animals, and more especially for lizards,
due to its wide range deserts and ecology. We have attempted to ascertain, as much as possible, the construction
of the Latin binomials of all Iranian lizard species. We believe that a review of these names is instructive, not
only in codifying many aspects of the biology of the lizards, but in presenting a historical overview of collectors
and taxonomic work in Iran and Middle East region. We have listed all recorded lizards of Iran according to
the order of the scientific names in the book of Anderson, The Lizards of Iran. All lizard species and types have
been grouped under their proper Families, and then they have been alphabetically ordered based on their
scientific binominal nomenclature. We also examined numerous published works in addition to those included
in the original papers presenting each binomial.
Mishagina, J.V. (1991) -
Mishagina, J.V. (1992) -
Mishagina, J.V. (2008) -
Mishagina, J.V.M. (2005) -
Mishagina, J.V.M. (2007) -
Diet of sand racerunner (Eremias scripta, Lacertidae) was studied in barchan sands of Eastern Kara Kum (Turkmenistan, Repetek biosphere reserve) in May – June and in August, 1989. There were discovered remains of 424 prey items in feces of 28 individuals of E. scripta. The paper analyzes food habits of racerunners by biocoenotic indexing method. Lizards’ preys were divided into nineteen elementary ecological groups and several mass categories.
Mishagina, Z.V. (1988) -
Misyura, A.N. & Bulakhov, V.L. & Gasso, V.Y. & Sukhanova, V.N. & Poloz, O.V. (1995) -
Mocquard, F. (1910) -
Molavi, F. & Kalat, T.M. & Yazdanpanah, M. & Kiabi, B.H. & Kami, H.G. (2017) -
Markazi Province with its extended deserts and Anderson reported Eremias intermedia Strauch 1876, from Iran-Afghanistan border and Eremias nigrocellata Nikolsky 1896 from north and east of Iran. He also represented some features for recognition of these similar species. This study that lasted about one year was aimed at identifying herpetofauna of Kharturan protected area. 15 specimens of Eremias were obtained their measurements in agreement with the characters of neither Eremias intermedia nor Eremias nigrocellata that descrtibed by Anderson from Iran.
Monkhbayar, K. (1981) -
Monkhbayar, K. (2018) -
New record of 3 species of amphibians (Hynobius keyserlingii, Bufo viridis, Rana chensinensis) and 9 species of reptiles (Teratoscincus przewalskii, Alsophylax pipiens, Gymnodactylus elongatus, Eremias argus, Eremias arguta potanini, Eremias vermiculata, Lacerta vivipara, Ery tataricus, Coluber spinalis) in Mongolia over the last 20 years have been reported.
Moravec, J. (1994) -
Mozaffari, O. & Ahmadzadeh, F. & Parham, J. F. (2011) -
We describe a new species of Eremias lacertid from the Alborz Mountain range in northern Iran (Tehran Province). Eremias
papenfussi n. sp. is part of the Eremias subgenus (or morphotype) by virtue of lacking lateral fringes on the fourth
toe and color pattern. It can be further differentiated from previously described species assigned to this morphotype by the absence of distinctly keeled upper caudal scales, gular scales that do not extend to the second inframaxiallary scales, color pattern, and scale counts. Eremias papenfussi is found on rocky mountain slopes of the Alborz where it is presumed to have a much broader distribution than demonstrated by the available specimens. Of the 15 species of Eremias known from Iran, E. papenfussi is the fifth species known to inhabit rocky mountain slopes along with E. strauchi, E. lalezharica, E. montanus and E. novo.
Mozaffari, O. & Parham, J.F. (2007) -
A new species of lacertid lizard, Eremias kavirensis sp.nov., is described from Isfahan Province in central Iran. The new species differs from all other known Iranian Eremias by having a subocoluar scale that does not reach the mouth, fringed toes, scales on flank distinctly larger than those of back, two rows of tibial scales, and its coloration. The known distribution of this distinctive new species is restricted to the Maranjaab sand dunes, Kavir Desert (Dasht-e-Kavir), Isfahan Province, Iran.
Mulder, J. (1995) -
Munkhbaatar, M. & Terbish, H. & Bobrov, V.V. & Erdenetushig, P. (2018) -
М.Мунхбаатар & Х.Тэрбиш & В.В.Бобров & П.Эрдэнэтушиг (2018) -
Munkhbayar, K. & Borkin, L.J. (2010) -
A new subspecies of the multi-ocellated racerunner, Eremias multiocellata tsaganbogdensis Munkhbayar et
Borkin, 2010, subsp. nov. (Lacertidae) is described. Holotype: ZISP.19956.1, Department of Herpetology,
Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. Type territory: Tsagaan Bogd Uul
Mountain, Bayanhongor Aymak, southern Mongolia.
Munkhbayar, K. & Borkin, L.J. (2018) -
A new subspecies of the multi-ocellated racerunner, Eremias multiocellata tsaganbogdensis Munkhbayar et Borkin, 2010, subsp. nov. (Lacertidae) is described. Holotype: ZISP.19956.1, Department of Herpetology, Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. Type territory: Tsagaan Bogd Uul Mountain, Bayanhongor Aymak, southern Mongolia.
Munkhbayar, K. & Borkin, L.Y. (1990) -
Munkhbayar, K. & Munkhbaatar, M. (2018) -
From the viewpoint of evolution, the classes of amphibians and reptiles could be considered as relicts, and because they are poikilothermic animals, it’s very difficult for these species to live under the dry and cold climatic conditions in Mongolia. Even species diversity is poor, Mongolian herpetological composition is unique, highly adopted to the country’s harsh climate and originated a long time ago. In Mongolia, 6 species of amphibians belong to four genera, four families and two orders and the recorded 21 species of reptiles belong to 13 genera in 6 families of 2 suborders.
Nasrabadi, R. & Rastegar-Pouyani, E. & Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S. & Khani, A. (2016) -
The reptile`s fauna of Sabzevar was investigated during 10 years (2003-2013). In total 42
species belonging to 29 genera, 13 families and two orders (Squamata and Testudines)
were collected and identified. The most diverse group in the area is lizards with 23
species, followed by snakes with 18 species and the testudines with one species. The most
diverse families are Colubridae, Lacertidae with 8 and Gekkonidae with 5 species
respectively, followed by Agamidae with 4 species, Viperidae, Boidae and Scincidae with
3 species each, Lamrophiidae and Spherodactylidae with 2 species and 4 families
Elapidae, Thyphlopidae, Varanidae and Testudonidae with only one species each.
Nerutschev, W.W. & Kosyreva, O.A. & Nakarenok, E.H. (1989) -
Nikolsky, A.M. (1886) -
Nikolsky, A.M. (1896) -
Nikolsky, A.M. (1897) -
Nikolsky, A.M. (1907) -
Nikolsky, A.M. (1915) -
Nilson, G. & Andren, C.. (1981) -
Siebzehn Reptilien- und eine Amphibien-Art wurden bisher aus dem Kavir-Schutz- gebiet in der Kavir-Wüste Irans gemeldet. Es sind dies Agamura persica, Aga.ma a. agilis, Phrynocephalus scutellatus, Phrynocephalus maculatus, Varanus griseus caspius, Eremias andersoni, Eremias persica, Mesalina guttulata watsonana, Eumeces schneiderii princeps, Ophiomorus nuchalis, Coluber k. karelini, Coluber rhodorhachis ladacensis, Psammo- phis schokari, Spalerosophis diadema schirazianus, Echis carinatus, Pseudocerastes p. persicus und Bufo kavirensis. Eine Art der Gattung Uromastyx, wahrscheinlich U. as- mussi, konnte auch für das Gebiet registriert werden. Agama b. blanfordi, Phryno- cephalus helioscopus persicus und Ophisops e. elegans wurden aus Gebieten südlich und westlich des Kavir-Schutzgebietes gemeldet, können aber ebensogut auch dort vorkom- men. Einige taxonomische Fragen werden diskutiert sowie Daten, die Habitus und Verbreitung betreffen, angeführt.
Nordmann, A. (1840) -
Obst, F.J. (1962) -
Obst, F.J. (1963) -
Oefinger, B. & Oefinger, P. (2013) -
Orlov, V.F. (2008) -
Orlova, V.F. (1986) -
Orlova, V.F. (1989) -
Orlova, V.F. (1991) -
Orlova, V.F. (1992) -
Orlova, V.F. (1993) -
Orlova, V.F. (2008) -
Orlova, V.F. & Chirikova, M.A. & Nazarov, R.A. & Poyarkov, N.A. (2016) -
Four species from the E. multiocellata-complex occur in Kyrgyzstan and southeastern Kazakhstan. e taxonomic state of the populations from Kazakhstan is ambiguous. e results of comparative morpho- logical analysis (habitus, color pattern on the dorsal side of the body, metric and meristic characters) in the E.stummeri from two localities in Kyrgyzstan (including type locality) and south-eastern Kazakh- stan are presented. Signi cant di erences were revealed in Sq., G. and L. /L. cd features. As a result, the racerunners from the southeastern Kazakhstan are morphologically identi ed as E. stummeri. Our ob- servations and the analysis of the museum collections con rm independent speci c states of three allo- patric species of E. multiocellata-complex in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakh Tien Shan.
Orlova, V.F. & Chirikova, M.A. & Pavlinov, I.Y. (2012) -
Steppe-runner Eremias arguta (Pallas 1773) is one of the most widespread species of the Asian racerunners (genus Eremias) inhabiting steppes, semi-deserts and deserts of Eastern Europe, Middle and Central Asia. Several subspecies were traditionally recognized, however, their morphological variability is so high that the delimitation and establishing of formal taxonomical status of some populations was always problematic. The metric and meristic morphological characters of E. arguta from 12 populations of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, northwestern China and southwestern Mongolia were analyzed using different multivariate statistic methods and preliminary results of molecular analysis of mtDNA cytochrome b gene. The studied populations are clustered in five groups. Based on both morphological and molecular characters, the southernmost populations from Uzbekistan and Chimkent region (Kazakhstan) form a clearly separated group E. a. uzbekistanica, quite different from all other subspecies. The populations from the Ili River valley (southeastern Kazakhstan and northwestern China) were formerly considered as transitional ones between E. a. arguta — E. a. uzbekistanica or E. a. potarcini, but in fact they represent a separate form. The easternmost samples assigned as `E. a. potanini` are deeply nested within E. a. arguta cluster and seem to be a local form with clinal variation of morphological characters.
Орлова В.Ф. & Чирикова М.А. & Павлинов И.Я. (2012) -
Разноцветная ящурка один из наиболее широко распространенных видов азиатских ящурок, населяющий степи, полупустыни и пустыни Восточной Европы, Средней и Центральной Азии. Традиционно внутри вида распознавали несколько подвидов, однако изменчивость признаков внешней морфологии так высока, что определение подвидов и придание таксономического статуса некоторым популяциям, особенно в восточной части ареала, всегда было проблематичным.
Orlova, V.F. & Dunaev, E.A. (1992) -
Orlova, V.F. & Dunayev, E.A. & Nazarov, R.A. & Terbish, K. & Erdentushig, P. (2014) -
Here we present the main results of our 2008 field research held in the south-western Mongolia by a herpetological team of the Russian – Mongolian biological expedition. 13 reptile species belonging to five families and eight genera have been recorded. Phrynocephalus versicolor was the most widespread and abundant lizard species. Eremias przewalskii and E. multiocellata were also common in semi-fixed sands subjected to considerable over-grazing (Dundgov’, Umnegov’). Several new localities for Ph.versicolor hispida and E. m. multiocellata and E. m. reticulata are reported. Cyrtopodion elongatum was found in the Nogondov (=Nogon-Dovon) valley located in 300 km northwards from the previously known occurrence of this species. This valley inhabited by Teratoscincus przewalskii, Eremias vermiculata, and Eryx tataricus can be considered as the most western part of the Trans-Altai Gobi Desert adjacent to the Mongolian Dzungaria. The actual status of the C. elongatum populations seems to be out of concern because, according to our night observations, the population density exceeds 20 ind per 500 m². The taxonomical status of Ph. v. hispida and E. m. reticulata is discussed, and the specific status of racerunners collected in the area of their sympatry in the Hovd aimag was confirmed. Some coloration features of living adults and juveniles individuals of the lizards (especially, Eremias and Phrynocephalus species) are reported.
Orlova, V.F. & Dunayev, E.A. & Nazarov, R.A. & Terbish, Kh. & Erdentushig, P. (2014) -
Here we present the main results of our 2008 field research held in the south-western Mongolia by a herpetological
team of the Russian – Mongolian biological expedition. 13 reptile species belonging to five
families and eight genera have been recorded. Phrynocephalus versicolor was the most widespread and
abundant lizard species. Eremias przewalskii and E. multiocellata were also common in semi-fixed sands
subjected to considerable over-grazing (Dundgov’, Umnegov’). Several new localities for Ph.versicolor
hispida and E. m. multiocellata and E. m. reticulata are reported. Cyrtopodion elongatum was found in
the Nogondov (=Nogon-Dovon) valley located in 300 km northwards from the previously known occurrence
of this species. This valley inhabited by Teratoscincus przewalskii, Eremias vermiculata, and Eryx
tataricus can be considered as the most western part of the Trans-Altai Gobi Desert adjacent to the Mongolian
Dzungaria. The actual status of the C. elongatum populations seems to be out of concern because,
according to our night observations, the population density exceeds 20 ind per 500 m². The taxonomical
status of Ph. v. hispida and E. m. reticulata is discussed, and the specific status of racerunners collected in
the area of their sympatry in the Hovd aimag was confirmed. Some coloration features of living adults
and juveniles individuals of the lizards (especially, Eremias and Phrynocephalus species) are reported.
Key words: herpetofauna, geographic distribution, population density, habitats, body coloration, southwestern
Орлова В.Ф., Дунаев Е.А., Назаров Р.А., Тэрбиш Х., Эрдэнтушиг П. (2014) -
Приведены фаунистические результаты пяти экспедиций (1995, 1996, 2007, 2011 и 2012 гг.) в восточную и северо-восточную Турцию. Материал собран на хребтах Понтийском (Лазистанском), Арсиянском, Шавшетском, Чимен, Гюмушхане, в бассейне р. Чорох, бассейнах верхнего течения рек Аракс, Кура, Евфрат, Тигр, Харшит (Доганкент) и в бассейне озера Ван. В общей сложности было найдено 2 вида хвостатых амфибий, 6 видов бесхвостых амфибий, 2 вида (3 подвида) черепах, 25 видов (30 подвидов) ящериц и 21 вид змей.
