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of the real lizards, family Lacertidae
Lacerta viridis (LAURENTI, 1768)
Abel, E. (1951) -
1. Das Geruchsvermögen ist bei den Eidechsen (L. viridis, L. agilis, L. muralis) gut ausgebildet. Sämtliche Beute wird gerochen
2. Die Nase spielt eine bei weitem größere Rolle als das Jabobsonsche Organ. Dieses tritt, übereinstimmend mit den Befunden Kahmanns, nur akzessorisch in Funktion zum unmittelbaren Prüfen vor oder in dem Munde.
3. Der Beutegruch wird durch die Nase aus ca. 8 bis 10 cm Entfernung sichtbar wahrgenommen (durch die gesteigerte Brustatmung, die als „Pumpen“ bezeichnet wurde, erkenntlich) und löst Suchbewegungen aus.
4. Dieser allein ist bei Ausfall des optischen Sinnes befähigt, Zubeißen und Freßakt, selbst bei ungeeigneten Objekten, auszulösen. Es ist höchstwahrscheinlich, daß ein Geruchsscheme den Tieren angeboren ist.
5. Eidechsen lassen sich entgegen diesem angeborenen Geruchsscheme auf fremden Geruch positiv dressieren, wie Versuche mit stark süßlich duftenden Öl aufzeigten. Es gelang, andressierte Eidechsen nach Steinen usw., die mit Dressurduft markiert waren, beißen zu lassen, selbst als die Tiere im Besitz ihres optischen Sinnes waren.
6. Es hat den Anschein, als würden die Lacerten zirka eine Woche zur Bildung neuer Assoziationen benötigen, sobald sie täglich andressiert werden. Diese Zeitspanne wurde ungefähr bei den von mir durchgeführten Geruchs- und Geschmacksdressuren, sowie auch bei den Gehördresuren von Berger (1924) als Lernzeit benötigt.
7. Die Eidechsen konnten durch Vergällung einer bestimmten Beute mit Kochsalz dazu gebracht werden, bei gleichzeitiger Ausschaltung des optischen Sinnes diese Beute zu meiden, nahmen jedoch andere Nahrungsobjekte an. Durch Engerstellung der Verschiedenheit der Beutetiere konnte gezeigt werden, daß die Echsen in der Lage sind, selbst feinste Qualitätsunterschiede des Geruches zu registrieren. Sie vermochten Grillen von Locustiden, und weiters Locustiden untereinander geruchlich zu unterscheiden, auch wenn diese lebend und unvergällt angeboten wurden.
8. Auf dieses Vermögen dürfte die Bildung eines erworbenen Nahrungskreises zurückzuführen sein. Für sein Bestehen spricht die Bevorzugung von Lieblingsfutter, sowie die Ablehnung gewisser Beutetiere schon aus relativ großer Entfernung.
9. Freilandbeobachtungen zeigen, daß der Geruch bei Nahrungssuche, in unübersichtlichem Gelände von großer Bedeutung sein dürfte, analog zu den Feststellungen im Laborversuch.
10. Der arteigene Geruch ist bei Lacerta viridis wesentlich am endgültigen Festlegen im Verhalten gegenüber dem Artgenossen als Gegner oder Geschlechtspartner beteiligt. Ein Männchen dieser Art kämpft nicht gegen ein anderes, sobald dieser Reiz in der Reizsumme fehlt. Umgekehrt wird bei Anwesenheit des typischen Geruches gekämpft, auch wenn die optischen Merkzeichen stark verändert erscheinen; daraus wird die Bedeutung dieses Faktors im Reizsummenphänomen beim Paarungsverhalten ersichtlich. Der geschlechts-charakteristische Geruch stammt nicht aus den Schenkelporen, da eine operative Entfernung derselben keinerlei Änderung des Verhaltens bewirkte.
11. Die Nasenhöhle registriert Luftfeuchtigkeit und ermöglicht den Eidechsen das Wasser gerichtet aufzufinden. Die Nase darf daher als Alarm- und Leitsinnesorgan bezeichnet werden. Bei der Auffindung von Wasser kann der optische Sinn zusätzlich in Aktion treten, wobvei auf stark lichtbrechende Stellen angesprochen wird.
12. Bei Ausschaltung des Olfactorius sind die Tiere nicht imstande, Wasser zu finden, außer in optisch günstigen Fällen.
13. Freilandbeobachtungen zeigen, daß die Eidechsen durch Tau und Regenfall ihr Wasserbedürfnis gedeckt finden. Bei großer Trockenheit ziehen sich die Tiere zu einem Trockenschlaf zurück, den sie unterbrechen, sobald genügend Feuchtigkeit vorhanden ist. Die Luftfeuchtigkeit wird von den versteckt liegenden Tieren durch die Nase perzipiert und veranlaßt das Aufsuchen der Feuchtigkeitsquelle. Diese Annahme machen Freilandbeobachtungen auch in der natürlichen Umwelt höchst wahrscheinlich.
Adema, J.P.H.M. & Bosch, H.A.J. in den (1980) -
Algyroides moreoticus, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta graeca, Lacerta oxycephala, Lacerta trilineata, Lacerta viridis, Podarcis melisellensis fiumana, Podarcis muralis albanica, Podarcis peloponnesiaca, Podarcis sicula campestris, Podarcis taurica ionica, Podarcis taurica taurica.
Adolph, R. (1922) -
Albers, H. (1974) -
Alkan, B. (1963) -
Vorarbeiten über Schädlingsfauna der Kriehtieren (Reptilien) in der Türkei -- Die Kriehtiere leben meistens auf dem Lande. Viele sind Insektenfresser. Zahlreiche Arten nehmen tierische und pflanzliche, oder ausschliesslich pflanzliche Nahrung zu sich. Ihre wirtschaftliche Schäden an Kulturpflanzen sind gelegentlich. Die besonderen Arten von Pflanzenschädlingen, die in der Türkei leben, sind noch nicht genugend untersucht. Darüber findet man heute sehr wenige und nur zerstreute Veröffentlichungen und Beobachtungen in der Hand. In dieser Vorarbeit sind die bisheute bekannten pflanzenschädliche Arten von Kriehtieren bzw. Eidechsen und Schildkröten, in ihren Verbreitungsgebieten und ihre Nährpflanzen zum erstenmale zusammengestellt. Selbstverstândlioh sind darüber weitere und vertiefte Beobachtungen erforderlich. -- Die Arten der Eidechsen: Agama stellio L. (Schleuderschwanz). Verbreitung: Anatolien, Ankara (Ebner 1919, Kerville 1939). Nährpflanzen: Die süssen Früchten wie Feigen, Pfirsiche, Zuckermelonen, und andere Früohte, Salate, Lattichsalate.,- Agama stellio stellio L. Verbreitung: Süd - und west Türkei, Amasya, Nigde, Diyarbakir, Kayseri, Çanakkale (Bodenheimer 1946 und andere). Nährpflanzen: Wie bei Agama stellio L. -- Agama ruderata Oliv. (Ankara, Kerville 1939), Agama ruderata ruderata Oliv. Ankara, Eregli (Konya), Mardin, Nusaybin, Gaziantep und Malatya (Bodenheimer 1946), Eine Probe in Eregli (Konya) wurde vom Verfasser gefunden. Nährpflanzen: Noch nicht festgestellt, vielleicht wie bei Agama stellio L. -- Lacerta viridis Laur. var. major D. und B. (Srnaragdeidechse). Verbreitung: Westanatolien, andere Fundorte sind nicht bekannt. Nährpflanzen: Weintrauben, Feigen, Kirchen und andere süsse Früchten. Note: Noch mehrere Lacerta Arten wurden in der Türkei gefunden, ob sie pflanzliche Nahrung zu sich nehmen oder nicht, ist unklar. -- Die Arten der Schildkröten. Testudo graeca L. (Grichische Schildkröte). Verbreitung: Fast in allen Geblieten der Türkei. Nährpflanzen: Steppenpflanzen, junges Getreide - Baumwolle -Luzerne - Pflanzen, Gemüsen, Weintrauben, Blätter und Juruge Triebe von vielen jungen Pflanzen. -- Emys orbicularis L. (Surnpf-oder Europäische Schildkröte). Verbreuitung: Ankara (Kerville 1939), Manisa, Bursa, Kayseri, Eski¬sehir, Adapazari, Turhal (Bodenheimer 1946 und andere). Nährpflanzen: Wedntrauben, Zucker-und Wassermelonen. - Note: Noch andere Arten der Schâldknöten leben auch in der Türkei, aber ihre Nahrung ist nicht bekannt.