Orlova, V.F. & Poyarkov, N.A. & Chirikova, M.A. & Nazarov, R.A. & Munkhbataar, M. & Munkhbayar, K. & Terbish, K. (2017) -
We provide an integrative analysis of the diversity of the E. multiocellata—E. przewalskii species complex in Central and Middle Asia using morphological and molecular (COI DNA-barcoding) data. We report preliminary data on mtDNA variation within this group and clarify the taxonomic status and distribution of the members of the species complex. We also provide a description of a new Eremias species from Eastern Kazakhstan and western Mongolia, where it occurs in sympatry with E. multiocellata sensu stricto, from which it can be clearly differentiated using both morphological and molecular characters. The new species, described as Eremias dzungarica sp. nov., is assigned to the subgenus Pareremias on the basis of the following features: subocular not reaching mouth edge; one frontonasal; two supraoculars; the row of small granular scales between supraoculars and frontal with frontoparietals absent; distance between the femoral pore rows being wide; femoral pore rows not reaching knee-joint; coloration pattern with light colored ocelli with black edging. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners on the basis of the following morphological attributes: a mediumsized lacertid lizard, maximum snout-vent length (SVL) = 64.5 mm, tail being ca. 1.5 times longer than body length (SVL), hindlimbs relatively long (hindlimb length to SVL ratio 0.46); subocular scale not reaching mouth edge, in touch with 6–8 supralabials; males with bright coloration consisting of 2–3 dorsolateral rows of light-colored ocelli with thick black edging; the ventral row of ocelli in life is greenish to bluish; dorsal pattern consisting of black irregular blotches along the middorsal line. We also report on the high genetic and morphological diversity of E. multiocellata in Mongolia and China, synonymize E. m. bannikowi with the nominative form E. m. multiocellata, discuss variation within E. przewalskii, synonymize E. p. tuvensis with the nominative form E. przewalskii, provide new data on E. cf. reticulata and E. m. tsaganbogdensis, confirm validity and clarify distribution ranges of E. stummeri, E. szczerbaki and E. yarkandensis and discuss further progress on taxonomic studies of the E. multiocellata—E. przewalskii species complex.
Orlova, V.F. & Poyarkov, N.A. & Chirikova, M.A. & Dolotovskaya, S.I. (2007) -
Orlova, V.F. & Terbish, Kh. (1986) -
Orlova, V.F. & Terbish, Kh. (1997) -
Pallas, P.S. (1771) -
Pallas, P.S. (1773) -
Pallas, P.S. (1793) -
Panner, T. (2003) -
Park, H.-C. & Suk, H.-J. & Jeong, E.-J. & Park, D.-S. (2014) -
The Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus) is a small lacertid lizard species, and its distribution range encompasses the Korean Peninsula, Mongolia, China and Russia. Eremias argus is widespread, but populations on the Korean Peninsula are small and declining, provoking concerns that genetic diversity is being lost. This species is currently listed under the Protection of Wild Fauna and Flora Act in South Korea. In this study, nine novel microsatellites for E. argus were developed with a biotin-enrichment method and used to understand its population genetic structure and delineate conservation units on the Korean Peninsula. Overall, low intrapopulation genetic diversity was observed (mean number of alleles per locus = 2.463; mean H E = 0.398) from 10 populations investigated (n = 110). Two populations (among five with n≥ 10) showed an excess of heterozygosity expected under HWE relative to that expected at mutation-drift equilibrium, indicating severe reduction in population sizes. With only a few exceptions, the overall genetic differentiation among populations was substantial with the high levels of pairwise-F ST (0.006-0.746) and -R ST (0.034-0.940) values. The results of Bayesian STRUCTURE analysis showed that E. argus populations on the Korean Peninsula were most likely partitioned into three genetic clusters. Taken all together, such low levels of gene flow and strong genetic structuring have critical implications for the conservation of this endangered species and its management.
Pavlicev, M. & Mayer, W. (2009) -
Lacertinae is one of the three lacertid lizard subfamilies with a geographical distribution confined to the
Palaearctic. Several past attempts to reconstruct its phylogeny resulted in unresolved bush-like topologies.
We address the question of whether the lack of resolution is due to insufficient data or whether this
lack reflects a rapid succession of speciation events. We analyzed four partial and one complete gene
sequences from mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, totalling roughly 3600 bp. We included 29 species
representing all 19 genera suggested in recent revision of Lacertinae [Arnold, E.N., Arribas, O., Carranza, S.,
2007. Systematics of the palaearctic and oriental lizard tribe Lacertini (Squamata: Lacertidae: Lacertinae),
with descriptions of eight new genera. Zootaxa 1430, 1–86]. The resulting phylogeny, first, corroborates
monophyly at the genus level for the suggested genera, as well as the finding that Atlantolacerta andreanskyi,
until recently part of Lacertinae, belongs to the subfamily Eremiadinae. Second, we find that
increasing the sequence length and combining multiple nuclear and mitochondrial sequences did not
resolve the polytomy, suggesting that the inferred topology indicates a multiple cladogenesis within a
short geological period, rather than a methodical artefact. Divergence time estimates, based on previous
estimates of several node ages, range from 13.9 to 14.9 million years for the radiation event, however
with very broad confidence interval. To associate the radiation with a narrower geological time we consider
palaeogeographic and palaeoclimatic data, assuming that the Lacertinae probably evolved in Central
Europe andWAsia after the collision of Africa and Eurasia. We suggest that this radiation may date to the
late Langhian (ca. 14–13.5 million years) when geological events caused abrupt changes in regional
water–land distribution and climate, offering a window of distinct conditions.
Pérez i de Lanuza, G. & Font, E. (2016) -
Many animals display complex colour patterns that comprise several adjacent, often contrasting colour patches. Combining patches of complementary colours increases the overall conspicuousness of the complex pattern, enhancing signal detection. Therefore, selection for conspicuousness may act not only on the design of single colour patches, but also on their combination. Contrasting long- and short-wavelength colour patches are located on the ventral and lateral surfaces of many lacertid lizards. As the combination of long- and short-wavelength-based colours generates local chromatic contrast, we hypothesized that selection may favour the co-occurrence of lateral and ventral contrasting patches, resulting in complex colour patterns that maximize the overall conspicuousness of the signal. To test this hypothesis we performed a comparative phylogenetic study using a categorical colour classification based on spectral data and descriptive information on lacertid coloration collected from the literature. Our results demonstrate that conspicuous ventral (long wavelength-based) and lateral (short wavelength-based) colour patches co-occur throughout the lacertid phylogeny more often than expected by chance, especially in the subfamily Lacertini. These results suggest that selection promotes the evolution of the complex pattern rather than the acquisition of a single conspicuous colour patch, possibly due to the increased conspicuousness caused by the combination of colours with contrasting spectral properties.
Peters, G. (1958) -
Peters, G. (2018) -
Peters, W.C.H. (1869) -
Petzold, H.-G. (1977) -
Petzold, H.-G. (1981) -
Pope, C.H. (1935) -
Pour, F.E. & Rastegar-Pouyani, E. & Ghorbani, B. (2016) -
Poyarkov Jr., N.A. & Orlova, V.F. & Chirikova, M.A. (2014) -
Steppe racerunner, Eremias (Eremias) arguta, is one of the most widespread species of the Asian racerunners (genus Er-emias). Several subspecies were traditionally recognized however, morphological variability is so high that delimitation of these subspecies was always problematic. Here we present a phylogenetic hypothesis for this species based on cyto-chrome b sequences (55 samples from 35 populations, 900 bp partial sequences), infer it biogeography and the revise its subspecific structure. Six major phylogenetic lineages were revealed. The southernmost populations (E. a. uzbekistanica) from Uzbekistan form a clade together with the Issyk-Kul Lake subspecies (E. a. darevskii) based on both molecular and morphological evidence. Within more northern populations, there is a split between populations from Northern Caucasus, Europe and Western Kazakhstan (E. a. deserti) and Central and Eastern Kazakhstan populations (E. a. arguta). Transcau-casian (E. a. transcaucasica) steppe racerunners are grouped with Middle Asian populations. Finally, the easternmost samples, assigned to “E. a. potanini” are nested within the E. a. arguta clade. Populations from the Ili River Valley form a separate lineage sister to the clade joining all other E. arguta lineages and might represent a yet undescribed taxon. Spe-cies distribution in relation to historical biogeography of Middle Asia is discussed.
Procter, J.B. (1921) -
Prokopov, K.P. (1978) -
Prokopov, K.P. (1996) -
Prokopov, K.P. (2002) -
Qi-Lei, H., Hong-Xia, L., Xiang, J. (2006) -
We used the Mongolian racerunner Eremias argus as a model animal to evaluate the effects of constant versus fluctuating incubation temperatures on hatching success and hatchling phenotypes. Eggs were incubated under four constant [24, 27, 30 and 33 (±0.3) °C] and one fluctuating temperature regimes. Hatching success did not differ among treatments, and incubation temperature did not affect the sexual phenotype of hatchlings. Incubation length decreased exponentially as incubation temperature increased, and eggs incubated at fluctuating temperatures took a longer time to complete development than did those incubated at constant temperatures with the same mean. Of the hatchling phenotypes examined, body dry mass, carcass dry mass, residual yolk dry mass and locomotor performance of hatchlings were more likely to be affected by incubation temperature. Overall, locomotor performance was best in the low temperature treatments (24 °C and 27 °C) and worst in the high temperature treatment (33 °C), with the moderate temperature treatments (30 °C and fluctuating temperatures) in between. Our data show that: (1) daily exposure of eggs to extreme temperatures that are potentially lethal to embryos for brief periods does not have detectable adverse effects on hatching success and morphological phenotypes in E. argus; and (2) thermal fluctuations exert no positive effects on locomotor performance of hatchlings but influence incubation length differently than constant temperatures with the same mean [Acta Zoologica Sinica 52(6):1049 – 1057, 2006].
Qiang, C. (1995) -
The resting metabolic rates (RMR) of two species of lizards Eremias argus and Phrynocephalus frontalis were measured in April and May 1990. The results showed a positive correlation between RMR and temperature and an inversely exponential relationship of RMR with body weight. Laboratory acclimation indicated that the rates of bodyweight losting in both species of lizard were more sensitive to temperature in the range of 10～15℃ and 20～25℃. The circadian ryhthm of RMR of both species were also noted. The difference of RMR between two species was not significant.
Radde, G. (1899) -
Rahbar, A. & Karami, M. & Rastegar-Pouyani, N. & Mohammadi, A. (2011) -
Eremias montanus belonging to the family Lacertidae and is an endemic lizard of Iran. Endemic species because only certain geographical areas there are many values are for academic studies. In this study to find these regions to make a lot of Hamedan province were studied, but observed only in Alvand Mountain in 18 km Hamedan province. The research was performed from early April until late November in 2009; while this species spend hibernation and samples were collected by line transect method. In total 13 samples were collected the 10 specimens were mature and 3 specimens were immature and morphological, ecological and ethological studies were conducted on them. In this study, for the first time this species was detected in Hamedan province, whereas reported only in previous studies of Siah dareh Village in Kermanshah province.
Rastegar-Pouyani, E. (2009) -
The rapid fringe-toed lizard, Eremias velox, is widely distributed in the Iranian plateau and
Central Asia. Several local morphotypes have so far been reported from different parts of
its range, representing this taxon as a species complex. In an attempt to reveal
phylogenetic relationships among various populations of this complex group, 37
specimens from 13 geographically distant localities in Iran and central Asia, covering
most parts of its range, were sampled. Using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat amplification
(ISSR-PCR) as a molecular marker, whole the nuclear genome of all specimens was
screened. Phylogenetic analysis of the prepared data set successfully recovered seven
major clades within the E. velox complex. Relationships among the major clades were
highly resolved with remarkable statistical supports and well correspond to the
geographic distribution of the populations. The reconstructed phylogeny implies that the
clade as a whole has been originated in the Iranian plateau and expanded into central Asia
before uplifting the Kopet-Dagh Mountains. It has then undergone a rapid cladogenesis
in the latter area and produced several morphotypes. Within the Iranian clades two main
groups could be defined, the foothill and highland dwellers and the open plane and desert
dweller populations. The phylogenetic tree together with the estimated amounts of
genetic distances among the independent lineages, provide good grounds for a
fundamental revision of the taxonomic status of the Eremias velox complex.
Rastegar-Pouyani, E. & Avci, A. & Kumlutaş, Y. & Ilgaz, Ç & Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S. (2013) -
Iran is located in an area that is bordered by several mountains and contains herpetofaunal
constituents from adjacent countries such as Pakistan, Iraq, Afghanistan, and Turkey. We
surveyed several border provinces of Iran to more completely understand the Iranian herpetofauna.
During one survey in the northwestern part of Iran we found a species of the genus Eremias that can
be added to Iran’s herpetofauna. Previously, the distribution of Eremias suphani was limited to the Van Lake in Turkey (type locality). We compared Iranian samples with E. suphani from Turkey using a molecular marker (Cytochrome b) and confirmed that this species is also present in Iran. The new record of this species is located on the road from Firoragh to Chaldoran in the west of the province of Azarbaijan, Iran.
Rastegar-Pouyani, E. & Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S. & Wink, M. (2015) -
Strauch`s Racerunner, Eremias strauchi, is represented by two subspecies, Eremias strauchi strauchi Kessler, 1878 and Eremias strauchi kopetdaghica Szczerbak, 1972, occurring in opposite margins on the northern Iranian Plateau. We sequenced 3926 base pairs of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from 16 samples of Eremias strauchi, Eremias lalezharica and Eremias velox collected from northeastern, northwestern and southern Iran. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Eremias lalezharica is sister to Eremias strauchi kopetdaghica and caused the currently recognised species Eremias strauchi to be paraphyletic. According to the estimated genetic distances in the mitochondrial fragments among the lineages, E. s. strauchi diverged from E. s. kopetdaghica and E. lalezharica with a mean genetic distance of 14.0% and 13.9% respectively. Our data indicate enough molecular divergence between the two currently recognised subspecies of E. strauchi and justify upgrading them to full species level as Eremias strauchi (for the north-western clade) and Eremias kopetdaghica (for the north-eastern clade).
Rastegar-Pouyani, E. & Rastegar-Pouyani, R. & Kazemi Noureini, S. & Joger, U. & Wink, M. (2010) -
The Persian racerunner Eremias persica Blanford, 1875 is confined to the Iranian plateau, and forms one of the most widespread but rarely studied species of the family Lacertidae. With many local populations inhabiting a variety of habitats, and exhibiting considerable morphological, genetic, and ecological variations, it represents a species complex. We analysed sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes derived from 13 geographically distant populations belonging to the E. persica complex. Using our knowledge of palaeogeographical events, a molecular clock was calibrated to assess the major events in fragmentation, radiation, and intraspecific variation. The sequence data strongly support a basal separation of the highland populations of western Iran from those of the open steppes and deserts, occurring in the east. The subsequent radiation, fragmentation, and evolution of these major assemblages have led to several discernable geographical lineages across the wide area of the Iranian plateau. The results indicate a middle-Miocene origin for the clade as a whole. The first split, isolating the western and eastern clades, appears to have occurred 11–10 Mya. Further fragmentations and divergence within the major clades began about 8 Mya, with an evolutionary rate of 1.6% sequence divergence per million years among the lineages in the genes studied (combined data set). Molecular and morphological data strongly support a taxonomic revision of this species complex. At least four of the discovered clades should be raised to species, and two to subspecies, rank.
Rastegar-Pouyani, E., S. Hosseinian, S. Rafiee, H.G. Kami, M. Rajabizadeh & M. Wink (2016) -
A new species of the lacertid genus Eremias Fitzinger, 1834 is described from northwest of Isfahan province, Central Iran. Two mitochondrial genes (cyt b and 12S DNA) were sequenced and analyzed as reliable molecular markers for the separation of this newly discovered species from closely related species within the genus Eremias: E. velox, E. persica, E. papenfussi, E. lalezharica, E. montana, E. strauchi, E. kopetdaghica and E. suphani. Genetic distances (K2-p) between any of these species with the newly described species are relatively high (27.5–32.8% for cyt b and 5.2–10.4% for 12S DNA). Phylogenetic analyses (MP, ML and BI) generated trees with very similar topologies. According to molecular and morphological data, Eremias isfahanica sp. nov. belongs to the subgenus Aspidorhinus, and is closely related to E. papenfussi. Because several new Eremias species have recently been described from the Iranian Plateau, we additionally provide an updated identification key.
Rastegar-Pouyani, E.R. & Noureini, S.K. & Rastegar-Pouyani, N.R. & Joger, U. & Wink, M. (2012) -
Eremias velox (Gattung Eremias) aus Zentralasien gehört zu den weit verbreiteten Eidechsen Eurasiens. Nucleotidsequenzen mitochondrialer DNA (Cytochrom b und 12 S rDNA) von 13 geographisch unterschiedlichen Standorten aus dem Iran und Zentralasien wurden genauer analysiert. Die phylogenetische Auswertung fand 5 genetische Linien innerhalb des E. velox– Komplexes, die sich durch große genetische Distanzen unterscheiden und auf lange Zeiten der Isolation hinweisen. Innerhalb der Gesamtphylogenie liegen die iranischen Kladen basal. Dies deutet darauf hin, dass der E. velox Komplex im mittleren Miozän auf dem iranischen Plateau entstand. Aufgrund von Kalkulationen über eine molekulare Uhr wird angenommen, dass die nordiranischen Linien von 10–11 Millionen Jahren entstanden, während sich die zentralasiatischen Taxa vor 6 Ma abzweigten. Dies wurde vermutlich durch die Entstehung der Kopet-Dagh-Berge am Nordrand des iranischen Plateaus ausgelöst. Die Baumtopologie und die genetischen Distanzen bieten eine gute Grundlage dafür, den taxonomischen Status der hier gefundenen Hauptlinien des E. velox – Komplexes neu zu bewerten.
Rastegar-Pouyani, N. (2006) -
Rastegar-Pouyani, N. & Kami, H.G. & Rajabizadeh, M. & Shafiei, S. & Anderson, S.C. (2008) -
An updated checklist of the herpetofauna of Iran is presented based on records of amphibian and reptile species whose presence has been confirmed in Iran as a result of extensive field expeditions, examination of herpetological collections, literature review, and personal communications from researchers. The herpetofauna of Iran consists of 13 species and five subspecies of frogs and toads belonging to five genera and four families, eight species of salamanders belonging to four genera and two families, nine species and six subspecies of turtles, terrapins and tortoises belonging to nine genera and six families, one species of crocodile, one species of amphisbaenian, more than 125 species of lizards belonging to 36 genera and eight families as well as 79 species of snakes belonging to 37 genera and six families
Rastegar-Pouyani, N. & Nilson, G. (1997) -
A new species of the lacertid genus and subgenus Eremias is described based on material collected by the senior author from 150 km northeast of Shiraz, Fars province, south-central Iran at about 1800 m elevation. It differs from all other Iranian species of the typical subgenus (E. persica, E strauchi, E velox and E. lalezharica) in that it has a very distinctive and unique color pattern, unmistakable in this character the wide dorsolateral stripe is uniformly black without light spots and there is no ocelli on the upper surface of limbs; the third pair of submaxillary shields are separated by 4 granular scales; and the tympanic shield is rudimentary and almost absent. The new species is sympatric with Eremias persica and apparently restricted in distribution to the steppes and open plains in the northern regions of Fars province south-central Iran.
Rastegar-Pouyani, N. & Rastegar-Pouyani, E. (2001) -
Rastegar-Pouyani, N. & Rastegar-Pouyani, E. (2006) -
A new and distinctive form belonging to the genus and subgenus Eremias Fitzinger, 1834 is reported from the highlands of Alvand Mountains, Hamedan Province, western Iran at about 2700 m elevation. It is easily distinguished from all the other species of the typical subgenus (E. velox, E. persica, E. strauchi, E. nigrolateralis E. lalezharica E. afghanistanica, E. regeli, E. suphani, and E. nikolskit) by having a variable number of postmentals (4-5 pairs); smaller size, and a distinctive color pattern. Furthermore, it can be distinguished by having a combination of characters against any of the species in the typical subgenus. Further work, using both morphological arid molecular techniques, is now being carried out on this new form in order to determine its exact taxonomic and phylogenetic status. Systematics of the genus Eremias is shortly discussed.
Ravkin, Y.S. & Bogomolova, I.N. & Chesnokova, S.V. (2010) -
Distributions of amphibian and reptile faunas were separately delimited on a 1:20 000 000 vegetation map of Northern Eurasia divided into 245 10-degree-longitudinal segments of native subzone within the USSR borders as of 1990. All reptile and amphibian species recorded in every segment were listed, and the Jaccard indices were calculated, and the similarity matrix was studied with cluster analysis. Hierarchic classifications were made: the amphibian one consisting of 3 faunistic regions, divided into 4 subregions, 7 biologic provinces, and 23 districts. The reptile classification includes 4 faunistic regions, 7 subregions, 18 provinces, and 14 districts. The reptile classification has 1.5 times more provincial and district subdivisions than amphibian one. Environmental factors correlating with faunistic nonuniformity were revealed. Our amphibian and reptile schemes are 1.9 and 3.5 times more informative than those proposed earlier and account for 75 and 91% of variance in the faunal similarity coefficient of specific areas, respectively (multiple correlation coefficients 0.87 and 0.95). Environmental factors can explain 84 and 93% of faunistic nonuniformity (correlation coefficients 0.95 and 0.96).
Richter, K. (1988) -
Riegler, C. & Bader, T. & Kopeczky, R. (2016) -
Der Nordosten Irans, ein faszinierendes Gebiet, einerseits durch die immense Ausdehnung arider (Hoch-) Ebenen und Hügelländer, andererseits durch die überraschende landschaftliche Vielfalt unmittelbar südlich des Kaspischen Meeres. So kontrastieren die beeindruckend dichten Hyrcanischen Wälder und das über 5000 m hohe Elburs-Gebirge die endlosen, staubtrockenen Weiten im Landesinneren. Dementsprechend groß ist auch die dortige Artenvielfalt: Knapp 60 Reptilien- und Amphibienarten konnten im Zuge der 14-tägigen Exkursion auf der 4000 km langen Rundtour beobachtet werden.
Roitberg, E.S. & Mazanaeva, L.F. & Ilyina, E. & Orlova, V.F. (2000) -
Die Echsenfauna Dagestans (südöstlicher Nordkaukasus, Russland) umfaßt 17 Arten, welche neun Gattungen in fünf Familien angehören (Gekkonidae - l, Agamidae - 4, Anguidae - 2, Scincidae – l und Lacertidae - 9 Arten). Für jede Art wurden detaillierte Verbreitungskarten mit Katastern in Dagestan (50 300 km2) erstellt. Einige Angaben zu den Habitaten, zur Häufigkeit sowie über die lokale Arealdynamik werden ebenfalls mitgeteilt.
Rößler, R. (1991) -
This is a short report about a method which could help to save life of reptiles suffering by dystocia. The author describes how he pressed out an egg from a Jeweled Lacerta and a Common Chameleon with only his fingers.
Rößler, R. (1993) -
Im Jahre 1987 erhielt ich aus Kasachstan sechs Eremias arguta. Diese Art ist neben Eremias velox die einzige ihrer Gattung, deren Verbreitungsgebiet auch den europäischen Kontinent erreicht. Das Vorkommen erstreckt sich vom Nordosten Rumäniens über den Süden der europäischen Sowjetunion, das sowjetische Zentralasien bis nach NW-China und die SW-Mongolei. Im Süden werden Transkaukasien und der nördlichste Iran erreicht. In der Türkei und in NO-China kommt die Art nicht vor.
Rovatsos, M. & Kratochvíl, L. (2017) -
While the stability of sex chromosomes is widely accepted in viviparous mammals and birds, ectothermic vertebrates are still largely viewed as having frequent turnovers in sex determining systems. Frequent changes in sex determining systems in ectotherms could be problematic for field ecological studies as well as for breeding programs, as molecular sexing across a phylogenetically widespread spectrum of ectothermic vertebrates would not be possible. However, we recently documented that sex determining systems in three important reptile lineages (caenophidian snakes, iguanas, and lacertid lizards) are in fact highly conserved. 2.We applied a new molecular procedure to identify sex within each of these three lineages (encompassing altogether around 4,000 species, i.e. nearly 50% of the recent species of reptiles). This technique uses quantitative PCR (qPCR) to compare copy numbers of genes specific for their respective Z (in caenophidian snakes and lacertids) and X (in iguanas) chromosomes between male and female genomes. The DNA samples required can be collected relatively non-invasively. Unlike molecular sexing based on repetitive elements, this technique can be easily applied to previously unstudied species of these lineages, as the number of copies of protein coding genes linked to the differentiated sex chromosomes is evolutionary highly conserved in each. 3.We suggest that qPCR-based molecular sexing using the comparison of gene copy number is a practical choice for non-model species of caenophidian snakes, iguanas and lacertids. Morever, it should also soon be available for other reptile lineages with differentiated sex chromosomes.
Rovatsos, M. & Kratochvíl, L. & Altmanová, M. & Johnson Pokorná, M. (2015) -
Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes protecting the physical ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes and therefore helping to ensure their stability and integrity. Additionally, telomeric sequences can be localized in non-terminal regions of chromosomes, forming so-called interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs). ITSs are traditionally considered to be relics of chromosomal rearrangements and thus very informative in the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of karyotype formation. We examined the distribution of the telomeric motifs (TTAGGG)n using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 30 species, representing 17 families of squamate reptiles, and compared them with the collected data from another 38 species from literature. Out of the 68 squamate species analyzed, 35 possess ITSs in pericentromeric regions, centromeric regions and/or within chromosome arms. We conclude that the occurrence of ITSs is rather common in squamates, despite their generally conserved karyotypes, suggesting frequent and independent cryptic chromosomal rearrangements in this vertebrate group.
Rovatsos, M. & Vukic, J. & Altmanová, M. & Johnson Pokorná, M. & Moravec, J. & Kratochvíl, L. (2016) -
Sex chromosomes are believed to be stable in endotherms, but young and evolutionary unstable in most ectothermic vertebrates. Within lacertids, the widely radiated lizard group, sex chromosomes have been reported to vary in morphology and heterochroma- tinization, which may suggest turnovers during the evolution of the group. We compared the partial gene content of the Z-specific part of sex chromosomes across major lineages of lacertids and discovered a strong evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes. We can conclude that the common ancestor of lacertids, living around 70million years ago (Mya), already had the same highly differentiated sex chromosomes. Molecular data demonstrating an evolutionary conservation of sex chro- mosomes have also been documented for iguanas and caenophidian snakes. It seems that differences in the evolutionary conservation of sex chromosomes in vertebrates do not reflect the distinction between endotherms and ectotherms, but rather between amniotes and anamniotes, or generally, the differences in the life history of particular lineages.
Rui, J. & Wang, Y. & Nie, L. (2009) -
Squamata is the most diversified reptilian order that has been traditionally classified into three suborders - Lacertilia, Serpentes and Amphisbaenia in which Lacertilia have about 16-19 families. But the phylogenetic relationships among major groups of Lacertilia remain controversial. In this paper, the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Eremias brenchleyi was determined by using long-and-accurate PCR (LA-PCR). The mtDNA sequence is 19 542 bp, making it the longest mitochondrial genome in squamates species reported so far. It shows the typical vertebrate arrangement of genes. The control region of E. brenchleyi was characterized by two conspicuous 65 bp and 56 bp tandem repeats at its 5′ and 3′ terminus respectively. In order to study the higher level relationships of squamates, the phylogenetic study including all currently available squamates mitochondrial sequences was carried out. We obtained a relationship of 16 families of lizards (Lacertidae, Scincidae, Iguanidae, Chameleonidae, Agamidae, Trogonophidae, Bipedidae, Shinisauridae, Helodermatidae, Amphisbaenidae, Gekkonidae, Varanidae, Anguidae, Xantusiidae, Rhineuridae, Cordylidae) and 8 families of Serpentes. The internal relationships within this group yielded high bootstrap support and were more congruent with morphological analyses.
Safaei-Mahroo, B. & Ghaffari, H. & Fahimi, H. & Broomand, S. & Yazdanian, M. & Najafi Majd, E. & Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S. & Rezadeh, E. & Hosseinzadeh, M.S. & Nasrabadi, R. & Rajabizadeh, M. & Mas (2015) -
We present an annotated checklist for a total 241 reptiles and 22 amphibians including 5 frogs, 9 toads, 7
newts and salamanders, 1 crocodile, 1 worm lizard, 148 lizards, 79 snakes and 12 turtles and tortoises, includes the most
scientific literature up to August 2014 and also based on several field surveys conducted in different Provinces of Iran
from 2009 to 2014. We present an up-to-dated checklist of reptiles and amphibians in Iran. We provide a comprehensive
listing of taxonomy, names, distribution and conservation status of all amphibians and reptiles of Iran. This checklist
includes all recognized named taxa, English names for classes, orders, families, species, subspecies along with Persian
names for species, including indication of native and introduced species. For the first time we report two non-native
introduced reptiles from natural habitats of Iran. Of the total 22 species of amphibians in Iran, 6 (27.2%) are endemic
and of the total 241 species of reptiles, 55 (22.8%) are endemic. Of the 22 amphibians species in Iran, 3 (13%) are
Critically Endangered, 2 (9%) are Vulnerable and of the 241 reptile species 3 (1.2%) are Critically Endangered, 4
(1.6%) are Endangered and 10 (4.1%) are Vulnerable. Accordingly, this paper combines significant aspects of taxonomy,
common names, conservation status and distribution of the Iranian herpetofauna.