Allen, A. (1971) -
Allen, A. (1973) -
Almaca, C. (1971) -
Die landgebundenen Wirbeltiere des festländischen Iberiens (Süßwasserfische, Amphibien, Reptilien mit Ausnahme der Meeresschildkröten, Säugetiere mit Ausnahme der Chiroptera, Pinnipedia und Cetacea) bilden, wie im einzelnen gezeigt wird, in ihrer Gesamtheit eine besondere faunistische Einheit: ungefähr die Hälfte der Formen (Spezies oder Subspezies) ist endemisch; das gilt für 73 % der echten Süßwasserfische, 47 % der Amphibien, 36 % der Reptilien und 53 % der Säugetiere. Die geographische Isolierung durch die Pyrenäen und das Mittelmeer ist gewiß die Hauptursache für die Entwicklung einer so eigenartigen Fauna, aber auch andere Faktoren (die sehr verschiedenen Klimate und Biotope innerhalb Iberiens, der im Vergleich mit anderen Gebieten Europas geringere Einfluß der Vereisungen usw. haben sicher ebenfalls eine sehr wichtige Rolle gespielt.
Acanthodactylus erythrurus erythrurus, Algyroides hidalgoi, Algyroides marchi marchi, Algyroides marchi niethammeri, Lacerta agilis agilis, Lacerta hispanica hispanica, Lacerta hispanica bocagei, Lacerta hispanica vaucheri, Lacerta lepida lepida, Lacerta lepida nevadensis, Lacerta monticola monticola, Lacerta monticola cantabrica, Lacerta monticola cyreni, Lacerta schreiberi, Lacerta viridis viridis, Lacerta vivipara, Psammodromus algirus algirus, Psammodromus hispanicus hispanicus, Psammodromus hispanicus edwardsianus.
Amann, T. (1995) -
Es wurden zwei elektrophoretische Methoden zur genetischen Untersuchung der Smaragdeidechse Lacerta viridis durchgeführt.
I. Die Polyacrylamid-Gel Elektrophorese erzielte folgende Ergebnisse.
1. Es trat eine bei allen Individuen homogene Albuminbande mit leichten, nicht spezifizierbaren Schwankungen auf.
2. Vier verschiedene Globulin-Loci ohne Variationen hinsichtlich des Geschlechts oder physiologischer Parameter konnten unterschieden werden.
3. Die Globuline traten in zwei typischen Formationen auf. Diese waren jeweils diagnostisch für Tiere aus Frankreich und Rheinoland-Pfalz, sowie für Tiere aus Brandenburg, Österreich, Ungarn und Euböa. Es konnte ein Ost- und ein Westtypus unterschieden werden.
4. Weder Transferrine noch Postalbumine ließen sich deutlich anfärben oder auswerten.
II. Die Celluloseacetat-Gel Elektrophorese der Allozyme der zellulären Blutbedstandteile.
1. Von 37 Enzymen konnten 14 mit insgesamt 17 Loci untersucht werden.
2. Sechs der 17 Loci waren polymorph (35 %(. Diese waren: Acontinase, Peptidase-A, -B1, -B2, -D, 6-Phosphogluconat-Dehydrogenase.
3. Die beiden Allele der Aconitase waren diagnostisch für den West- und den Osttypus.
4, Bei den anderen polymorphen Peptidasen konnten typische Ost-West-Variationen erkannt werden.
III. Es wurde eine nummerische Auswertung mit Hilfe von Computerprogrammen durchgeführt.
1. Die ermittelte Heterozygotie lag bei Werten zwischen 0.02 und 0.05. Die Heterozygotie-Werte der untersuchten Populationen mit weniger als 4 Individuen erschienen nicht representativ.
2. Die Heterozygotie der Populationen von Rhein und Brandenburg erreichte nur die Hälfte derjenigen aus Österreich. Dies wurde mit einer genetischen Verarmung durch Isolation und Inzucht gedeutet.
3. Die Berechnung der genetischen Distanzen erfolgte nach NEI (1970).
4. Innerhalb der Osttiere und Westtiere lagen die genetischen Distanzen mit Werten von 0.0 bis 0.04 sehr niedrig. Man kann daraus eine sehr langsame Mutationsgeschwindigkeit ableiten.
5. Bei den genetischen Distanzen ergaben sich zwischen den Populationen des Ost- und des Westtypus der Smaragdeidechsen Werte zwischen 0.354 und 0.38. Diese liegen etwa auf dem Niveau von Distanzen zwischen anderen Lacertiden-Arten.
IV. Interpretation der Daten
Die Ergebnisse dieser Untersuchung wurden zusammen mit Daten weiterer Arbeiten dahingehend gedeutet, daß es sich bei den Tieren aus dem westlichen Teil des Verbreitungsgebietes und denen aus dem östlichen Areal um zwei Arten handelt. Sie wurden als Lacerta bilineata (DAUDIN 1802) für den Westteil und Lacerta viridis (Laurenti 1768) für den Ostteil bezeichnet.
Die vorliegenden Ergebnisse unterstützten die These, daß die Smaragdeidechse postglazial aus zwei verschiedenen Regugialräumen östlich und westlich der Alpen nach Norden vorgedrungen ist. Aufgrund der deutlichen Unterschiede zwischen den beiden deutschen Vorkommen kann anagenommen werden, daß sich die beiden Arten nördlich der Alpen postglazial nicht überschnitten haben.
Über kleinräumige Wanderbewegungen kann mit den vorliegenden Daten keine Aussage gemacht werden.
Eine Mischzone der Arten südlich der Alpen wird in Kroatien und Slowenien erwartet.
Amann, T. & Joger, U. (1995) -
Amann, T. & Joger, U. & Veith, M. (1997) -
Amann, T. & Razzetti, E. & Joger, U. (2001) -
Amann, T. & Rykena, S. & Joger, U. & Nettmann, H.-K. & Veith, M. (1997) -
Electrophoretic investigations of six populations of green lizards from Western, Central, and Southeastern Europe are consistent with results from hybridization experiments and confirm species status for the western green lizard, Lacerta bilineata. NE! distances of 0.16- 0.19 found between L. viridis and L. bilineata are within the range found for other sister species of lacertids. Lizards from the Greek island of Euboea differ slightly from typical viridis morphologically and electrophoretically, which is again consistent with hybridization results. The proven practicability of experimental hybridization provides support for the biological species concept.
Ananjeva, N.B. & Darevsky, I.S. (2004) -
Ананьева Н.Б. & Даревский И.С. (2004) -
Ananjeva, N.B. & Orlov, N.L. & Khalikov, R.G. & Darevsky, I.S. & Ryabov, S.A. & Barabanov, A.V. (2006) -
TERRA TYPICA. Vienna, Austria.
DISTRIBUTION. It is distributed in middle and southern Europe, in
the north-western part of Asia Minor, on the most part of Moldova
and south-west of the right-bank Ukraine. On the valley of the river
Dnieper it nearly reaches Kiev. In its middle current it appears in
the left-bank area, where on the valley of the river Vorskla reaches
the Poltava city in the region with the same name. Of five described
subspecies L. v. viridis Laurenti, 1768 occurs in the Ukraine
and in Moldova.
CONSERVATION STATUS. On the most part of the distribution range
the number of the species is stable.
Andrada, J. (1980) -
Andrei, M.-D. (2002) -
The author updates the knowledge on the herpetofauna of southern Dobruja according to his
own studies within the area, during 1993-1998, when he identified 18 taxa. They represent 37.5% of
the total amphibian and reptile species from Romania. Also the author makes some remarks on
respective ecosystems and on the urgent protection need of some species.
Andren, C. & Nilson, G. (1976) -
Angel, F. (1946) -
Angelov, P. & Gruev, B. & Tomov, V. (1972) -
Anh, J.N.H. (1968) -
Anonymous (1904) -
Anonymous (2008) -
Arets, M.H.M. (2000) -
The author describes a herpetological vacation in southern France. Reptiles and amphibians were abundant in this region. Areas of interest were: La Petite Crau, La Plaine de Ia Crau, Les Alpilles, Les Rochers de Ia Pene and Le Barrage de Sr. Remy. The author was especially interested in spotting Ocellared Lizards (Timon lepida) bur didn` r succeed in finding them. Nevertheless a lot of other animals were seen, as is shown in the table. Nor mentioned in the table are several Red-eared Sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans), that were seen at Le Barrage de St. Remy. In addition the author visited Le Village de Torrue at Gonfaron (breeding-center for Testudo hermanni and Testudo graeca) and several other pla- ces in the Sr. Remy region.
Ariëns Kappers, J. (1967) -
The sensory innervation of the pineal organ of adult Lacerta viridis has been investigated. Some specimens of Lacerta muralis lillfordi were also used. In the pineal epithelium, a small number of nerve cell pericarya of a sensory type are present. They lie either solitary or in small clusters close to the basement membrane. The axons originating from the nerve cell bodies, i. e. the pineal sensory nerve fibers, first course in the intraepithelial nerve fiber layer which is only locally present and contains a restricted number of unmyelinated fibers. In Lacerta viridis, the pineal fibers generally leave the epithelium at the proximal part of the organ proper. They then form small bundles which run along the outer surface of the basement membrane in the leptomeningeal connective tissue covering. At the proximal end of the pineal stalk the single bundles assemble constituting the pineal nerve. In Lacerta muralis the fibers leave the pineal epithelium at the proximal end of the stalk running farther down within the epithelium. Many fibers become myelinated after leaving the pineal epithelium. The pineal nerve runs ventralward in the midplane just caudal to the habenular commissure to which no fibers are given off. Continuing their ventralward course between the habenular commissure and the rostral end of the posterior commissure which is traversed by some of them, the pineal fibers reach the dorsal border of the subcommissural organ. Small separate aberrant pineal bundles traverse the posterior commissure at various more caudal levels. Having reached the dorsal border of the subcommissural organ, part of the pineal fibers continue their ventralward course directly running along the lateral sides of this organ to reach the periventricular nerve fiber layer lateral and ventral to it. A restricted number of fibers first turns in a caudal direction running between the base of the posterior commissure and the base of the subcommissural organ before turning ventralward to reach the periventricular layer. Most probably, pineal fibers do neither join the posterior commissural system nor innervate the subcommissural organ. Once having reached the periventricular layer, some pineal fibers curve in a rostral direction while others, before doing so, send a collateral in a caudal direction. Both, the main fibers and the collaterals, contribute to the formation of the periventricular layer. The sites of termination of the pineal fibers could not be ascertained.
From the presence of intraepithelial sensory nerve cell bodies and from literature data on the ultrastructure of pineal neurosensory cells it is concluded that the adult pineal organ of Lacerta has a, although rudimentary, (photo)sensory function. The demonstration by our guest-worker Dr. W. B. Quay, of the intraepithelial presence of a tryptamine compound, probably serotonin, points, moreover, to a secretory function of this organ.
In adult Lacerta a well-developed parietal nerve connects the parietal eye with the left lateral habenular nucleus. It traverses the habenular commissure.
Arikan, H. & Atatür, M. & Çevic, I.E. & Kumlutaş, Y. (1999) -
A total of 58 (24 MM , 34 VV ) Lacerta viridis specimens, which were collected from Turkish Thrace and the Black Sea region of Anatolia, were evaluated serologically. The analyses support the view that a single race of L. viridis (L. v. meridionalis) inhabits Turkey.
Arndt, S. (1993) -
Arnold, E.N. (1973) -
Algyroides fitzingeri, Algyroides marchi, Algyroides moreoticus, Algyroides nigropunctatus, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta lepida, Lacerta princeps, Lacerta schreiberi, Lacerta strigata, Lacerta trilineata, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta andreanszkyi, Lacerta armeniaca, Lacerta bedriagae, Lacerta brandtii, Lacerta cappadocica, Lacerta caucasica, Lacerta chlorogaster, Lacerta cyanura, Lacerta danfordi, Lacerta derjugini, Lacerta dugesii, Lacerta fraasii, Lacerta graeca, Lacerta horvathi, Lacerta jayakari, Lacerta laevis, Lacerta monticola, Lacerta mosorensis, Lacerta oxycephala, Lacerta parva, Lacerta perspicillata, Lacerta praticola, Lacerta rudis, Lacerta saxicola, Lacerta vivipara, Gallotia atlantica, Gallotia galloti, Gallotia simonyi, Podarcis erhardii, Podarcis filfolensis, Podarcis hispanica, Podarcis lilfordi, Podarcis melisellensis, Podarcis milensis, Podarcis muralis, Podarcis peloponnesiaca, Podarcis pityusensis, Podarcis sicula, Podarcis taurica, Podarcis tiliguerta, Podarcis wagleriana, Psammodromus algirus, Psammodromus blanci, Psammodromus hispanicus, Psammodromus microdactylus.
Arnold, E.N. (1984) -
The ability to shed (autotomize) all or part of the tail, usually in response to predator attack, and often to subsequently regenerate it is widespread in lizards and amphisbaenians and also occurs in a few snakes and in the tuatara. Most species possess a sophisticated intravertebral autotomy mechanism which seems to be primitive in the Squamata. This appears to have been independently lost in members of many groups, but some agamids and snakes have regained the ability to shed their tails by a simpler intervertebral means and a -number of agamids have also redeveloped tail regeneration as well. Breakable tails are used to evade capture in two main ways: by enabling reptiles to break away from predators that have grasped them by the tail and by providing a distraction which deflects the attention of the attacker away from the vulnerable head and body. It is argued that loss of caudal autotomy has occurred when the costs of tail shedding outweigh its benefits. Likely costs include the expense of regrowing the tail and the loss of a variety of possible tail functions that may cause partial incapacitation, at least until the tail regenerates. Benefits of autotomy are liable to be low if predation is rare, if the animal is able to protect itself effectively in other ways, if it is too slow to evade further pursuit after the tail is shed, or if the tail is small or unpalatable and consequently not likely to distract a predator. Benefit variation may well be greater than cost variation and therefore more important in initiating the loss of autotomy mechanisms. Many taxa that do not shed the tail appear to conform to the above interpretation, but in some cases, such as the Platynota, Agamidae and Chamaeleonidae, lack of intravertebral autotomy may reflect the history of these groups rather than being a direct result of present ecological pressures. The distribution of intervertebral autotomy in the Agamidae suggests that it may have evolved only in rather special circumstances where tail fragility is advantageous even in the absence of the ability to regenerate. Restriction ot autotomy planes to the tail-base, so that the whole organ is lost, a condition found in a number of relatively slow-moving geckoes, is interpreted as a means of ensuring that enough of the tail is shed to distract a predator from further pursuit. The stimulus necessary to induce autotomy can vary rapidly in individual lizards and at least some of these changes probably maximize the effectiveness of the tail-shedding mechanism. Differences in the readiness with which all or part of the tail is shed exist between species and are likely to reflect the balance of costs and benefits in particular cases. Variations in incidence of broken tails between species and populations may be due to such differences in fragility but many other factors may play a part, including the age structure of samples, incidence of unsuccessful attacks by predators and ability to evade predators after autotomy. There is a clear tendency for climbing lizards, especially those living on rock surfaces, to have higher incidences of broken tails than ground-dwelling species, perhaps because the tail is usually less important in locomotion in the first group. Many lizards possess conspicuously coloured tails and tail movements that seem likely to help distract attention from the head and body. Conspicuous tail colouring is more frequent and often better developed in young animals, which tend to be more vulnerable than adults, and in active species from open habitats where crypsis may not always be very effective. Conspicuous tails usually have contrasting light and dark areas in nocturnal forms but are often a single bright colour in diurnal ones, probably reflecting the visual capacities of their respective predators. The predominance of blue tails in day-active species may be because this colour is striking close to but not very arresting at a distance, so it may not attract predators from far away while still drawing their attention at close quarters.
Arnold, E.N. (1986) -
The structure of copulatory organs is used very widely in systematics, both for differentiating species and for working out relationships. Differences between taxa may arise from a variety of sources, including non-homology, differences in other parts of the animal, direct selection on copulatory organs, development of physical isolating mechanisms and pleiotropic events. Physical isolating mechanisms seem likely to account for the abrupt differences, involving size, asymmetry and simplifications, that are useful in distinguishing very similar lacertid species. Although these differences usually seem to arise at the end of a speciation event they can simultaneously be the initiating mechanism in a second one. Copulatory organs appear to have high inherent stability, probably resulting from frequent location in strongly homoeostatic environments, single function, insensitivity to niche shift and inertia due to the need to conform to the genitalia of the opposite sex. This stability may be overridden at times by direct selection on the organs themselves or pleiotropic events. Such changes tend to be retained because efficiency in copulation depends not on any absolute genital architecture but on close conformity of the organs. It is the combination of relative stability and tangible input of varied change, which tends to be retained, that so often makes these structures good indicators of relationship.
Arnold, E.N. (1987) -
Twenty-four species of lacertid lizards were examined at 31 sites in western Yogoslavia, Greece and Iberia. Comparative observations were made on over 4500 individual lizards, noting such features as times of activitiy, hunting methods, diet, micro- and macrohabitat, refuges used and body temperature. These data are used as a basis for assessing resource partition in related sympatric species, for find out whether different systematic groups have characteristic types of niche, and for comparing cumminity structures in the peninsulas of southern Europa.