Sanchooli, N. (2017) -
Climate condition is an important key affecting species presence, especially for reptiles. Precipitation and temperature are especially important environmental factors to consider. In the present study, I collected as many presence records as possible for seven lizard species from the Sistan region and analyzed them in relation to environmental variables using the maximum entropy algorithm. According to the analysis, temperature seasonality affected the distributions of three species (Eremias fasciata, Ophiomorus tridactylus, Teratoscincus bedriagai) and precipitation affected the presence of four species (Ablepharus pannonicus, Bunopus tuberculatus, Cyrtopodion scabrum, Trapelus agilis). The most important variable affecting E. fasciata and O.tridactylus (23% of contribution) is isothermality. For T. bedriagai, temperature seasonality was more important (32% contribution). Annual precipitation was the most highly contributed variable for A. pannonicus. Precipitation of the wettest month has a high contribution for the other species, representing 49, 48, and 54% for B. tuberculatus, C. scabrum and T. agilis, respectively.
Sargsyan, N.H. & Vardanyan, L.K. (2011) -
Endoparasites of 10 reptiles species were studied. Two classes of helminths (Nematoda and Cestoda) were found. Extensity and intensity of infection were investigated.
Սարգսյան, Ն.Հ. & Վարդանյան, Լ.Կ. (2011) -
Ուսումնասիրվել են 10 տեսակի սողունների ներքին մակաբույծները: Հայտնաբերվել են 2 դասի պատկանող հելմինթներ` կլոր (Nematoda) և ժապավենաձև
(Cestoda) որդեր: Հետազոտվել է վարակվածության էքստենսիվությունը և ինտենսիվությունը: Исследованы эндопаразиты десяти видов рептилий. Обнаруженные гельминты принадлежат к двум классам: круглые (Nematoda) и ленточные (Cestoda)
черви. Изучалась также степень зараженности этими гельминтами (экстенсивность) и частота их встречаемости (интенсивность).
Sauer, F. (1989) -
Schammakov, S. & Ataev, C. & Rustamov, E.A. (1993) -
The herpetological map presented in this paper shows the distribution and abundance of the reptiles in Turkmenistan. The country is divided into 17 complexes and the 84 species and subspecies found in Turmkmeistan are listed as occurring in mountains, plains, or both.
Schepina N.A. (2009) -
Short essays on distribution and ecology of 3 species of lizards, inhabiting
Baykal`skiy region: Eremias argus, Lacerta agilis, Zootoca vivipara are given.
Schepina N.A. & Khenzykhenova, F.I. & Namzalova O. D.-Ts. (2016) -
Th e article presents new data on amphibians (Anura, Amphibia) and reptiles (Sauria, Reptilia) as
components of the Baikal region fauna of Late Pleistocene and Holocene. For the fi rst time the bone
remains of the Mongolian toad, Strauchbufo raddei, from the Kharyaska-2, Chernoyarovo, Desyatnikovo,
Pesterevo, Oshurkovo localities have been identifi ed. Remains of Lacertidae: Mongolian lizard,
Eremias cf. argus, in Transbaikalia and a lizard, Lacerta sp., in Fore-Baikal area are described.
Based on these materials a reconstruction of the Baikal region paleolandscapes in Late Pleistocene and
Holocene are presented. Environmental confi nedness of species is defi ned in accordance of that of the
Schlüter, U. (2005) -
Beschreibung / Verbreitung / Klimaansprüche von Eremias argus / Lebensraum und Lebensweise / Terrarienhaltung.
Schlüter, U. (2010) -
Schmidt, D. (1989) -
Schmidt, K.P. (1925) -
The Chinese collections of The American Museum of Natural Historycontainfournewformsoffrogsandtoads. Inthecourseofthe preparation of more extended reports on the Chinese amphibians and reptiles of the Third Asiatic Expedition(now ready for the press),seven additional new reptiles have been brought to light. Diagnosis of these new forms supplement the series described in American Museum Novitates No. 157, bringing the total number of new forms, in the collections reported upon,to twenty-six.
Schmidt, K.P. (1926) -
Schmidt, K.P. (1939) -
Schreiber, E. (1912) -
Schreiber, E. (1913) -
Seligmann, H. (2000) -
In this paper, the evolution and ecology of directional asymmetry (DA) during the developmental trajectory (DT) is compared with that of its product, morphological DA (MDA). DT and MDA are calculated for two bilateral morphological scale characters of lizards, the number of subdigital lamellae beneath the fourth toe in 10 agamid and 28 lacertid taxa, and the number of rows of ventral scales in 12 lacertid taxa. MDA, the subtraction between left and right sides (classical measure of DA), is functional in adult animals. Results confirm the hypodiesis that, in DT, the regression parameters a (constant) and b (regression slope) of counts on the right side with those on the left describe a developmental process. No phylogenetic or environmental effects were observed on a and b, but analyses considering both a and b together show non-random phyletic patterns. Independent analyses deduced the same ancestral DT in Agamidae and Lacertidae. In Lacertidae, distance between pairs of taxa in a + b (standardized values) correlates positively with die phylogenetic distance between taxa. Phyletic trends in MDA are indirect, and due to the link of MDA with a + b. The MDA of species is more dissimilar in sympatry than in allopatry. The phyletic trends suggest evolution of DT, while die association of MDA witii sympatry suggests that ecological pressures shape MDA in adult animals. Evolution of DT is independent from tiiat of its product, MDA–adaptive determinism defines the result of, but not the mechanistic process of, development. Deterministic environmental processes define MDA, and deterministic evolutionary processes define the interactive result of a and b, but not each separately. According to circumstances, different DTs produce similar or different MDA, and a particular DT can produce different MDAs.
Shammokov, S. (1969) -
Sharifi, M. & Papenfuss, T. (2009) -
Sharifi, M. & Papenfuss, T. & Anderson, S. & Bafti, S.S. (2009) -
Sharma, R.C. (2002) -
Shcherbak, N.N. (1974) -
Shelkovnikov, A.B (1911) -
Shen, Q. & Li, J. & Xu, P. & Li, W. & Zhuang, G. & Wang, Y. (2017) -
Chinese lizards (Eremias argus) were exposed to separated R-(-)-triadimefon, S-(+)-triadimefon and racemic triadimefon to evaluate enantioselective accumulation of triadimefon. After single oral administration of R-(-)-triadimefon, S-(+)-triadimefon and racemic triadimefon, the time-concentration curves in different tissues were found to be different. Triadimefon enantiomers crossed the blood-brain barrier and brain is a main target organ. The residues of triadimefon enantiomers in fat were highest after 24 h indicating that fat was the main tissue of accumulation. In racemic triadimefon exposure group, the enantiomer fractions of R-(-)-triadimefon in different tissues showed that the differences between R-(-)-triadimefon and S-(+)-triadimefon were significant in absorption and metabolism, but the differences became smaller in exclusion and accumulation. From the results of mathematical models, S-(+)-triadimefon was absorbed and eliminated faster than R-(-)-triadimefon, and R-(-)-triadimefon was easily distributed in the tissues and more easily converted into its metabolites. Furthermore, among the four enantiomers of triadimenol, SR-(-)-triadimenol produced by S-(+)-triadimefon may have the highest fungicidal activity and the strongest biological toxicity, RR-(+)-triadimenol produced by R-(-)-triadimefon was most likely to bioaccumulate in lizard. Identifying toxicological effects and dose-response relationship of SR-(-)-triadimenol and RR-(+)-triadimenol will help fully assess the risk of TF enantiomers use in the future. The results enrich and supplement the knowledge of the environmental fate of triadimefon enantiomers.
Shestopal, A.A. & Rustamov, E.A. (2018) -
The latest changes in the taxonomy of amphibians and reptiles are analyzed in the work, among them, in particular, toads, frogs, tortoises, geckoes, agamas, lacertids, boas and colubrids. A new list is published, which provides information for 100 species and subspecies: 6 species of amphibians and 94 species of reptiles (6 turtles, 58 lizards, 30 snakes). The conservation status of reptiles in Turkmenistan was revised according to the IUCN assessments.
А.А. Шестопал & Э.А. Рустамов (2018) -
Проанализированы результаты современных таксономических ревизий амфи- бий и рептилий, в частности, жаб и лягушек, черепах, агамовых, гекконовых, круглопалых, сицнковых и настоящих ящериц, а также ложноногих и ужеобраз- ных змей. Публикуется новых список видов, включающий в себя информацию о 100 видах и подвидах: 6 видов амфибий и 94 вида рептилий (6 видов черепах, 58 видов ящериц и 30 видов змей). Пересмотрен и установлен природоохранный статус пресмыкающихся Туркменистана в соответствии с критериями МСОП.
The work provides new information on the distribution and abundance of reptiles in some landscapes of Turkmenistan. The results of the study are following: the registration of new records to clarify the distribution; the discovery of the Afghan awl-headed snake (Lythorhynchus ridgewyi) on the Kaplankyr chink, which moves the boundary of the species distribution from the previously known nearest places (in the vicinity of the village of Kukurtli (former Sulfur Plant) and from the solonchak hollows of Unguz (Shestopal, Akgaev, 2013) to 220 km to the north-west; sunwatcher living in the north of Turkmenistan is identified as nominate subspecies — Phrynocephalus helioscopus helioscopus. Data on the number of reptiles are provided, the most interesting of them are observations in the southern part of the Sarykamysh depression. The density of desert species such as Trapelus sanguinolentus aralensis) and (Eremias intermedia) is twice higher and for Eremias lineolata is 20-times higher in comparison with adjoining territories.
A.A. Shestopal & E.A. Rustamov (2018) -
В статье приводится новая информация о распространении и численности земноводных и пресмыкающихся в различных ландшафтах Туркмениста- на. Получены следующие результаты: зарегистрированы новые находки, уточняющие распространение рептилий; новая важная находка афганского литоринха Lythorhynchus ridgewayi на чинке Капланкыр отодвигает грани- цу распространения вида от ранее известных ближайших мест его встреч в окрестностях села Кукуртли (бывший Серный завод) и от солончаковых впадин Унгуза на 220 км к северо-западу; подвид такырной круглоголовки, обитающей на севере Туркменистана, идентифицирован как номинатив- ный — Phrynocephalus helioscopus helioscopus. Получены сведения по чис- ленности рептилий, из которых наиболее интересные наблюдались нами при увеличении водной поверхности озера в южной части Сарыкамышской впадины, где в прибрежной полосе до 300 м плотность ряда пустынных видов, таких как степная агама Trapelus sanguinolentus aralensis и средняя ящурка Eremias intermedia увеличена почти двукратно, а линейчатой ящур- ки Eremias lineolata — 20-кратно.
Shnitnikov, V.N. (1928) -
Shu-lan, L., Xin, G., Miao, W., Wen-ge, Z., Hui, C. (2008) -
Objective To study the localization and morphology of 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT),somatostatin(SS),gastrin(Gas),glucagon(Glu),substance P(SP),pancreatic polypeptide(PP) endocrine cells in the digestive tract of Eremias argus.Methods The ABC(avidin-biotin compex method) immunohistochemical method was used. Results 5-HT cells distributed more widely than the other five kinds of endocrine cells in the digestive tract,and they were observed throughout the digestive tract,from the esophagus to the rectum.In addition,the density of 5-HT cells was the highest in the jejunum.SS cells were not found in the esophagus or the rectum.The distributive density of SS cells was the highest in the stomach.Gas cells and PP cells distributed in the pyloricus and the small intestine with the highest density in the duodenum.Glu cells distributed mainly in the pyloricus,duodenum and jejunum,the distributive density in the pyloricus was higher than other part obviously.We did not find any SP cell in the digestive tract of Eremias argus.Conclusion The five kinds of endocrine cells which we studied in this paper were mainly round and shuttled-shape,which widely lied between epithelial cells,between glandular epithelial cells and at the bottom of epithelia.The distributive density of endocrine cells was related to its feeding habit and living environment.
Sindaco, R. & Jeremčenko, V.K. (2008) -
This book shows a comprehensive picture of the reptiles, excluding snakes, living in Europe, North Africa, Middle and Near East and Central Asia.
The bulk of the book is an annotated checklist and a distributional atlas of approx 500 species of lizards, crocodiles, turtles and terrapins, and amphisbaenians, living in the Western Palearctic.
Information on distribution, subspecies, chorotype and main references are provided for each species, as well as 226 colour maps showing the global distribution of the species on a grid of one degree. For each species map the bibliographic and original sources (more than 850 sources are listed) are indicated.
A further 83 maps show the distribution of all genera and main species groups of Palearctic reptiles.
Beside the checklist and the atlas, in some additional chapters the following arguments are treated:
Materials and methods; status of knowledge on the Palearctic fauna; composition of the Western Palearctic reptile fauna (including a statement on biodiversity and species richness); descriptive biogeography (including a discussion on the Palearctic region boundaries based on reptile distribution and the herpeto-geographic sectors of the Western Palearctic); conservation status.
A list of more than 730 references quoted in the text and high quality colour plates including photos of the most of the supraspecific taxa living in the study area completes the book.
Sindaco, R. & Venchi, A. & Carpaneto, G.M. & Bologna, M.A. (2000) -
Šmíd, J. & Moravec, J. & Kodym, P. & Kratochvil, L. & Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S. & Frynta, D. (2014) -
We present a comprehensive summary of the distribution of the lizards of Iran accompanied by an annotated checklist. The updated maps of distribution of all 146 species of 41 genera of 11 families are based on all available bibliographic records, catalogues of museum collections and our own field observations. The final dataset used for the distribution maps contains 8525 georeferenced records and cover 41% of the country when plotted on a grid of 0.25° × 0.25° resolution. The dataset is publicly accessible through GBIF portal (http://www.gbif.org/dataset/7db4f705-61ae-4c6e-9de2-06674e7d46b2). Following the latest biogeographic division of the country, ~53% of the species (76 species) inhabit the Iranian Province, ~41% (60 species) the Western Asian mountain transition zone, ~9% (13 species) the Turanian Province, and ~18% (27 species) the Arabian Province. In addition, ~2% (3 species) reach Iran from the Indo-Malay biogeographic region and ~2% (3 species) are believed to have been introduced to Iran by humans. Endemic species (46) represent ~32% of the known species diversity. The most species-rich family of lizards in Iran is Lacertidae with 47 species, followed by Gekkonidae (41), Agamidae (18), Scincidae (15), Phyllodactylidae (10), Sphaerodactylidae (4), Eublepharidae and Uromastycidae (3), Anguidae and Varanidae (2), and Trogonophidae with one representative.
Smirina, E.M. & Roitberg, E.S. (2012) -
Principal trends and methods of investigating the postnatal growth in reptiles are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the development of the method of skeletochronology, which enables age determination of individuals, back-calculation of their body length in years before the capture, and reconstruction of growth curves based on such data.
Смирина Э.М. & Ройтберг Е.С. (2012) -
Обсуждаются основные направления и методики исследования постнатального роста рептилий. Главное внимание уделено развитию метода скелетохронологии, благодаря которому стало возможно определение индивидуального возраста особей, обратное расчисление размеров тела за годы, прожитые животным до поимки, и построение кривых роста.
Smith, M.A. (1935) -
Song, J.-Y. (2007) -
Song, J.Y. & Chang, M.H. & Koo, K.S. (2013) -
To determine the size of an Eremias argus population at Baramarae beach in Taeanhaean National Park, we used Peterson’s index and Schnabel’s index. In addition, we provided physical characteristics of male and female E. argus. During our study period, we captured total 152 lizards and among them, 23 individuals were recaptured. The 152 lizards consisted of 54 adult males, 79 adult females, and 19 subadults, respectively. Physical characteristics such as snout-vent length (SVL), tail length (TL), and body mass (BM) were not different between males and females. We recaptured total 23 individuals which consisted of six males and seventeen females. More females (21.5%) tended to be recaptured than males (11.1%), with total average recapture rate of 15.1%. The size of the E. argus population at Baramarae beach was estimated as 438 individuals (Min.-Max.: 226-650) by the Peterson’s method and 470 individuals (Min.-Max.: 334-796) by the Schnabel’s method.
Song, J.Y. & Koo, K.S. & Chang, M.H. (2010) -
Sos, T. (2008) -
The list of recent taxonomic and nomenclatural changes concerning Romanian amphibian and reptile species is presented in the light of new phylogenetic results. The status and distribution of some subspecies which inhabit Romania is discussed. The goals of contemporary conservation are revised. Also a list of used Romanian material in recent phylogeny studies is provided.
Speybroeck, J. (2007) -
Speybroeck, J. & Beukema, W. & Crochet, P.-A. (2010) -
Research on the taxonomy of European amphibians and reptiles has increased noticeably over the last few decades, indicating the need for recognition of new species and the cancellation of others. This paper provides a critical review of recent changes and draws up a tentative species list.
Stakmakova, V.A. & Rzhepakovsky, V.T. (1981) -
Steindachner, F. (1869) -
Stejneger, L. (1907) -
Stojanov, A. & Tzankov, N. & Naumov, B. (2011) -
Stone, W. (1899) -
Strauch, A. (1867) -
Strauch, A. (1868) -
Strauch, A. (1876) -
Strauch, A.A. (1876) -
Su, X. & Liu, J. & Chen, D. & Guoi, X. (2019) -
The viviparous Multiocellated Racerunner, Eremias multiocellata, is widespread in North China, Mongolia, and the Tuva Republic of Russia. A nearly complete mitochondrial genome of one individual from the suburb of Jingyuan County in Northwest China was determined by next-generation sequencing. The mitogenome is 17,333 bp in size, comprising 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), and one control region. The gene arrangement and composition is similar to the typical mitochondrial DNA of vertebrates. With exception to the control region, all of the 37 genes were completely recovered. The concatenated PCGs were used to conduct Bayesian phylogenetic analyses together with several related lizards with mitogenome data in GenBank. The resulting phylogenetic tree confirmed the monophyly of both genus Eremias and its viviparous group. The mitogenome sequence will provide fundamental data for resolving phylogenetic and genetic problems related to Eremias viviparity.
Sun, B.J. & Li, S.R. & Xu, X.F. & Zhao, W.G. & Luo, L.G. & Ji, X. & Du, W.G. (2012) -
Life history traits may vary within and among species. Rarely, however, are both variations examined concurrently to identify the life history adaptation. We found that female body size, offspring number and size, and incubation period showed convergent evolution in two lacertid lizards (Takydromus wolteri and Eremias argus) that occur sympatrically in high-latitude and low-latitude localities. Females from the high-latitude population were larger and produced larger clutches than those from the low-latitude population. In both species, the incubation period was shorter for the high-latitude population than for the low-latitude population. However, the physiological mechanism underlying the shorter incubation period differed between the species. These results suggest that: (1) sympatric lizards may adopt similar reproductive strategies in response to their common environments, and (2) embryonic development of the two species follows different pathways for adaptation to low temperatures. This study highlights the importance of understanding the adaptive evolution of life history in response to environmental changes at the embryonic life stages.
Szczerbak, N.N. (1969) -
Szczerbak, N.N. (1970) -
Szczerbak, N.N. (1971) -
Szczerbak, N.N. (1972) -
Szczerbak, N.N. (1973) -
Szczerbak, N.N. (1974) -
Szczerbak, N.N. (1975) -
Szczerbak, N.N. (1981) -
Szczerbak, N.N. (2003) -
Szczerbak, N.N. (2018) -
Szczerbak, N.N. & Nashetko, E.V. (1973) -
Szyndlar, Z. (1984) -
Tabachishin, V.G. (2003) -
Tabachishin, V.G. (2014) -
Tabachishin, V.G. & Kaybeleva, E.I. & Zavialov, E.V. (2009) -
The results of our chromosome studies on Eremias arguta from the Samara and Saratov regions are presented. The diploid set of E. arguta from the Volga populations surveyed has been found to include 38 chromosomes: 2n = 38, NF = 38. The female and male karyotype structures are 2n = 35M + 3m and 2n = 36M + 2m, respectively. The karyotype of E. arguta from the Saratov and Samara regions is shown to be similar to the earlier described chromosome sets of the subspecies E. a. deserti. At the same time, the Saratov E. a. deserti differ from E. arguta from the Samara region by the number of pairs of NO-carrying chromosomes, which in the Saratov E. arguta are found on the 2nd, 4th, and 7th chromosome pairs, and in the Samara ones – on the 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 9th pairs.
Tabachishin, V.G. & Savialov, E.V. (1998) -
Tabachishin, V.G. & Zavialov, E.V. & Tabachishina, I.E. (2006) -
The modern distribution of Eremias arguta is considered. The species is shown to be represented by stable populations on a vast territory of the Volga region (Saratov and Samara regions) at present, its habitat there is mosaic and the abundance is comparable with that at the central part of the whole habitat. In view of the gradual average annual temperature elevation trend within the territory under study and some stabilization of moisture indices, a decrease in abundance and a shift south of the northern habitat boundary should be expected. Since the peripheral settlements of E. arguta in the Volga region are of separate nature, the species is recommended to enter the Red Books of the Saratov and Samara regions.
Стальмакова В.А. (2006) -
Альбинос степной черепахи (Agrionemys horsfleldi (Gray, 1844)) был найден автором 17 апреля 1975 г. в предгорьях хребта Ренин-Тау, в 20 км к юго-востоку от г. Душанбе на высоте около 1200 м над уровнем моря. До этого автор с 1957 г. участвовал в полевых работах по изучению мелких наземных позвоночных, в том числе и черепах, в районах, где численность этого вида весьма велика, но среди многих тысяч просмотренных особей ни одного альбиноса не встретилось. Не было альбиносов и среди 40000 черепах, отловленных в Юго-Западном Таджикистане заготовителями для отправки их за границу. В публикациях, посвященых среднеазиатской черепахе, и в работах об альбиносах у позвоночных животных (Hensley, 1959; Arnoldt, 1980; Bechtel, 1995;) найти сообщений об альбиносах этого вида нам не удалось. По-видимому, это первая находка альбиноса среднеазиатской черепахи.
Tabachishin, V.G. & Zavialov, E.V. & Zhdokova, M.K. (2008) -
The modern distribution of Eremias velox (Pallas, 1771) is considered. E. velox is shown to be represented now by rather stable populations witrhin a vast territory of the Lower-Volga region and adjacent territories within Republic Kalmykia and the Astrakhan region, its habitat being of a mosaic character. In view of isolation of the peripheral settlements of E. velox in the territory under survey, the species should be entered in the regional Red Books.
Табачишин В.Г., Завьялов Е.В., Ждокова М.К. (2008) -
Рассматривается современное распространение быстрой ящурки. Показано, что на обширной территории нижневолжского региона и сопредельных территориях в пределах Республики Калмыкия и Астраханской области ящурка представлена в настоящее время относительно стабильными популяциями, её ареал здесь носит мозаичный характер. Учитывая разрозненность окраинных поселений быстрой ящурки на исследуемой территории, рекомендуется внесение вида в региональные Красные книги
Tabatschischin, W.G. & Tabatsachisachina, I.E. & Sawjalow, E.W. (2003) -
Tang, X. & Yue, F. & He, J,. & Wang, N. & Ma, M. & Mo, J. & Chen, Q. (2013) -
A viviparous lizard, Eremias multiocellata, was used to investigate the possible sexual and ontogeneticeffects on selected body temperature, thermal tolerance range and the thermal dependence of locomotorperformance. We show that adults are sexually dimorphic and males have larger bodies and heads thanfemales. Adults selected higher body temperatures (34.5 vs. 32.4◦C) and could tolerate a broader rangeof body temperatures (8.1–46.8 vs. 9.1–43.1◦C) than juveniles. The sprint speed and maximum sprintdistance increased with temperature from 21◦C to 33◦C, but decreased at 36◦C and 39◦C in both juvenilesand adults. Adults ran faster and longer than juveniles at each tested temperature. Adult locomotor performance was not correlated with snout–vent length (SVL) or sex, and sprint speed was positivelycorrelated with hindlimb length. Juvenile locomotor performance was positively correlated with bothSVL and hindlimb length. The ontogenetic variation in selected body temperature, thermal toleranceand locomotor performance in E. multiocellata suggests that the effects of morphology on temperatureselection and locomotor performance vary at different ontogenetic stages.
Tang, X.-L. & Yue, F. & Yan, X.-F. & Zhang, D.-J. & Xin, Y. & Wang, C. & Chen, Q. (2012) -
Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is well studied in many species of reptiles, but little is known on how geographic distribution and altitude affect the sex ratio. In the present study, we focused on a population of a viviparous lizard with TSD (Eremias multiocellata) that lives at high altitudes (≈2900 m) in Tianzhu, Gansu province, China. Gestation temperature had a notable effect on the offspring sex ratio, gestation period, and the mother`s body mass. The mothers produced female biased offspring at 25 °C but male biased offspring at 35 °C. All female lizards lost weight during pregnancy, and the least loss of the body mass was observed at 31 °C. The gestation period increased in a non-linear fashion as ambient temperature was reduced. Average litter size was elevated with an increase of gestation temperatures, reached a maximum at 31 °C, and then declined at 35 °C. Compared with a previous study on a Minqin population which lives at a lower altitude (≈1400 m) and warmer climate, the present study obtained a less skewed sex ratio of offspring in the Tianzhu population. Geographic variations also affected offspring morphology between the two populations; females collected from Tianzhu produced larger litters but with a smaller body weight of offspring. These differences may be caused by the adaptive response to the cool climatic and high-altitude environmental conditions.
Tang, X.L. & Yue, F. & Zhang, D.J. & Yan, X.F. & Yin, Y. & Wang, C. & Chen, Q. (2012) -
Terbish, Kh. & Munkhbayar, Kh. & Clark, E.L. & Munkhbat, J. & Monks, E.M. (2006) -
Terentjev, P.V. (1923) -
Terentjev, P.V. & Chernov, S.A. (1949) -
Tertyshnikov, M.F. (1970) -
Tertyshnikov, M.F. (1978) -
Ti, X. & Lu, W. (1984) -
Tong, Q.L. & Yao, Y.T. & Lin, L.H. & Ji, X. (2016) -
In this paper, the complete mitochondrial genome of Eremias multiocellata (Squamata: Lacertidae) is reported, which is a circular molecule of 19,385 bp in size. The nucleotides composition are 31.2% A, 28.9% T, 27.1% C and 13.4% G. The genome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 putative control region.
In this paper, we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Eremias vermiculata (Squamata: Lacertidae), which is a circular molecule of 19,914 bp in size and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and 1 putative control region. The A + T content of overall base of the composition of H-strand is 59.8% (T: 28.9%, C: 27.2%, A: 30.9%, G: 13.0%). All of the results provide powerful data to further study of the molecular systematics, species identification and conservation genetics.
Török, Z. (2008) -
In August 2007 the author recorded the Eremias arguta specimens occurrring on the first row of high dunes from the coastal area of the central part of grindul Chituc. On the respective transact of about 3,2 km length there were present 371 individuals of Eremias arguta, representing an average of one lizard at every 8,5 m (roughly). On the respective, stripelike and very narrow habitat type (having a total surface of about 12,650 m2) the average density of the Eremias arguta was 293.3 specimens / ha.
Török, Z. (2010) -
The present paper shows details on the structure of the GIS-based data-base created in order to carry
out accurate analyzes of the spatial distribution on national level of the species belonging to the Lacertidae family. The
results of the data processing shows that there are 1015 records (on a total number of 613 local administrative
territories) of Sand Lizards (Lacerta agilis), 775 records (on a total number of 446 local administrative territories) of
Green Lizards (L. viridis), 65 records (on a total number of 30 local administrative territories) of Balkan Green Lizards (L.
trilineata), 66 records (on a total number of 38 local administrative territories) of Meadow Lizards (L. praticola), 440
records (on a total number of 226 local administrative territories) of Viviparous Lizards (L. vivipara), 328 records (on a
total number of 202 local administrative territories) of Wall Lizards (Podarcis muralis), 288 records (on a total number of
126 local administrative territories) of Balkan Wall Lizards (P. taurica) and 34 records (on a total number of 12 local
administrative territories) of Steppe Runners (Eremias arguta) made in Romania up to the year 2007.
Tosonoglu, M. & Dincaslan, Y.E. & Uysal, I. (2010) -
Trávnicek, J. (1990) -
Truweller, K.A. Makarov, A.N. & Orlova, V.F. (1993) -
Truweller, K.A. Makarov, A.N. & Orlova, V.F. (1994) -
By the PAAG electrophoretic spectra of Coomassi-stained 61-73 bands from 4 “tissues” (heart, skeletal muscle, kidney, liver proteins) for each of 17 specimens representing at least 3 or 4 species, (Eremias vermiculata Blanf., E. przewalskii Str., E. sp. and E. multiocellata Gunther) were compared.Most of the specimens were collected in Mongolia. Their tree, based on several measures of genetic distances, showed the order of the species listed above, with E. sp., the closest to the point of divergency, and situated between E. przewalskii and the specimen of E. multiocellata from several localities and biotypes. The genetic similarity of the biotypes of the last species is discussed in regard with other data on the body size and proportion, pholidosis, coloration.
Tsaruk, O.J. (1986) -
Tschudi, J.J. (1836) -
Tuck Jr., R.G. (1971) -
Tuck, R.G. (1979) -
One species of amphibian, the green toad (Bufo viridis oblongus), and 20 species of reptiles, Comprising the Afghan tortoise (Agricnemys horsfieldi), 4 agamid lizards (Agama agilis, A. n. nupta (?), Phrynocephalus mystaceus galli, Ph. scutellatus), 4 gekkonid lizards (Agamura persica, Cyrtodactylus caspius, Teratoscincus bedriagai , T. scincus) , 4 lacertid lizards (Eremias fasciata (?), E. persica, E. v. velox, Meislina guttulata watsonana) , 1 varanid lizard (Varanus griseus caspius), 1 boiid snake (Eryx tataricus), 4 colubrid snakes (Coluber karelini , C. rhodorhachis ladacensis, Psammophis lineolatus, Spalerosophis diadema schiraziana) , and a single viperid snake (Pseudocerastes p. persicus), are documented from the Turan Biosphere Reserve. Collecting data, ecological information, measurements, and relevant observations are given for those forms within the Reserve, and a tentative zoogeographic analysis of the Turan herpetofauna is attempted.