Acanthodactylus erythrurus, Algyroides marchi, Algyroides moreoticus, Algyroides nigropunctatus, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta graeca, Lacerta horvathi, Lacerta lepida, Lacerta monticola, Lacerta oxycephala, Lacerta mosorensis, Lacerta schreiberi, Lacerta trilineata, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta vivipara, Podarcis bocagei, Podarcis erhardii, Podarcis hispanica, Podarcis melisellensis, Podarcis milensis, Podarcis muralis, Podarcis peloponnesiaca, Podarcis sicula, Podarcis taurica, Psammodromus algirus, Psammodromus hispanicus.
Arnold, E.N. & Arribas, O. & Carranza, S. (2007) -
DNA sequence indicates the Lacertidae contain two subfamilies, Gallotiinae and Lacertinae, the latter comprising two
monophyletic tribes, the Eremiadini of Africa and arid southwest and central Asia, and the Lacertini of Europe, northwest
Africa and southwest and east Asia. Relationships within the 108 species of Lacertini are explored using mtDNA
(291 bp cytochrome b; 329 bp 12S rRNA for 59 nominal species, and reanalysis of the data of Harris et al. 1998, and Fu
2000). The morphology of the tribe is reviewed and 64 of its characters (equivalent to 83 binary ones) also used to assess
relationships. The Lacertini are assigned to 19 monophyletic units of 1 to 27 species, recognised here as the following
genera (contents are indicated in brackets): Algyroides, Anatololacerta gen. nov. (L. danfordi group), Apathya (L. cappadocica
group), Archaeolacerta (L. bedriagae), Dalmatolacerta gen. nov. (L. oxycephala), Darevskia (L. saxicola group),
Dinarolacerta gen. nov. (L. mosorensis), Hellenolacerta gen. nov. (L. graeca), Iberolacerta (L. monticola group), Iranolacerta
gen. nov. (L. brandtii and L. zagrosica), Lacerta s. str. (sand and green lizards, L. agilis group), Parvilacerta gen.
nov. (L. parva and L. fraasii), Phoenicolacerta gen. nov. (L. laevis group), Podarcis (wall lizards), Scelarcis (L. perspicillata),
Takydromus (Asian grass lizards), Teira (L. dugesii), Timon (ocellated lizards, L. lepida group) and Zootoca (L.
vivipara). Both mtDNA and morphology indicate that Lacerta and Timon are sister taxa, and DNA suggests further possible
relationships among genera (Fig. 1, p. 6). Neither DNA nor morphology indicates that the archaeolacertas (sometimes
formalised as Archaeolacerta sens. lat.) form a clade. Instead, they are representatives of an ecomorph associated
with living on rock exposures and using the narrow crevices that these contain.
The Lacertidae probably arose in the European area, with the Gallotiinae later reaching Northwest Africa and the
Canary Islands, and the ancestor of the Eremiadini invading Africa in the mid-Miocene. The Lacertini spread through
much of their present European range and diversified, perhaps largely by repeated vicariance, around 12–16 My ago,
producing the ancestors of the present mainly small-bodied genera, which then underwent often modest speciation. Three
units spread more widely: the Lacerta-Timon clade of large-bodied lizards probably dispersed earliest, followed by Algyroides
and then Podarcis. Overall, European Lacertidae show a pattern of repeated spread, often accompanied by restriction
of previous groups. Expansion of Lacertini may have displaced earlier lacertid lineages from all or much of Europe;
while spread of Podarcis may have restricted many other genera of Lacertini. The earlier expansion of the Lacerta-Timon
clade probably did not have this effect, as difference in adult body size restricted competitive interaction with other
forms. Several invasions of more distant areas also occurred: of East Asia by Takydromus over 10 My ago, and more
recently of northwest Africa by Podarcis, Scelarcis and Timon, and Madeira by Teira.
Relationships within the Eremiadini estimated from both mtDNA, and nDNA differ considerably from those based
on morphology. They indicate relatively mesic forms may have diversified widely across Africa and given rise to at least
three independent invasions of arid habitats. MtDNA also indicates that Lacerta andreanskyi belongs in the Eremiadini
and may occupy a basal position there. It is assigned to a further new genus, Atlantolacerta gen. nov.
Arrayago, M. & Bea, A. (1997) -
Assmann, O. (1998) -
Assmann, O. (2002) -
Im bayerischen Donauengtal zwischen Pssau und der Landesgrenze Österreich existiert ein seit langem bekannter Bestand der Smaragdeidechse (Lacerta viridis). Insbesondere für Smaragdeidechse und Äskulapnatter wurde 1986 ein Naturschutzgebiet ausgewiesen. Der Schwerpunkt der Smaragdeidechsenvorkommen des insgesamt bandartigen Areals liegt in einem Abschnitt, bei dem am Hangfuß ein Bahndamm verläuft. Auf der Basis einer Zustandserfassung und eines Pflege- und Entwicklungsplanes werden verschiedene Artenhilfsmaßnahmen im Projekt: „Organisation und Umsetzung von Pflege- und Entwicklungsmaßnahmen im ´Naturschutzgebiet Donauleiten von Passau bis Jochenstein´“ seit 1993 umgesetzt.
Gleichzeitig gab es wesentliche Vermeidungs- und Ausgleichsmaßnahmen bei Eingriffen.
Existenziell wichtig sind die Unterhaltungsmaßnahmen in den Optimalhabitaten entlang einer Bahnstrecke, von Straßenrändern und vom Donauufer. Die Beratung und Zusammenarbeit mit den zuständigen Stellen im Rahmen des Projektes und die ökologische Baubegleitung bei Maßnahmen haben daher derzeit höchste Priorität. Daneben wurden auch aktive Pflegemaßnahmen in Form von Mahd und Entbuschung durchgeführt. Die erfolgreiche Neuschaffung von Habitaten gelang auf einer Ausgeleichsfläche. Flächenankäufe umfassten zumindest teilweise auch Habitate der Smaragdeidechse und ermöglichen künftige Pflegemaßnahmen.
Die Entstehung neuer Habitate durch natürliche Dynamik der Donau ist derzeit nicht möglich. Im Bereich zufließender Bäche bestehen hier durchaus Chancen in den Zukunft. Ein gezielter Ankauf geeigneter Flächen soll erfolgen.
Es wird empfohlen, das NSG auch weiterhin kontinuierlich zu „betreuen“. Zusätzlich sollte jedoch ein Monitoringprogramm für die Smaragdeidechse und andere hochgradig gefährdete Arten des NSG erfolgen.
Aßmann, O. (2016) -
Austen, E.E. (1891) -
Avery, R.A. & Tosini, G. (1995) -
The propability that lizards would capture crickets declined with distance from the snout, at rates which were significantly more rapid in all directions in Lacerta vivipara than in Podarcis muralis or L. viridis, i.e. the former species responded to potential prey over a smaller area. Capture probabilities at any distance in front of or behind the snout were lower in P. muralis or L. viridis which were pausing during locomotion than in basking lizards, confirming previous results with L. vivipara. Using capture probabilities for pausing lizards to calculate the average time it would take to find a single item of prey (tf) in relation to the mean length of locomotor bursts, on the assumption that prey could only be detected while a lizard was pausing, showed that actual mean burst distance corresponded exactly with the burst distance which gave rise to minimum tf in L. vivipara. Mean locomotor burst distances in P. muralis and L. viridis were lower than the distances which gave minimum tf values. It is suggested that, in these species, the mean burst length has evolved as a compromise between minimising tf and avoiding the high overall energy expenditures which would result from long burst lengths.
Babocsay, G. (1997) -
Bade, E. (1899) -
Bailey, S.E. (1969) -
1. Discharges from mechanoreceptors in lizard skin cover the complete range between brief, high frequency bursts and slowly adapting, low frequency discharges. 2. Unimodal “cold units” and bimodal units (responding also to pressure) are both present and respond to rapid cooling of more than 3–5°C. 3. Discharges occur only on warming above 72°C, except on the upper jaw where the threshold is lower. 4. Larger mechanical stimuli and greater cooling both increase initial frequency and slow down adaptation, but initial frequency and adaptation are faster at higher temperatures. 5. Responses to mechanical stimuli applied immediately after cooling do not show the lowered initial frequency shown by later responses but the adaptation slows at once to the rate characteristics of the new temperature. Conversely, responses after warming are inhibited.
Bajer, K. (2013) -
Bajer, K. & Horváth, G. & Molnár, O. & Török, J. & Garamnszegi, L.Z. & Herczeg, G. (2015) -
Consistent individual differences within (animal personality) and across (behavioural syndrome) behaviours became well recognized during the past decade. Nevertheless, our knowledge about the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms behind the phenomena is still incomplete. Here, we explored if risk-taking and exploration were consistent and linked to different ecologically relevant traits in wild-caught adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) and in their 2–3 weeks old laboratory-reared offspring. Both adults and juveniles displayed animal personality, consistency being higher in juveniles. We found correlation between risk-taking and exploration (suggestive of a behavioural syndrome) only in adults. Juveniles were more explorative than adults. Large or ectoparasite-free adult males were more explorative than small or parasitized males. Juvenile females tended to be more risk-taking than males. Behaviour of fathers and their offspring did not correlate. We conclude that European green lizards show high behavioural consistency and age is an important determinant of its strength and links to traits likely affecting fitness.
Bajer, K. & Molnar, O. & Gergely, H. & Herczeg, G. & Laczi, M. & Török, J. (2009) -
Morphological traits and elaborate colouration may play important roles in inter- and intrasexual communication, but sexual signalling has been little studied in reptiles. We conducted experiments of female choice and male competition in green lizards (Lacerta viridis), a species from which no information on sexual selection is available. We performed 24 mate choice trials using a total of 57 males, and allowed 12 males to compete in all potential pairwise combinations. Correlated aspects of morphology and colour were condensed into principal components. Only the body shape of males predicted the outcome of female choice trials. Females preferred males with longer body and narrower head. However, both morphology and colour seemed important in male competition. Our study species was the green lizard (Lacerta viridis), which has not been studied in this aspect. Our aim was to examine the associations between t.hese traits, the female mating preference, and the outcome of male-male contest. We captured 57 males in 2005, and we measured their morphological and spectral properties. The females chose between the possible mating partners exclusively by visual cues. In the contest trial, 12 males fought with each other in all potential combinations . However, the results revealed that the colouration did not associate with the female mate choice, but there was a strong association between the choice and some morphological characters of males: females preferred males with larger body length and smaller head width. According to thee analyses the height, width and length of the head, UV and blue chroma of the throat, and UV chroma of the abdomen were associated positively with the fighting ability; if the two rival males were more similarly for each other in the case of the above mentioned traits, they were much more aggressive during contest. Our results suggest that the expression of multiple ornamental colouration and morphological traits of green lizard males may serve as inter- and intrasexual signals advertising individual quality honestly.
Korábbi tanulmányokból ismeretes, hogy egyes hüllıfajok esetében az inter- és az intraszexuális kommunikációban szerepet játszhatnak az egyedek morfológiai jellemzıi és a szaporo- dási idıszakban kialakított feltőnı színezeti bélyegei. Vizsgálatunk alanya az e tekintetben még nem kutatott zöld gyík (Lacerta viridis) volt. Célunk volt annak kiderítése, hogy e bélyegek elırejelzik-e a nıstények párválasztási preferenciáját és a hím–hím versengés kimenetelét. 2005-ben az aktivitási idıszakban összesen 57 állatot fogtunk be, és rögzítettük azok morfológiai és spektrális változóit. A nıstények vizuális ingerek alapján választhattak a potenciális szaporodási partnerek közül. A hímek közötti versengés tesztelésekor két–két hím harcolt egymással, az összes lehetséges kombinációban. Eredményeink szerint a nıstények a nagyobb testhosszú hímeket választották gyakrabban, ugyanak- kor a színezet nem játszott szerepet a nıstényválaszban. Az analízisek föltárták, hogy a fejmagasság, a fejszélesség és a fejhossz, valamint a torokfolt relatív kék-UV intenzitása és a hasoldal relatív UV intenzitása pozitívan asszociálódott a versengés kimenetelével. Mindezek azt bizonyítják, hogy a zöld gyík hímek esetében a színezeti illetve a morfológiai tulajdonságok szignálként funkcionálhatnak a párválasztás illetve a hím–hím versengés során, s ezen bélyegek elıre jelezhetik a nıstények párvá- lasztási preferenciáját és a versengések eredményét.
Bajer, K. & Molnár, O. & Török, J. & Herczeg, G. (2010) -
The role of ultraviolet (UV) signals in intraspecific communication has been identified in a number of vertebrate taxa. In lizards, the signalling role of UV has only been shown in male–male competition and male mate choice. Here, we investigated whether male UV colour can be a basis of female association preference in European green lizards (Lacerta viridis), a species where males develop blue nuptial throat colouration with high UV reflectance. We experimentally manipulated the UV colour of male pairs, where the members of the pair did not differ significantly in body length, body weight, head size, throat UV chroma and brightness or throat blue chroma and brightness measured prior to colour manipulation. By providing these pairs of males to females (only visual stimuli could be perceived by the females), we assessed the role of UV in female association preference irrespective of other potentially important visual traits. We found that unmated but receptive females preferred males of higher UV reflectance. Our results show for the first time that UV colour can be an important male signal in female preference in reptiles.
Bajer, K. & Molnár, O. & Török, J. & Herczeg, G. (2011) -
Animal communication through colour signals is a
central themein sexual selection. Structural colours
can be just as costly and honest signals as pigmentbased
colours. Ultraviolet (UV) is a structural
colour that can be important both in intrasexual
competition and mate choice. However, it is still
unknownif aUVsignal alone can determine the outcome
of male–male fights. European green lizard
(Lacerta viridis) males develop a nuptial throat
coloration with a strong UV component. Among
males differing only in their manipulated UV
colour, females prefer males with higher UV. Here,
we experimentally decreased the UV coloration of
randomly chosen males from otherwise similar
male pairs to test the hypothesis that a difference
in UV colour alone can affect fight success during
male–male competition. Our results fully supported
the hypotheses: in almost 90 per cent of the
contests the male with reduced UV lost the fight.
Our results show that UV can be an important
signal, affecting both female mate choice and
determining male fight success.
Bajer, K. & Molnár, O. & Török, J. & Herczeg, G. (2012) -
Colour signals are widely used in intraspecific communication and often linked to individual fitness. The development of some pigment-based (e.g. carotenoids) colours is often environment-dependent and costly for the signaller, however, for structural colours (e.g. ultraviolet [UV]) this topic is poorly understood, especially in terrestrial ectothermic vertebrates.
In a factorial experiment, we studied how available energy and time at elevated body temperature affects the annual expression of the nuptial throat colour patch in male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) after hibernation and before mating season. In this species, there is a female preference for males with high throat UV reflectance, and males with high UV reflectance are more likely to win fights. We found that (i) while food shortage decreased lizards` body condition, it did not affect colour development, and (ii) the available time for maintaining high body temperature affected the development of UV colour without affecting body condition or other colour traits.
Our results demonstrate that the expression of a sexually selected structural colour signal depends on the time at elevated body temperature affecting physiological performance but not on available energy gained from food per se in an ectothermic vertebrate. We suggest that the effect of high ambient temperature on UV colour in male L. viridis makes it an honest signal, because success in acquiring thermally favourable territories and/or effective behavioural thermoregulation can both be linked to individual quality.
Bajer, K. & Molnár, O.R. (2007) -
Bakker, A. (1988) -
In June and July 1986 observations were made on the reptiles and amphibians in the surroundings of a camping in the Perigord (France). Eight species were observed: Rana dalmatina, Alytes obstetricans, Bufo bufo, Podarcis muralis, Lacerta viridis, Natrix maura, Elaphe longissima and Coluber viridiflavus.
Balletto, E- (2005) -
Banchi, A. (1900) -
Bank, J., Kruyntjens, B. & P. Paulissen (1982) -
The authors give a description of the herpetofauna of some area´s in Yougoslavia they visited in june 1979. Some attention is given to the habitat of several species. The differences between certain island and mainland populations of some Lacerta- and Podarcis-species are discussed to some extend.
Bannert, B. (1991) -
Es gibt sicherlich verschiedene Möglichkeiten, im Terrarium gehaltene Eidechsen zu überwintern. Der eine schwört auf seinen Keller, der andere auf eine laubgefüllte Grube in seinem Garten. Nun, wem beides nicht zur Verfügung steht, dem kann auch ein Kühlschrank ganz ausgezeichnete Dienste leisten. Freilich ist nicht gemeint, die Eidechsen frei zwischen Wurst und Käse zu betten, vielmehr bedarf es einiger Vorbereitungen. Im wesentlichen stellen sich zur Überwinterung von Eidechsen 4 Fragen: 1. wen? 2. wann? 3. wie? Und 4. wie lange? Auf diese 4 Fragen soll im in diesem Bericht eine Antwort gegeben werden.