Tuniyev, B. & Ananjeva, N. & Agasyan, A. & Orlov, N. & Tuniyev, S. (2009) -
Tuniyev, B. & Atayev, C. & Shammakov, S. (1998) -
First report on herpetofauna of Turkmenian Eastern Kopet Dag is present.
Tuniyev, B. & Dusej, G. & Flärdh, B. (1999) -
This article gives a complete overview about the reptiles of western Turkmenistan and their zoogeographical relation. The data were obtained by several expeditions during the last years and completed by compilation of the specific herpetological literature about this area. Ten general landscape units are described along a profile from the Central Karakum desert throughout the Malyi Balkhan chains, the Kyurendag Corridor, the Western Kopetdagh to the state border of Iran. The mountain and plain reptile fauna is analyzed. After discussing the faunal element composition of various landscapes, the Western Kopetdagh was included into the South-West Asian province while the Turanian plain and the Malyi Balkhan were included into the Turanian province of the Palearctic.
Tuniyev, B.S. & Tuniyev, S.B. & Avcı, A. & Ilgaz, Ç. (2014) -
The results of five expeditions (1995, 1996, 2007, 2011, and 2012) to the north-eastern and eastern Turkey
are presented. These data were collected from the Pontic (Lazistan) Ridge, Choroch River basin, and
the upper flow basins of the Aras River, Kura River, Euphrates River, Tiger River, Dogankent (Kharshit)
River, and the Van Lake basin. In total, 2 Caudata, 6 Anura, 2 Testudines (3 subspecies), 25 Sauria
(30 subspecies) and 21 Serpentes species were found.
Туниев Б.С., Туниев С.Б., Авджи А., Ильгаз Ч. (2014) -
Tzellarius, A.Y. (1977) -
Ushakov, B.P. & Darevsky, I.S. (1959) -
Üzüm, N. & Avci, A. & Kumlutaş, Y. & Beser, N. & Ilgaz, C. (2015) -
The age structure of Eremias suphani was studied from a high-altitude (2180 m a.s.l.) locality in eastern Turkey. A total of 24 preserved (16 males, 7 females, and 1 juvenile) specimens were used in this study. According to the skeletochronological analysis, ages ranged from 6 to 9 years (mean: 7.38 ± 0.22 years) in males and from 6 to 10 years (mean: 7.86 ± 0.51 years) in females. Age at maturity was estimated to be 5–6 years for both males and females. The mean snout–vent length was calculated as 60.88 ± 2.61 mm in males and 58.85 ± 2.44 in females. The sexual dimorphism index was calculated as –0.03. The difference between the sexes for both age and size was not statistically significant.
Vanhooydonck, B. & van Damme, R. (1999) -
The aim of this study was to determine if divergence in habitat use among lacertid lizards is paralleled by morphological differentiation. For 35 lacertid species, we measured body, head and limb dimensions. Habitat use was inferred from the literature: ground-dwelling on open terrain, ground-dwelling in vegetated areas, shrub-climbing, tree-climbing, saxicolous (i.e. rock-climbing). Traditional (i.e. non-phylogenetic) statistical analyses suggest morphological differences among species groups with different habitat use. Ground-dwelling species from open habitats tend to have longer femurs, tibiae and humeri (relative to body length) than other groups. Cursorial (i.e. level-running) species have relatively high heads and trunks compared to climbing species. These differences follow biomechanical predictions and it is tempting to consider tham as adaptations to habitat use. However, phylogenetic analyses of the data fail to establish a clear relationship between habitat use and morphology in the data set considered. There is a weak indication that the differences in head and trunk height have evolved as an adaptation to different habitat use, but the differences in relative limb dimensions among species groups with different habitat use vanish. Either adaptation of limb dimensions to habitat use has not occurred in lacertid lizards, or our methods are unable to demonstrate such an adaptation. We show that uncertainties in the topology of the phylogenetic tree used are unlikely to influence the outcome of our study. We also address the fact that habitat use is often similar in different branches of the phylogenetic tree, and the consequences this may have for the power of our statistical analyses.
Vashetko, E.V. (1972) -
Vashetko, E.V. & Chikin, Yu.A. & Khodzhaev, A.F. & Nuridzhanov, A.S. (2003) -
An analysis of literature, reports, collections and the authors` data on the distri- bution of amphibians and reptiles in the Western Tian Shan (Uzbekistan) has been made. The list consists of nineteen reptile and two amphibian species. Distribution maps of the records are presented. Inhabiting in this territory of some more species is expected.
Вашетко Э.В., Чикин Ю.А., Ходжаев А.Ф., Нуриджанов А.С. (2003) -
Vasilopoulou-Kampitsi, M. & Goyens, J. & Damme, R. van & Aerts, P. (2019) -
Shape variation in the vestibular system is often linked to microhabitat structure and locomotor performance. Highly circular and orthogonal semicircular canal pairs are linked to higher motion sensitivity. Here, we use 3D geometric morphometrics to investigate shape variation in the vestibular system within lacertid lizards and its relationship to balance control. We found that lacertids living in complex microhabitats possess narrow but longer vestibular systems, an S-shaped anterior canal, a straightened lateral canal and a short common crus. However, lacertids specialized for simple microhabitats (open areas) possess wider but shorter vestibular systems, more circular anterior and lateral canals, and a longer common crus. Contrary to our expectations, species living in simple microhabitats possess more anatomical adaptations that enhance the sensitivity of their vestibular system. This suggests that species inhabiting open areas may benefit from increased sensitivity given that they are potentially more visibile to predators and have lower shelter availability. Finally, the wider shape of the vestibular system of the open area species may be linked to a wider and potentially flattened skull, which may be related to sand-diving or prey hardness.
Vasilyan, D. & Zazhigin, V.S. & Böhme, M. (2017) -
Background: The present-day amphibian and reptile fauna of Western Siberia are the least diverse of the Palaearctic Realm, as a consequence of the unfavourable climatic conditions that predominate in this region. The origin and emergence of these herpetofaunal groups are poorly understood. Aside from the better-explored European Neogene localities yielding amphibian and reptile fossil remains, the Neogene herpetofauna of Western Asia is understudied. The few available data need critical reviews and new interpretations, taking into account the more recent records of the European herpetofauna. The comparison of this previous data with that of European fossil records would provide data on palaeobiogeographic affiliations of the region as well as on the origin and emergence of the present-day fauna of Western Siberia. An overview of the earliest occurrences of certain amphibian lineages is still needed. In addition, studies that address such knowledge gaps can be useful for molecular biologists in their calibration of molecular clocks. Methods and Results: In this study, we considered critically reviewed available data from amphibian and reptile fauna from over 40 Western Siberian, Russian and Northeastern Kazakhstan localities, ranging from the Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene. Herein, we provided new interpretations that arose from our assessment of the previously published and new data. More than 50 amphibians and reptile taxa were identified belonging to families Hynobiidae, Cryptobranchidae, Salamandridae, Palaeobatrachidae, Bombinatoridae, Pelobatidae, Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, and Emydidae. Palaeobiogeographic analyses were performed for these groups and palaeoprecipitation values were estimated for 12 localities, using the bioclimatic analysis of herpetofaunal assemblages. Conclusion: The Neogene assemblage ofWestern Siberia was found to be dominated by groups of European affinities, such as Palaeobatrachidae, Bombina, Hyla, Bufo bufo, and a small part of this assemblage included Eastern Palaearctic taxa (e.g. Salamandrella, Tylototriton, Bufotes viridis). For several taxa (e.g. Mioproteus, Hyla, Bombina, Rana temporaria), the Western Siberian occurrences represented their most eastern Eurasian records. The most diverse collection of fossil remains was found in the Middle Miocene. Less diversity has been registered towards the Early Pleistocene, potentially due to the progressive cooling of the climate in the Northern Hemisphere. The results of our study showed higher-amplitude changes of precipitation development in Western Siberia from the Early Miocene to the Pliocene, than previously assumed.
Voigt, F.S. (1832) -
Wagler, J.G. (1830) -
Wagner, P. & Bauer, A.M. & Leviton, A.E. & Wilms, T.M. & Böhme, W. (2016) -
The composition and distribution of the vertebrate fauna of Afghanistan remain poorly documented and in recent decades little new data have become available due to a series of wars and the resulting unstable security conditions. As Afghanistan returns to some semblance of normalcy, baseline faunistic data will be particularly important for establishing national conservation priorities as well as for placing Afghan taxa into their broader phylogenetic and zoogeographic contexts. We here provide an updated checklist of the herpetofauna of Afghanistan based in part upon biodiversity archives of specimen records from several museum and private collec- tions as well as literature references and field research. The herpetofauna of Afghanistan consists of 118 species and subspecies belonging to 58 genera and 21 families. Seven species are endemic to the country, whereas 18 taxa have to be delet- ed from previous lists of the Afghan herpetofauna. Afghanistan’s primary zoogeo- graphic relationship to the Palearctic Region is reaffirmed but with secondary influ- ence from the Oriental Region. Immediately following the checklist, two sections provide information about species probably occurring in Afghanistan and previous- ly mentioned species that are now recognized as absent.
Wan, H.-F. & Guo, X.-G. & Wang, Y.-Z. (2012) -
The karyotype of Eremias przewalskii from Minqin county,Gansu province was examined using medulla cells and the colchicines-hypotonic air dry technique.Result showed that the karyotype formula of E.przewalskii is 2n=38=36I+2m with NF=38,belonging to type of Eremias argus,consistent with the karyotypes of genus Eremias and family Lacertidae. On the basis of reviewing the reported karyological data of Eremias, the evolution of karyotypes in this genus is discussed.
Wan, L.-X. (2006) -
Wan, L.-X. & Sun, S.-H. & Jin, Y.-T. & Yan, Y.-F. & Liu, N.-F. (2007) -
In the present study, relationships among all Chinese species of lacertids in the genus Eremias, E. velox, E. grammica, E. vermiculata, E. przewalskii, E. multiocellata, E. arguta, E. brenchleyi, and E. argus, were assessed using 574 aligned base positions of 16S rRNA mitochondrial DNA sequences from 103 individuals collected from 28 populations. Three kinds of phylogenetic tree (MP, ME, and NJ) were reconstructed and were found to be concordant. All eight species well form a monophyletic group. The resulting genetic distance between E. przewalskii and E. multiocellata is surprisingly low, only 0.008. The result could be due to introgression of the mtDNA molecule. All Eastern-Asia lacertids except E. vermiculata grouped together and formed a monophyletic clade. E. vermiculata are closely related to E. arguta, a Central-Asia species. E. brenchleyi and E. argus formed a monophyletic clade as the sister group of E. multiocellata. The Central-Asia species (E. arguta, E. grammica and E. velox) originated from Central-Asia and Eastern-Asia species (the rest) from China. The phylogenetic relationships among E. grammica, E. velox, E. arguta-vermiculata, E. argus-brenchleyi, and E. multiocellata-przewalskii are unclear in the study, which needs more comprehensive taxonomic sampling from Western Asia and Europe, and additional genetic evidence to resolve it.
Wang, C. & Tang, X. & Yin, Y. & Yue, F. & Yan, X. & Liu, B. & An, B. & Wang, X. & Chen, Q. (2015) -
Eremias multiocellata is a viviparous lizard that is known to exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Conventional Giemsa staining under light microscope examination has iden-tified the karyotype of this species to be 2 n = 36 I + 2 m, with no detectable heteromorphic sex chromosomes. However, a highly differentiated female-specific chromosome, W, which is homo-morphic with the Z chromosome, is found in the present study by the high-resolution cytogenetic method of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). The results show that E. multiocellata is a viviparous lizard with both TSD and ZW heterogametic sex chromosomes. Despite the fact that a different sex ratio of male offspring was found in two populations (separated by an altitude of 1400 m) in previous incubation experiments, we demonstrate, using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), that there is no significant chromosomal loss or acquisition between the two populations. This suggests that temperature may play a more important role in lowland populations. These results most likely indicate that E. multiocellata is transitioning between the evolutionary processes of TSD and genotypic sex determination (GSD) systems, and also give clues to the effect of TSD versus GSD in this process.
Wang, H. & Xie, Y. & Jiao, M. & Hu, X. & Li, J. & Xu, P. & Zhang, Y. (2018) -
The metabolic process of diflubenzuron in rat or fish has been well studied, but little is known about its elimination pathway in lizard. The current study predicted the metabolic route of diflubenzuron in lizard feces and compared the toxicity of diflubenzuron and 4-chloroaniline on lizard thyroid system. The amido bond cleavage was the major route for diflubenzuron elimination in lizard feces. 4-Chloroaniline as the most toxic diflubenzuron metabolite was also abundant in feces. According to liver slices, 4-chloroaniline exposure induced significant changes of nuclear shape, while diflubenzuron exposure caused significant hepatocytes clustering. On the basis of thyroid hormone and thyroid-related gene levels, triiodothyronine (T3) level in lizard liver was regulated by thyroid hormone receptors, while thyroxine (T4) concentration was modulated by dio2 and udp genes after diflubenzuron or 4-chloroaniline exposure. These results showed that both diflubenzuron and 4-chloroaniline could disrupt lizard thyroid system, which could provide evidence for lizard population decline.
Wang, Y. & Guo, B. & Gao, Y. & Xu, P. & Zhang, Y. & Li, J. & Wang, H. (2013) -
Benalaxyl as a xylem-systemic fungicide is usually direct sprayed on the soil surface, which is potential harm to the animals lived in the soil. However, the stereoselectivity of benalaxyl in reptiles have rarely been studied. In this study, Chinese lizards (Eremias argus) were firstly used to evaluate the stereoselectivity in biodegradation and toxicity of racemate and individual enantiomers of benalaxyl. A method for determining residues of the two enantiomers of benalaxyl in lizard blood and liver by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The degradation followed pseudo first-order kinetics and the degradation of the (S)-(+)-benalaxyl was faster than its antipode in blood and liver (Half-time t1/2 of (R)-(−)-benalaxyl and (S)-(+)-benalaxyl were 5.08 h and 3.75 h in blood, 6.21 h and 4.45 h in liver, separately). Moreover, antioxidant defenses consisting of activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxide malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in 24 h acute exposure. Enantioselectivity of acute toxicity depended on the concentration and form of benalaxyl. In addition, cellular degeneration, decrease of cell number, clustering phenomena of cell nuclei and preliminary liver fibrosis were observed in pathological detection at the termination of 21-d subchronic exposure (20 mg/kg−bw of racemate and individual enantiomers of benalaxyl). The enantiomer fractions (EFs) in racemate and individual enantiomer groups were approached both in blood and liver caused by the chiral conversion. The chiral conversion from (R)-(−)-benalaxyl to (S)-(+)-benalaxyl and (S)-(+)-benalaxyl to (R)-(−)-benalaxyl were the primary cause for no remarkable differences in toxicity between the enantiomers of benalaxyl.