Bannert, B. (1993) -
Bannikov, A.G. & Darevsky, I.S. & Ishchenko, V.G. & Rustamov, A.K. & Szczerbak, N.N. (1977) -
Банников А.Г. & Даревский И.С. & Ищенко, В.Г. & Рустамов, А.К. & Щербак, Н.Н. (1977) -
Baran, I. & Atatür, M.K. (1998) -
Barbadillo, L.J. & Sanz, J.L. (1983) -
An osteometric analysis of sacral and presacral regions in three species of iberian lizards (Lacerta lepida, L. schreiberi and L. viridis) has been carried out. For this purpose, 11 osteometric vertebral parameters were proposed, and some of the parameters used by other authors were revised. The topographical variation of the most significant parameters were described and several indices based on them were elaborated. Lacerta viridis differs considerably from L. schreiberi and L. lepida, both qualitatively and quantitatively, especially in the positions of the maximum and minimum for each parameter, and in the percentage of general elongation of the presacral vertebrae, more marked in L. viridis than in the other two species. The sexual and ontogenetic variations include qualitative and quantitative differences as well. A greater percentage of elongation of presacral vertebrae exists in the females. There is some sexual correlation of the existence oscillations in certain parameters (for example pre-postzygapophysis distance) along the vertebral axis (L. lepida and L. schreiberi). The relative height of the neurapophysis shows the most important ontogenetic variation. It is progressively enhanced with size. The vertebral widening that occurs in the last presacral zone is more marked in immature individuals. An interspecific vertebral diagnosis (of particular importance in the axis and sacrum) is proposed.
Barisic, F. & Bogdanovic, T. (2011) -
Research of fauna and biology of particular species of reptiles in the area of Nature park Papuk were done in the period from February 2009 to September 2009, in 15 locations. The transect method was used in data gathering on reptiles. The sampled units were measured for length or photographed, and during sampling the environmental parametres were measured. The collected data were entered in the database and with the help of GIS technology distribution maps of particular species on the examined area were made. The species Natrix natrix and Lacerta viridis had the largest quantitative structure. The eudominant species were established to be Natrix natrix, Lacerta viridis, Natrix tessellata and Lacerta vivipara, while the recent species are Vipera berus and Ablepharus kitaibelii. The numerousness of species in the researched area as well as their distribution are the result of various conditions in microhabitats, where species find the optimal conditions for survival. Furthermore, seasonal and daily dynamics were analysed. Daily activities, of species and of individuals, show a decrease of value from morning to afternoon, and as far as seasonal dynamics is concerned, the most intensive period of appearance of reptile is in the period from July to September.
Baron, G. (1996) -
Başoğlu, M. & Hellmich, W. (1959) -
Basoglu, M. & I. Baran (1977) -
Batelli, A. (1880) -
Battisti, C. & Luiselli, L. (2011) -
In connectivity conservation and ecological network planning, the selection of focal fragmentationsensitive species represents a priority step. Nevertheless, despite their strategic role, selection of focal species has traditionally been carried out using charismatic and/or non objective approaches. In this way, actions of planning and conservation could be ineffective. Using as a case study Italian reptiles, we apply an expert-based approach for the selection of focal species on the basis of sensitivity to components of habitat fragmentation (habitat area reduction, increase of habitat isolation, increase of edge effect and landscape matrix disturbance) and of intrinsic ecological traits of the species (trophic level, dispersal ability, body size, niche breadth, rarity). The threshold values for each component of fragmentation defined a set of 21 focal species that can be divided into the three macro-components of human-induced habitat fragmentation (HIHF) towards which they show a sensitivity, the suitable spatial scale of populations and relative suitable habitat categories. Among these species, seven can be sampled easily with standard, low-cost field protocols. The selected species largely coincide with the species known in literature as fragmentation-sensitive.
Bauer, A.M. & Günther, R. (1995) -
A complete catalogue is provided for the type specimens of lacertid lizards in the herpetological collection of the Zoological Museum, Berlin, as of December, 1993. The collection contains a total of 514 type specimens, representing 63 taxa, of which 42 are currently regarded as valid at the specific or subspecific level. Types representing an additional four taxa appear to have been lost from the collection. The collections are especially rich in African lacertid types and in historically significant specimens collected early in the Nineteenth Century by Pallas, Eversmann, and Hemprich & Ehrenberg. Also present are the type series of many subspecies of Podarcis lilfordi and P. pityusensis described by Eisentraut.
Baumgarten, H.G. & Braak, H. (1968) -
The distribution of catecholamines in the central nervous system of Lacerta viridis and muralis was investigated by means of the method for fluorescence-microscopical detection of catechol- and tryptamines. Most nuclear areas of the mes-, di- and telencephalon receive terminal ramifications of catecholamine-containing neurones, the distribution pattern of which is typical for each nucleus; these neurones originate in the tegmentum (nucleus reticularis mesencephali) and in the hypothalamus (nucleus diffusus tuberis). Apart from these nuclei another paraventricular nucleus (nucleus ependymalis hypothalami) was found to contain catecholamines. The short neurones of this nucleus mainly innervate the nucleus ventromedialis tuberis and the area praeoptica. It is assumed that these neurones also supply the nuclei commissurales of the telencephalon.
According to the results of spectrographical and histochemical tests it is assumed that the fluorescent substance in the palaeostriatum of Lacerta is mainly noradrenaline and that the neurones of the nucleus ependymalis hypothalami besides little adrenaline contain huge amounts of primary catecholamines. The possibility of the fluorescent substances acting as transmitters is discussed.
Baumgarten, H.G. & Braak, H. & Wartenberg, H. (1969) -
Difficulties to demonstrate the storage sites of noradrenaline by means of electronmicroscopy in neurones from the nucleus ependymalis hypothalami of Lacerta have been overcome by pretreatment of animals with 5-hydroxydopamine and 5-hydroxydopa. 5-hydroxydopamine which has been shown to act as a false sympathetic transmitter in the peripheral nervous system is specifically taken up and stored by dense core vesicles from the noradrenaline neurones while the storage sites of serotonin containing neurones do not concentrate this pyrogallol analogue. A reduction in the number of dense core vesicles from the serotonin storing neurones might indicate that both substances are capable of releasing tryptamine-like substances besides replacing catecholamines. This observation was confirmed by measurements of the noradrenaline- and serotonin-depletion from the brain following pretreatment of animals with both pyrogallol analogues. Moderate doses of 5-hydroxydopamine and 5-hydroxydopa (100 mg/kg) caused a considerable decrease in the concentration of serotonin whereas the loss of noradrenaline was lower. The effect of the amino acid on the content of brain-monoamines was more pronounced than the effect of the amine itself. It is suggested that a pretreatment of animals with 5-hydroxydopa and/or 5-hydroxydopamine will provide a safe identification of catecholamine storing neurones in the central nervous system — a prerequisite for studies of the organization of synaptic connections from noradernergic and dopaminergic neurones to their effectors.
Baxter, J.S. & Meek, R. (1988) -
Cryosurgery has been used for the treatment of skin disorders in two lizards and a chelonian. The results of this and a previous application (Green et al., 1977) indicate that cryotherapy may be a valuable surgical tool for use in reptilian veterinary science.
Bea, A. (1981) -
A description of the geographical area, soil. vegetation, clima and herpetofauna from the province of Guipuzcoa (Spain) has been made. From a climatical point of view, it has been set that average rain-full was 1727.9 l/year, with 170.5 rain days. Temperatures are mild. During the year the average temperature is 12.6ºC. Along 1978-1979, 796 observations of amphibians and reptiles species have been made. Quotations are distributed by months and by species. For taxonomicals groups correlations have been calculated in order to see the relationship with climatology. At the same time multiple regresion methods have been also used in both the cases results have been positive. Reptiles and lizards species presents a negative correlation with precipitation. Lizards species also with the days of rain-full. All the species, reptiles, lizards and snakes presents a positive correlation with the maximum, mean and minimum temperatures. Reptiles, lizards and snakes presents a positive correlation with the maximum-minimum difference temperature. By the other hand, we comment the relationship between environmental factors and the sun`s time, and the catchings of amphibians and reptiles. Among considered environmental variables, the slope orientation, insolation, cloudness and wind have been choosen. Lastly, spatial distribution of every species has been presented. The 89.6% of the grid squares presents at least one observation. So, for each species found in Guipuzcoa, temporal and spatial distribution and habitat are comented. Up to present, in Guipuzcoa the following species of amphibians and reptiles have been found: Salamandra salamandra, Triturus helveticus, T. marmoratus, Bufo bufo, Alytes obstetricans, Hyla arborea, Rana ridibunda, Rana temporaria, Anguis fragilis, Lacerta schreiberi, L. viridis. L. vivipara, Podarcis muralis, Coronella austriaca, C. girondica, Elaphe longissima, Natrix maura, N. natrix y Vipera seoanei.
Bechtle, W. (1966) -
Becker, C. (1982) -
The author describes the variety of social behavioural patterns between both sexes of the Green Lizard (Lacerta viridis) in captivity, observed during a complete mating season. The single elements of these behavioural sequences - often developed from ritualization - `display`, `running on the spot`, `turning round and handling of the female` and `tail-biting and march of mating` are discussed. In addition an account of behavioural patterns which prevent or terminate a copulation are provided as well as those of the actual copulation.
In this connection it is shown how each partner comprehends a variety of different behaviour patterns and responds to them specifically (= intraspecific communicative elements). The daily development of the mating biology of the Green Lizard is depicted by some extracts of protocol, the seasonal development by a chronological table.
Becker, C. (1984) -
Bedriaga, J. von (1874) -
Bedriaga, J. von (1878) -
Bedriaga, J. von (1882) -
Bedriaga, J. von (1886) -
Bell, R. (1991) -
Bellese, A. (2013) -
Bels, V.L. & Goosse, V. (1990) -
The kinematic profiles of jaw movements are described for Anolis carolinensis and Lacerta viridis feeding on the same prey item (maggot). A. carolinensis is an iguanian (typified by lingual prey capture) and L. viridis is a scleroglossan (typified by prey capture using jaws alone). A. carolinensis, however, catches maggots by using only the jaws. In so doing, it exhibits the four stages of gape profile considered typical for lizards (slow open, fast open, fast close, slow close). Gape cycle in L. viridis shows a hyperbolic curve (no slow open). Two hypotheses concerning the relationship between the two gape cycles are discussed.
Bels, V.L. & Goosse, V. (1993) -
The kinematics of drinking of Lacerta viridis were analysed. A drinking bout is composed of four phases: approach, immersion, emersion and withdrawal. The tongue and gravity are central to moving water through successive compartments of the buccal cavity and into the oesophagus. Upon the basis of formifunction analysis of water intake and transport, a kinematic modcl of drinking in lizards is proposed.
Bennati, R. (1988) -
The author describes the results of many years of research on the erpetological fauna of Mount Adamello.
Berg, J. (1894) -
Bergman, J. (1995) -
Während eines dreitägigen Aufenthaltes wurde die Herpetofauna von Skiathos (Nördliche Sporaden, Griechenland) untersucht. Insgesamt konnten drei Schlangen- und drei bzw. vier Echsenarten (Coluber najadum, Elaphe situla, Malpolon monspessulanus, Ophisaurus apodus, Podarcis erhardii, Lacerta triliniata und vermutlich Lacerta viridis) beobachtet werden. Eine Schlangenart (Elaphe situla) und zwei Echsenarten (Ophisaurus apodus und Podaras erhardii) sind Erstnachweise für Skiathos.
Berthold, A.A. (1840) -
Bertoni, G. (1913) -
Beshkov, V. & Beron, P. (1964) -
Beshkov, V. & Dushkov, D. (1981) -
Beshkov, V. & Nanev, K. (2006) -
Beutler, A. & Heckes, U. (1984) -
Beutler, A. & Kaule, G. (1984) -
Biard, H. & Mudde, P. (1991) -
Bielawski, R. & Ramik, T. (1972) -
Bimmer, E. (1949) -
Birukow, G. & Fischer, K. & Böttcher, H. (1969) -
Das Vermögen, sich kompaBgerecht nach dem Stand der Sonne zu orientieren und ihre tageszeitliche Wanderung einzurechnen, ist seit den grundlegenden Entdeckungen von K. v. Frisch (1950, 1951) an der Biene auch bei zahlreichen anderen Vertretern der Arthropoden und Wirbeltiere nachgewiesen worden. Soweit wir heute wissen, setzt das Richtungsfinden mittels eines Himmelsgestirnes mindestens zwei Grundleistungen des tierischen Organismus voraus: erstens die Fähigkeit, „Zeit zu messen“ (physiologische oder innere Uhr; vgl. Bünning, 1958; Aschoff, 1960); zweitens den zeitgerechten Gebrauch eines Orientierungsmechanismus, der die tageszeitlichen Azimutänderungen des Gestirnes „rechnerisch“ mit Hilfe der inneren Uhr kompensiert. Während das erste Grundvermögen wohl eine sehr allgemeine Eigenschaft von Lebewesen ist, wie es der tagesrhythmische, annähernd mit der Erdumdrehung synchronisierte Ablauf zahlreicher Lebensprozesse bei Tieren und Pflanzen zeigt, sichert das zweite Vermögen speziellere Lebensbedürfnisse des tierischen Organismus; die Fähigkeit, Zeit zu messen, wird dabei in den Dienst der Orientierungsfunktion gestellt.
Bischoff, W. (1966) -
Bischoff, W. (1969) -
Bischoff, W. (1973) -
Bischoff, W. & Engelmann, W.-E. (1978) -
Biserkov, V. (2007) -
Biserkov, V. & Naumov, B. & Tsankov, N. & Stoyanov, A. & Petrov, B. &Dobrev, D. & Stoev , P. (2007) -
The current book provides a synthesis of the information concern-
ing field identification of all the species and subspecies of Amphibia
and Reptilia hitherto registered in Bulgaria. It comprises 61 species
and 23 subspecies, among which 5 species (Pelophylax lessonae, P.
kurtmuelleri, Hemidactylus turcicus, Eremias arguta, Montivipera
xanthina) that have not been found yet on the territory of the
country, but which are known from sites in proximity to Bulgar-
ian frontiers. The frogs and toads are represented with 14 spe-
cies, newts and salamanders with 6 species, turtles and tortoises
with 7 species (Trachemys scripta introduced; Caretta caretta and
Chelonia mydas considered extinct), and snakes with 19 species
(Vipera aspis and V. ursinii considered extinct). The structure of
each species’ description includes the following headings: Name,
Diagnosis, General Distribution, Distribution in Bulgaria, Habitats,
and Biology. Besides in Bulgarian and Latin, all species are sup-
plemented with their English, French, German and Russian names.
All synonyms in the main herpetological literature are listed after
the currently accepted Latin name. Original keys for identification
of the families, genera and species, based entirely on morphologi-
cal characters of adult specimens, as well as on the structure of
amphibians’ eggs and larvae, are elaborated to facilitate the users.
A photo gallery, comprising original colour photos shot in nature,
and numerous line drawings of different key characters are made
for better distinction between the species. For purely conservation-
al reasons, the distribution maps not only indicate the scientifically
confirmed species distribution in the country, but also show the
areas with suitable habitats where a given species is likely to oc-
cur. The degree of suitability is indicated with a different degree
of shading: optimal (black); suboptimal (80% gray); suitable (60%
gray); less suitable (20% gray); white means unsuitable. The guide
is also introducing the readers to some general aspects of the tax-
onomy, systematics, morphology, biology and ecology of herpeto-
fauna. Special chapters are devoted to the methods of observation
and capture of amphibians and reptiles, first aid after a snake’s
bite, and the relationship between herpetofauna – humans. The
status of each species according to main biodiversity conservation
acts and conventions is given in Table 1. Being the first publication
of its kind, the book is intended for professional herpetologists,
students or nature lovers.
Blanchard, R. (1880) -
Blanchard, R. (1894) -
Blanford, W.T. (1876) -
Blom, P. (1950) -
Bodenheimer, F.S. (1944) -
Boettger, O. (1880) -
Boettger, O. (1881) -
Boettger, O. (1882) -
Boettger, O. (1885) -
Boettger, O. (1893) -
Bogdan, H.V. & Sas-Kovács, I. & Covaciumarov, S.-D. (2014) -
In the southern side of the Lipova Hills we found 11 amphibian species, 9 reptile species and 2 types of hybrid between amphibian species. The herpetofauna of the region contains lowland, hill and mountain related species. Also, in the area are present southern species in the vicinity of the northern limit of their distribution range, and related species in the mountainous areas, found at lower altitudes than usually. The mixture of mountain and lowland species is a consequence of the current aspect of the region, with wide valleys located between hill ridges, valleys that allow the advancement of these lowland species in the hill areas. The second aspect is a consequence of the history of the region. Currently the herpetofauna of the Lipova Hills is greatly advantaged by the relatively large forest covered areas.
Böhme, M.U. & Berendonk, T.U. & Schlegel, M. (2005) -
Twelve new microsatellite loci were isolated from the Green Lizard (Lacerta viridis viridis). Primers for 28 loci were designed and 18 of these loci amplified well for 10 individuals of four populations. Twelve of these loci were further characterized for a population in Hungary. The results document the suitability of these identified loci for the characterization of the genetic diversity of the endangered species L. viridis viridis.