Wang, Y. & Han, Y. & Xie, Y. & Xu, P. & Li, W. (2018) -
The Chinese lizards (Eremias argus) were used to evaluate the metabolism, distribution and effect of dinotefuran following oral exposed. The HPLC equipped with Q Exactive focus was used for metabolite identification and concentration analysis. After single oral administration, the time-concentration curves of dinotefuran and its metabolites were tissue-dependent. The liver and kidney were the major metabolic organs. Percutaneous and urinary excretions were the main ways for lizards to eliminate dinotefuran, and the urine output was the limiting factor. Nitro-reduction was an important process of the metabolism of dinotefuran that was dominated by aldehyde oxidase, and P450 enzymes were involved. The CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 played a crucial role in the other metabolic pathways of dinotefuran. The mRNA expressions of GST family were severely inhibited in liver, which showed dinotefuran might pose a risk of damaging the oxidative stress system in liver. Prolonged residuals of dinotefuran and its demethylation metabolite might enhance the risk of dinotefuran to brain. The results enrich and supplement the knowledge of the environmental fate of dinotefuran in reptiles.
WANG, Y. & Han, Y. & Xu, P. & Guo, B. & Li, W. & WANG, X. (2018) -
Systematically evaluation of the metabolism, distribution and effect of imidacloprid in Chinese lizards (Eremias argus) were carried out following oral exposure. Imidacloprid-olefin-guanidine was prone to accumulate in the brain and caused potential neurotoxicity. Percutaneous and excretory excretions were the primary ways for the elimination of imidacloprid and its metabolites. Liver was the main site for hydroxy reduction and nitro-reduction metabolism of imidacloprid. The metabolism of imidacloprid was a complex process in which many metabolic enzymes participated. Aldehyde oxidase and CYP2C9 were the key enzymes in nitro-reduction process. CYP3A4 dominated the process of hydroxylation and desaturation. The increase in Glutathione S-transferase expression may be related to the removal of imidacloprid, but also related to the oxidative stress reaction that imidacloprid may cause in tissues, especially in the kidney. The findings enrich and supplement the knowledge of the environmental fate of imidacloprid in reptiles.
Wang, Y. & Li, S.-R. & Zeng, Z.-G. & Liang, L. & Du, W.-G. (2017) -
1. Whether maternal effects are adaptive or not has been a long-standing topic of discussion in evolutionary ecology. The effects of maternal diet on offspring have been addressed by several studies on diverse organisms, but results are typically conflicting or inconclusive. 2. In this study, we conducted food manipulation experiments with a factorial design (high and low maternal food conditions × high and low offspring food conditions) in a viviparous lacertid lizard (Eremias multiocellata) to test four competing hypotheses on the evolutionary significance of maternal effects: environmental matching hypothesis, low-food compensation hypothesis, low-food pathology hypothesis and no-compensation hypothesis. 3. We found that offspring under the maternal low-food treatment had higher growth and survival rates than those under the maternal high-food treatment, supporting the low-food compensation hypothesis rather than the environmental matching hypothesis, which has been widely accepted as an explanation for the adaptive significance of maternal effects. 4. Our study highlights the importance of testing multiple competing hypotheses that involve both adaptive and non-adaptive explanations when studying the evolutionary significance of phenotypic plasticity.
Wang, Y. & Yu, D. & Xu, P. & Guo, B. & Zhang, Y. & Li, J. & Wang, H. (2014) -
In this research, Chinese lizards (Eremias argus) were chosen as laboratory animal to evaluate the stereoselectivity in the processes of metabolism, distribution, and bioaccumulation of triadimefon. A validated chiral high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadruple mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS) method was developed for determining enantiomers’ residues of parent compound triadimefon and its metabolite triadimenol in lizard blood and tissues. Pharmacokinetic results of single-does exposure suggested that S-(+)-triadimefon was metabolized easier than R-(−)-triadimefon, and RR-(+)-triadimenol was the main metabolic product of triadimefon. During the continuous exposure of two dose (40 mg/kgbw•d and 200 mg/kgbw•d), enantiomers of triadimefon and triadimenol were detected in all body compartments, with the highest triadimefon concentrations in brain. However, the triadimenol concentrations were not significantly different among the compartments. The concentrations of RS-(+)-triadimenol were negative correlated with concentrations of RR-(+)-triadimenol both in blood (r=−0.775, p=0.024) and liver (r=−0.834, p=0.02) in 200 mg/kgbw•d group, which indicates that chiral conversion between enantiomers of triadimenol might exist in the metabolic process of triadimefon. In all the processes, the enantiomer fractions (EFs) of R-(−)-triadimefon and RR-(+)-triadimenol were significantly different from their natural ratios, 0.5 and 0.1, respectively, which proved that metabolism, bioaccumulation, and distribution of triadimefon and triadimenol in lizards were enantioselective. These results help enrich and supplement the knowledge of the stereoselective behaviour of triadimefon and triadimenol in reptile.
Wang, Y. & Zeng, Z.-G. & Li, S.-R. & Bi, J.-H. & Du, W.-G. (2016) -
Extreme high temperatures are occurring more frequently with ongoing anthropogenic climate warming, but the experimental tests of the effects of high temperatures on terrestrial vertebrates in natural conditions are rare. In this study, we investigated the effects of extreme high temperatures on female reproduction and offspring traits of multi-ocellated racerunners (Eremias multiocellata) kept in field enclosures in the desert steppe of Inner Mongolia. Our studies indicate that high temperatures significantly affect the gestation period and reproductive output of females and the offspring sex ratio, but have little impact on offspring body size and mass. More interestingly, we found that the effect of extreme high temperatures on female reproductive output was not consistent between two consecutive years that differed in precipitation. Low precipitation may aggravate the impact of climate warming on lizards and negatively affect the survival of lizards in the desert steppe. Our results provide evidence that temperature interacts with precipitation to determine the life history of lizards, and they suggest that a drier and hotter environment, such as the future climate in arid mid-latitude areas, will likely impose severe pressure on lizard populations, which are an important component of the food web in desert areas around the world.
Wang, Y. & Zhang, Y. & Li, W. & Han, Y. & Guo, B. (2019) -
The neurotoxicity of dinotefuran, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid against Chinese lizards (Eremias argus) were evaluated in acute oral exposure and 28d subchronic exposure. Dinotefuran was not easily metabolized and showed strong persistence in the lizard brain. Thiamethoxam and imidacloprid were rapidly absorbed and excreted in lizards, and were not easily enriched in the lizard brain. Dinotefuran and thiamethoxam could directly increase the concentrations of acetylcholine in the brain and blood by up-regulating the expression of the ach gene, which in turn enhanced the binding of acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase receptors, eventually causing the release of dopamine. The effect of dinotefuran was more pronounced than thiamethoxam. Clothianidin was a major metabolite of thiamethoxam in the brain and aggravated the neurotoxic effects of thiamethoxam. Imidacloprid desnitro olefin was the only metabolite of imidacloprid that enriched in the brain. The protonation effect of imidacloprid desnitro olefin was stronger than that of the parent imidacloprid, which increased its binding ability to lizard acetylcholinesterase receptors. Competitive inhibition of imidacloprid desnitro olefin and acetylcholine led to the down-regulation of ach gene expression. Although neonicotinoids caused the opening of ligand-gated ion channel through the activation of acetylcholinesterase receptors, the body would alleviate these effects by the inhibition of voltage-dependent channel activity for compensatory mechanisms. This study provided a new perspective on the neotoxic effects of neonicotinoids.
Wang, Y. & Zhang, Y. & Li, W. & Yang, L. & Guo, B. (2019) -
The potential endocrine disruption of neonicotinoids poses a significant threat to the survival of small farmland lizards. We systematically evaluated the distribution, metabolism, and toxicity of three neonicotinoids (dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid) in the Eremias argus during a 35-day oral administration exposure. Lizards could quickly transfer and store neonicotinoids into the scale and eliminated through molting. Dinotefuran was most prone to accumulation in lizard tissues, followed by thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid was generally present in the form of its terminal metabolite 6-chloropyridinyl acid. Exposure to dinotefuran resulted in hepatic oxidative stress damage, decreased plasma growth hormone concentration, and down-regulation of ghr, igf1 and igfbp2 gene expression. These indicated that dinotefuran might have potential growth inhibition toxicity to lizards. Although imidacloprid caused severe liver oxidative stress damage, the effect of imidacloprid on GH/IGF axis was not obvious. Compared to dinotefuran and imidacloprid, thiamethoxam had the least damage to liver and minimal impact on GH/IGF axis. This study verified the possible damage of neonicotinoids to lizard liver and the interference of GH/IGF axis for the first time.
Wang, Y. & Zhang, Y. & Xu, P. & Guo, B. & Li, W. (2018) -
Systematic evaluation of the metabolism, distribution, and effect of thiamethoxam in Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus) was carried out after oral exposure. HPLC equipped with Q Exactive focus was used for identification and concentration analysis of thiamethoxam and its metabolites. Percutaneous and urine excretions were the primary ways for the elimination of thiamethoxam and its metabolites, and the limiting factor was urine output. Demethylated thiamethoxam and clothianidin were the main metabolites of thiamethoxam in lizards. CYP3A4, CYP3A7, and CYP2C9 played a crucial role in the metabolism process. Aldehyde oxidase only dominated the nitro-reduction process of demethylated thiamethoxam and clothianidin. Glutathione S-transferase might be related to the clearance process of thiamethoxam and its metabolites. The findings indicated that thiamethoxam might pose potential carcinogenic and hepatic injury risk to lizards. The results enrich and supplement the knowledge of the environmental fate of thiamethoxam in reptiles.
Wang, Y. & Zhang, Y. & Zeng, T. Li, W. & Yang, L. & Guo, B. (2017) -
The endocrine disrupting effect of pesticides is considered to be an important factor in the decline of reptile populations. The large-scale application of neonicotinoids in the environment poses a potential threat to small farmland lizards Eremias argus. In this study, we evaluated the disruption effects of thiamethoxam and its metabolite clothianidin on the endocrine disruption of Eremias argus during 28 d exposure. Thiamethoxam and clothianidin could accumulate in the testis and ovary. Adequate blood exchange was the main cause of thiamethoxam and clothianidin accumulation in the gonads. The production of clothianidin aggravated the effect of endocrine disruption to lizards. Thiamethoxam/clothianidin exhibited two distinct ways of interfering with the endocrine disruption of the male and female lizards. Thiamethoxam/clothianidin significantly up-regulated the expression of cyp17 and cyp19 genes in the testis, which ultimately led to a significant decrease in testosterone levels and a significant increase in the 17-estradiol concentrations in plasma. The expression of the estrogen receptor gene in the liver was also significantly increased in male lizards. The significant declines in testosterone and prostaglandin D2 levels in the plasma indicated that thiamethoxam and clothianidin could cause androgen deficiency in male lizards. Meanwhile, in female lizards, thiamethoxam/clothianidin increased the expression of hsd17β gene in the ovary, causing an increase in testosterone levels in the plasma and an up-regulation of androgen receptor expression in the liver. The effects of thiamethoxam and clothianidin on male lizards were more pronounced. This study verified the possible endocrine disrupting effects of neonicotinoids and provided a new perspective for the study of global recession of reptiles.
Wang, Z. & Xia, Y. & Ji, X. (2009) -
Wang, Z. & Xia, Y. & Ji, X. (2011) -
Background: Studies of lizards have shown that offspring size cannot be altered by manipulating clutch size in species with a high clutch frequency. This raises a question of whether clutch frequency has a key role in influencing the offspring size- number trade-off in lizards.
Methodology/Principal Findings: To test the hypothesis that females reproducing more frequently are less likely to tradeoff offspring size against offspring number, we applied the follicle ablation technique to female Eremias argus (Lacertidae) from Handan (HD) and Gonghe (GH), the two populations that differ in clutch frequency. Follicle ablation resulted in enlargement of egg size in GH females, but not in HD females. GH females switched from producing a larger number of smaller eggs in the first clutch to a smaller number of larger eggs in the second clutch; HD females showed a similar pattern of seasonal shifts in egg size, but kept clutch size constant between the first two clutches. Thus, the egg size- number trade-off was evident in GH females, but not in HD females.
Conclusions/Significance: As HD females (mean = 3.1 clutches per year) reproduce more frequently than do GH females (mean = 1.6 clutches per year), our data therefore validate the hypothesis tested. Our data also provide an inference that maximization of maternal fitness could be achieved in females by diverting a large enough, rather than a higher-than-usual, fraction of the available energy to individual offspring in a given reproductive episode.
Welch, K.R.G. & Cooke, P.S. & Wright, A.S. (1990) -
Werner, F. (1895) -
Werner, F. (1902) -
Werner, F. (1904) -
Wettstein, O. (1940) -
Wettstein, O. von (1951) -
Wiegmann, A.F.A. (1834) -
Xie, Y. & Li, L.Y.Z. & Hao, W. & Chang, J. & Xu, P. & Guo, B. & Li, J. & Wang, H. (2019) -
Prothioconazole (PTC) is a widely used triazolinthione fungicide with low toxicity and short residual period. However, its desulfurization metabolite, prothioconazole-desthio (PTC-d), is more persistent and has higher toxicity in terrestrial animals. In this study, the toxicokinetics (TK) and tissue distribution of PTC and PTC-d in Chinese lizards (Eremias argus) were measured following single oral dose (100 mg kg−1 body weight) treatments. TK parameters indicated that PTC was more rapidly absorbed than PTC-d, as indicated by its shorter time to reach peak concentrations in most tissues. Furthermore, the relative bioavailability of PTC in lizards was lower than that of PTC-d. Compared with PTC, PTC-d preferentially accumulated in lizards, as reflected by longer half-life of PTC-d. During the distribution process, PTC-d generated in vivo was transported from other tissues and was deposited in the skin and tail, where PTC-d may be excreted by exuviation or tail detachment. Preferential enrichment of S-enantiomer of both PTC and PTC-d were observed in all tissues. Hepatic cytochrome P450 gene expression measurement revealed that cyp1a5 and cyp3a28 exhibited the strongest responses in both treatment groups. In addition, the opposite responses of cyp2k4 in different treatment groups may indicate that this enzyme caused differences in the rates of metabolism of the two chemicals. This study compared the TK profile of PTC and its desulfurization metabolite PTC-d in lizards and demonstrated that the desulfurization of PTC could increase its ecological risk due to the higher bioavailability and persistence of PTC-d.
Xin, Y. & Tang, X. & Yue, F. & Zhang, D. & Yan, X. & Wang, C. & Chen, Q. (2012) -
The Sox (SRY-related high-mobility-group box) family of genes shares a conserved HMG box and is involved in a diverse range of developmental processes and sex determination in vertebrates. Twenty Sox genes are present in the genomes of humans and mice, but far less is known about the Sox gene family in reptiles. Using two pairs of highly degenerate primers designed from a multiple alignment of Sox amino acid sequences in several species, different positive clones were obtained from male and female Eremias multiocellata, a viviparous lizard which is subject to TSD (temperature-dependent sex determination). These clones were sequenced and identified. They are members of the SoxB (Sox2, Sox14), SoxC (Sox11, Sox12) and SoxE (Sox9a, Sox9b, Sox10) groups. No sex-specific differences were observed. Based on the amino acid sequence similarities, the phylogenetic analysis was carried out and these genes clustered with their orthologues. In addition, we found the gene duplication in E. multiocellata, it may be a mechanism to produce new functional genes.
Xu, X. & Wu, Y. (2002) -
An experiment on compensatory growth in lacertid lizards from a population in Suzhou, Anhui, eastern China, after different periods of starvation, was conducted from May to June and September to October 2001. All lizards used in this study were adult males. The experiment lasted for 24 days for each test group. Group C, S3, S6, S9 were deprived of food for 0 (control), 3, 6 and 9 days, respectively. Then each group was fed for the rest of the experimental period. There were significant differences in food intake and mass change among the experimental groups during the course of weight recovery. S9 had higher food intake and mass change than S3 and group C. There were no obvious differences in the apparent digestive coefficient (ADC) or assimilation efficiency (AE) among experimental groups. The results indicate that there was a compensatory effect in weight recovery following starvation, and that the compensatory effect mainly resulted from significant increase in feeding intensity during weight recovery.
Xu, X.-F. & Ji, X. (2006) -
We used Eremias brenchleyi as a model animal to examine differences in thermal tolerance, selected body temperature, and the thermal dependence of food assimilation and locomotor performance between juvenile and adult lizards. Adults selected higher body temperatures (33.5 vs. 31.7 °C) and were able to tolerate a wider range of body temperatures (3.4–43.6 vs. 5.1–40.8 °C) than juveniles. Within the body temperature range of 26–38 °C, adults overall ate more than juveniles, and food passage rate was faster in adults than juveniles. Apparent digestive coefficient (ADC) and assimilation efficiency (AE) varied among temperature treatments but no clear temperature associated patterns could be discerned for these two variables. At each test temperature ADC and AE were both higher in adults than in juveniles. Sprint speed increased with increase in body temperature at lower body temperatures, but decreased at higher body temperatures. At each test temperature adults ran faster than did juveniles, and the range of body temperatures where lizards maintained 90% of maximum speed differed between adults (27–34 °C) and juveniles (29–37 °C). Optimal temperatures and thermal sensitivities differed between food assimilation and sprint speed. Our results not only show strong patterns of ontogenetic variation in thermal tolerance, selected body temperature and thermal dependence of food assimilation and locomotor performance in E. brenchleyi, but also add support for the multiple optima hypothesis for the thermal dependence of behavioral and physiological variables in reptiles.
Keywords: Lacertidae; Eremias brenchleyi; Selected body temperature; Thermal tolerance; Food assimilation; Sprint speed.
Xu, X.-F. & Wu, Y.-L. (2003) -
Annual variation of water content and energy value of the major energ y reserves were studied in adult lizard, Eremias brenchleyi , from a populati on in Suzhou, Anhui, eastern China. Monthly samples of the adult lizards were c olle cted during September to November 2001 and March to August 2002. The lizards wer e brought to our laboratory in Chuzhou Normal College. The lizards were killed b y freezing to -15℃, and then separated into carcasses (including tails), liver s and abdominal fat bodies. The three components were oven dried to constant mas s at 65℃, weighed and preserved frozen for later determination of composition. We extracted non polar lipids from dried samples (except abdominal fat bodies) in a Soxhlet apparatus for a minimum of 5 5 h using absolute ether as solvent. Th e amount of lipids in a simple was determined by subtracting the lipid free dry mass from total sample dry mass. We determined energy value of dried samples inc luding carcasses, livers, abdominal fat bodies and non polar lipids using an ad i abatic bomb calorimeter. Males and females differed in water contents of carcass and liver. Water contents of carcass and liver were all higher in males than in females. There were significant monthly changes in water contents and energy va lues of carcass (including lean carcass) and liver in both males and females. Si gnificant monthly changes in energy value s of abdominal fat bodies were also found in both sexes. Energy values of carcas s (including lean carcass) and liver were higher in males than in females, but t hose of liver lower in males than in females. Our results indicated that annual variations in the major energy reserves were correlated with the reproduction an d winter hibernation. Proper energy storage in breeding season of male would be help for to strengthen the ability of quick movement, while, that of female woul d be increase reproductive output and improve survival and fitness.
Lacertid lizards,Eremias brenchleyi were captured from field,and reared artificially.Laid eggs were incubated at 30 ℃ and -12 kPa (humidity).Whole eggs,eggshells,yolks,and embryos were weighed,and energy of certain components was determined at a series of time points.Data on the development of embryos and the transition of material and energy in eggs incubation were processed,resulting in:1)The duration of incubation averaged 35 days,and the egg in wet mass increased for absorbing moisture while incubating.2)The embryos employed about 10%,30% and 20% of the total egg energy in the periods of 0-20,20-30,and 30-35 days of incubation,respectively.3)The embryos grew slowly during the first 20 days,then grew rapidly.4)Approximately 63.4% dry material,32.7% non-polar lipids and 59.6% energy in the contents of fresh eggs were transferred to the hatchlings.5)Inorganic material in both yolk and eggshell was used by the embryos in development.The transition ratios of dry material and non-polar lipids as main energy-substance,and the proportion of residual yolk in hatchlings are lower than those reported for snakes.The lower ratios maybe related to the longer slow-phase of embryonic development in this species.
许雪峰 吴义莲 (2003) -
野生成年山地麻蜥捕获后在人工环境中产卵，卵在30℃、-12 kPa的条件下孵化；在不同时段称重(整体、卵壳、卵黄、胚胎等)并测定一些成分的能量。胚胎发育以及卵物质和能量转化数据处理结果如下：①卵孵化期为35.0 d，孵化时能从外界吸收水分使卵重增加；②在卵孵化0-20、20-30和30-35 d，胚胎分别利用新生卵能量的10%、30%和20%；③胚胎在孵化的20 d内生长缓慢，此后生长迅速；④卵孵化过程中，干重、非极性脂肪和能量的转化率分别为67.3%、32.7%和59.6%；⑤胚胎发育所需的无机物来自卵黄和卵壳。该种卵内干物质和非极性脂肪(作为主要能量物质)的转化率、幼体内剩余卵黄比例均较有鳞类低；这种转化率差异可能与山地麻蜥胚胎发育缓慢期较长有关。
Xu, X.-F. & Wu, Y.-L. & Zhang, J.-L. (2005) -
Influence of thermal and hydric environments on incubation eggs,embryonic use of energy and hatchling traits were studied in the lacertid lizards,Eremias brenchleyi,which were collected in Qianshan,Suzhou,Anhui,Eastern China.The eggs were incubated at temperatures of 27,30,and 33 ℃ on substrates with water potentials of 0 and -220 kPa using a 3×2 factorial design. Laid eggs were collected in one hour.Eggs were weighed at five-days intervals till hatchlings from eggs incubated.Each hatchling was thawed and separated into carcass,residual yolks,and fat bodies after measured and weighed.The components were preserved frozen for later determination of composition.All viable eggs increased in mass throughout the course of incubation due to absorption of water,and both thermal and hydric environments affected water exchanges between eggs and their surroundings.Final eggs incubated in wetter substrates (0 kPa) gained more mass than did eggs in drier substrates (-220 kPa) but at the same temperature;final eggs incubated at 27 and 30 ℃ gained more mass than did eggs at 33 ℃ but at the same substrate water potential.Incubation temperature significantly affected duration of incubation,and which decreased as incubation temperature increased,but substrate moisture and its interaction with temperature did not.Both incubation and substrate moisture did not affected hatching success.Substrate moisture and its interaction with temperature were unaffected almost all hatchling traits examined except residual yolk.However,Incubation temperature profoundly affected embryonic use of nutrients and size，mass,and residual yolk mass of hatchlings.33 ℃ was not a suitable incubation temperature for E.brenchleyi eggs,because eggs incubated at 33 ℃ produced smaller hatchlings that contained larger residual yolks than did eggs incubated at 27 ℃ and 30 ℃.Given that eggs incubated at 27 ℃ and 30 ℃ both produced well-developed hatchlings of which all measured variables were nearly the same,we conclude that 30 ℃ is better than 27 ℃ for incubation of E.brenchleyi eggs because of the shortened duration of incubation at 30 ℃.
许雪峰 吴义莲 张建龙 (2005) -
用6种温湿度条件孵化安徽宿州乾山山地麻蜥(Eremias brenchleyi)卵，观测孵化卵质量变化、胚胎利用卵内物质和能量以及孵出幼体特征。卵在产出后1 h内收集，共设置3×2种温湿度处理(温度分别为27、30和33 ℃；湿度分别为-220、0 kPa)。每隔5 d称卵重，直至幼体孵出。幼体经测量、称重后，解剖、分离为躯干、剩余卵黄和脂肪体三组分，用于成分测试。卵从环境中吸水导致质量增加，孵化温、湿度及其相互作用显著影响孵化卵的质量变化：同一温度下，高湿度(0 kPa)孵化卵的终末质量大于低湿度(-220 kPa)孵化卵；同一湿度下，低温(27和30 ℃)孵化卵的终末质量大于高温(33 ℃)孵化卵。温度显著影响孵化期，随温度的升高孵化期缩短；湿度及其与温度的相互作用对孵化期无显著影响。孵化温湿度对孵化成功率无显著影响。温度显著影响胚胎对卵内物质的动用、幼体大小、质量以及剩余卵黄质量；除剩余卵黄外，湿度及其与温度的相互作用不影响山地麻蜥孵出幼体几乎所有的被检测特征。33 ℃孵出幼体的大小和质量均显著小于27和30 ℃，并特征性地具有较大的剩余卵黄。因此，33 ℃不适宜孵化山地麻蜥卵。27 ℃和30 ℃中孵出幼体躯干发育良好，各项被测定的特征指标极其相似。
Xu, X.F. & Chen, X.J. & Ji, X. (2001) -
Selected body temperature (Tsel),critical thermal maximum (Tcmax),critical thermal minimum (Tcmin),and influence of temperature on food assimilation and locomotor performance were studied in adult male lacertid lizards,Eremias brenchleyi,from a population in Suzhou,Anhui,eastern China.Tsel,Tcmax and Tcmin were 33.7,43.6 and 3.3℃,respectively.Temperature significantly affected food passage time,food intake,apparent digestive coefficient (ADC),assimilation efficiency (AE) and locomotor performance of lizards.The food passage time decreased with increase in temperature from 26 to 30℃ and increased at higher temperatures.Food intake,ADC and AE were lower at 26 and 28℃ than at higher temperatures.The sprint speed increased with increase in body temperature from 19 to 34℃,and then decreased dramatically at higher temperatures.The length of continuous locomotion was apparently greater at 31 and 34℃ than at other lower or higher temperatures,and decreased dramatically at the body temperatures higher than 36℃.The average number of stops in the racetrack was significantly greater in lizards with body temperatures higher than 34℃ than in those with body temperatures from 19 to 34℃.Our results suggest that the optimal body temperatures for locomotion are 31-34℃,and the body temperature has pervasive effects on food assimilation and locomotion performance in lizards Eremias brenchleyi.
许雪峰 睬雪君 计 翔 (2001) -
摘要 研究了捕自安徽宿州的成年雄性山地麻蜥(Eremias brenchleyi)选择体温、热耐受性、温度对食物同化和运动表现的影响。结果显示：①选择体温、临界高温和临界低温的平均值分别为.7、43.6和3.3℃。②环境温度在26—38℃时，对山地麻蜥食物通过时间、摄食量、表观消化系数(ADC)、同化效率(AE)和运动表现有显著的影响；在26—30℃时食物通过时间随温度升高而缩短，超过30℃则随温度升高而延长；26和28℃时，摄食量、ADC和AE均小于更高温度的对应值。体温在19—34℃，蜥蜴的疾跑速随体温上升而加快，31和34℃时最快，超过34℃后随体温升高而减慢；31和34℃时的持续运动距离最长，超过36℃后随体温升高而显著缩短，但体温1936℃蜥蜴的持续运动距离无显著差异；19—34℃蜥蜴的跑道顿次数较少，无显著差异，超过34℃后显著增加。
Xu, X.F. & Ji, X. (2003) -
Studies on the ontogenetic shifts in sexual dimorphism in head size (head length and width) and food habits of Eremias brenchleyi were studied. The results showed that adult E. brenchleyi had no obvious sexual dimorphism in body size (SVL). Both sexes differed in head size since hatching, with males having larger heads than females. This sexual dimorphism was much more pronounced between adults than between juveniles (including hatchlings), largely because the increase velocity of head size of males with SVL was faster than that of females. Hatchlings had relatively larger heads to SVL than juveniles and adults, presumably because E. brenchleyi embryos allocated relatively more resources for early survival and growth of hatchlings. Head size of both sexes overall showed an allometric growth pattern with SVL increase ontogeny.Lizards of different sizes and sexes differed, in certain degrees,in food niche breadth and niche overlap. However, no direct evidence showed a noticeable contribution of the divergence in head size to the segregation of food niche between males and females, thereby mitigating the competition between both sexes.
Xu, X.F. & Ji. X. (2006) -
We used Eremias brenchleyi as a model animal to examine differences in thermal tolerance, selected body temperature, and the thermal dependence of food assimilation and locomotor performance between juvenile and adult lizards. Adults selected higher body temperatures (33.5 vs. 31.7 degrees C) and were able to tolerate a wider range of body temperatures (3.4-43.6 vs. 5.1-40.8 degrees C) than juveniles. Within the body temperature range of 26-38 degrees C, adults overall ate more than juveniles, and food passage rate was faster in adults than juveniles. Apparent digestive coefficient (ADC) and assimilation efficiency (AE) varied among temperature treatments but no clear temperature associated patterns could be discerned for these two variables. At each test temperature ADC and AE were both higher in adults than in juveniles. Sprint speed increased with increase in body temperature at lower body temperatures, but decreased at higher body temperatures. At each test temperature adults ran faster than did juveniles, and the range of body temperatures where lizards maintained 90% of maximum speed differed between adults (27-34 degrees C) and juveniles (29-37 degrees C). Optimal temperatures and thermal sensitivities differed between food assimilation and sprint speed. Our results not only show strong patterns of ontogenetic variation in thermal tolerance, selected body temperature and thermal dependence of food assimilation and locomotor performance in E. brenchleyi, but also add support for the multiple optima hypothesis for the thermal dependence of behavioral and physiological variables in reptiles.
Yakovleva, I.D. (1964) -
Yan, X.-F. & Tang, X.-L. & Yue, F. & Zhang, D.-J. & Xin, Y. Wang, C. & Chen, Q. (2011) -