Böhme, M.U. & Fritz, U. & Kotenko, T. & Džukić, G. & Ljubisavljević, K. & Tzankov, N. & Berendonk, T.U. (2006) -
It is well known that the current genetic pattern of many European species has been highly influenced by climatic changes during the Pleistocene. While there are many well known vertebrate examples, knowledge about squamate reptiles is sparse. To obtain more data, a range-wide sampling of Lacerta viridis was conducted and phylogenetic relations within the L. viridis complex were analysed using an mtDNA fragment encompassing part of cytochrome b, the adjacent tRNA genes and the noncoding control region. Most genetic divergence was found in the south of the distribution range. The Carpathian Basin and the regions north of the Carpathians and Alps are inhabited by the same mitochondrial lineage, corresponding to Lacerta viridis viridis. Three distinct lineages occurred in the south-eastern Balkans — corresponding to L. v. viridis, L. v. meridionalis, L. v. guentherpetersi— as well as a fourth lineage for which no subspecies name is available. This distribution pattern suggests a rapid range expansion of L. v. viridis after the Holocene warming, leading to a colonization of the northern part of the species range. An unexpected finding was that a highly distinct genetic lineage occurs along the western Balkan coast. Phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian, maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony) suggested that this west Balkan lineage could represent the sister taxon of Lacerta bilineata. Due to the morphological similarity of taxa within the L. viridis complex this cryptic taxon was previously assigned to L. v. viridis. The distribution pattern of several parapatric, in part highly, distinct genetic lineages suggested the existence of several refuges in close proximity on the southern Balkans. Within L. bilineata sensu stricto a generally similar pattern emerged, with a high genetic diversity on the Apennine peninsula, arguing for two distinct refuges there, and a low genetic diversity in the northern part of the range. Close to the south-eastern Alps, three distinct lineages (L. b. bilineata, L. v. viridis, west Balkan taxon) occurred within close proximity. We suggest that the west Balkan lineage represents an early offshoot of L. bilineata that was isolated during a previous Pleistocene glacial from the more western L. bilineata populations, which survived in refuges on the Apennine peninsula.
Böhme, M.U. & Fritzsch, G. & Tippmann, A. & Schlegel, M. & Berendonk, T.U. (2007) -
For the first time the complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced for a member of Lacertidae. Lacerta viridis viridis was sequenced in order to compare the phylogenetic relationships of this family to other reptilian lineages. Using the long-polymerase chain reaction (long PCR) we characterized a mitochondrial genome, 17,156 bp long showing a typical vertebrate pattern with 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) and one major noncoding region. The noncoding region of L. v. viridis was characterized by a conspicuous 35 bp tandem repeat at its 5′ terminus. A phylogenetic study including all currently available squamate mitochondrial sequences demonstrates the position of Lacertidae within a monophyletic squamate group. We obtained a narrow relationship of Lacertidae to Scincidae, Iguanidae, Varanidae, Anguidae, and Cordylidae. Although, the internal relationships within this group yielded only a weak resolution and low bootstrap support, the revealed relationships were more congruent with morphological studies than with recent molecular analyses.
Böhme, M.U. & Moravec, J. (2011) -
In order to obtain genetic data for the conservation of populations of Czech Lacerta viridis (Laurenti, 1768) the genetic diversity of 12 microsatellite markers was assessed for five Bohemian and three Moravian populations. Comparison of the genetic variation and differentiation between the highly fragmented and isolated Bohemian populations and the Moravian populations connected to the continuous species range revealed a lower level of genetic variation in Bohemian populations. Presence of a genetic split between the Bohemian and Moravian populations indicates that these populations have been isloted from one another for long time and currently there is no gene flow between them. The genetic structures of the populations in both regions are significantly correlated with respective geographic distances and influenced by the low level of habitat connectivity between the populations. Basic implications for the conservation of L. viridis in the Czech Republic are suggested.
Böhme, M.U. & Schneeweiss, N. & Fritz, U. & Moravec, J. & Majláth, I. & Majláthová, V. & Berendonk, T.U. (2006) -
The range of Lacerta viridis viridis is the result of a rapid postglacial dispersal, followed by
range-restriction events leading to the isolation of the present northern relict populations. Current
conservation efforts focus on these endangered, northern isolates. An understanding of the genetic diversity
of these populations is a prerequisite for any conservation measures. In order to provide such data we
analysed mtDNA sequence variation in 57 L. v. viridis from the northernmost part of the subspecies range,
including representatives of isolated relict populations in Brandenburg (Germany) and northern Bohemia
(Czech Republic). We detected a positive correlation between genetic distances of mtDNA sequences and
geographic distances, which corresponds well with the migration behaviour of L. v. viridis. Furthermore,
our data reveal the importance of a comparative analysis for estimating the genetic diversity of an
endangered taxon like Lacerta v. viridis.
Böhme, M.U. & Schneeweiss, N. & Fritz, U. & Schlegel, M. & Berendonk, T.U. (2007) -
Edge and central populations can show great differences regarding their genetic variation and thereby also in their probability of extinction. This fact might be of great importance for the conservation strategies of endangered species. In this study we examine the level of microsatellite variability within three threatened edge populations of the green lizard subspecies Lacerta viridis viridis (Laur.) in Brandenburg (Germany) and compare the observed variation to other edge and central populations within the northern species range. We demonstrate that the northernmost edge populations contain less genetic variation in comparison to the central population. However, there were no observable significant differences to the other edge population included in this study. Surprisingly, we observed a high genetic differentiation in a small geographical range between the three endangered populations in Brandenburg, which can be explained by processes like fragmentation, isolation, genetic drift and small individual numbers within these populations. We also detected unique genetic variants (alleles), which only occurred in these populations, despite a low overall genetic variation. This study demonstrates the potential of fast evolving markers assessing the genetic status of endangered populations with a high resolution. It also illustrates the need for a comparative analysis of different regions within the species range, achieving a more exact interpretation of the genetic variation in endangered populations. This will aid future management decisions in the conservation of genetic diversity in threatened species.
Böhme, W. (2010) -
In the herpetological collection of ZFMK 528 scientific species group names are represented by type materi- al. Of these, 304 names are documented by primary type specimens (onomatophores) while for 224 further names sec- ondary type specimens (typoids) are available, ranging chronologically from 1801 to 2010. The list is a shortened pred- ecessor of a comprehensive type catalogue in progress. It lists name bearing types with their catalogue numbers includ- ing information on further type series members also in other institutions, while secondary types are listed only by pres- ence, both in ZFMK and other collections including holotype repositories. Geographic origin and currently valid names are also provided.
Böhme, W. & Corti, C. (1993) -
Boiko, M.P. & Vikyrchak, O.K. & Holinei, H.M. & Shevchyk, L.O. (2019) -
Reliable information about the species composition of the fauna, way of life, abundance, distribution, and breeding features is not only the initial data for in-depth zoological, evolutionary and ecological research, but also the source for nature conservation activity based on the analysis of the state of wildlife resources. The European green lizard (Lacerta viridis Laurenti, 1768; Reptilia, Squamata) is one of the most vulnerable species of reptiles in the domestic herpetofauna. Therefore, it is the object of ecological research aimed at studying population structure, biotopic distribution, including within the protected natural areas and areas that are undergoing significant anthropogenic transformation. The work is based on field studies conducted in April - August 2018 and data from the regular phenological observations of the Dniester Canyon National Nature Park. The current status of the European green lizard population (Lacerta viridis Laurenti, 1768) within the territory of Dniester Canyon National Nature Park has been investigated. The abundance and spatial distribution of the species populations in different biotopes have been studiedon the basis of long-term phenological observations according to the program of the Chronicle of Nature of the National Nature Park and the authors’ research. The data of the species occurrence on the territory of the Park for the last six years is given. The abundance of the European green lizard populations under different biotopical conditions and the main factors influencing the studied parameters have been analyzed.
Böker, T. (1987) -
Böker, T. (1990) -
The population exhibits a high density and is rather stable. Numerous suitable areas are occu-
pied by L. viridis within the study site.
The biggest threat for this population is the increase of bushy vegetation and closure of the
Eastern and western L. viridis are differently adapted to temperature. The western population begins with its daily activity phase at a temperature which is at least 7 °C lower, when compared to the eastern population. Consequentially its yearly activity phase starts between two and three weeks (in very mild winters up to six weeks) earlier.
Böker, T. (1992) -
Böker,T. & Schausten, H. & Sound, P. & Twelbeck (1995) -
Bolkay, S..J. & Ćurčić, V. (1930) -
Bolkay, S.J. (1924) -
Bolkay S.J. (1924) -
Bolkay, S.J. (1927) -
Bolkay, S.J. (1928) -
Bolkay, S.J. (1929) -
Bonaparte, C.L. (1839) -
Borcea, M. (1979) -
Borczyk, B. (2001) -
Borg, J.P. ter (2000) -
Reptiles and amphibians from temperate zones can be kept in outdoor terrariums. Outside there is often more room for larger dwellings than inside the house. Measures have ro be taken to prevent mice, moles, cars and so on ro gain access to rhe interior. At some spot the animals have to find refuge during high temperatures and during hibernation. The author prefers glass covered terrariums, for instance glass-houses, for sunlight can create high tempera- tures even in early spring and late autumn. During rhe summer, part of the glass is removed to prevent excessive hearing. In winter a thick layer of dry lea- ves is applied when it starts freezing. Good results are obtained with Podarcis sicula, Podarcis lilfordi and Lacerta viridis in this way.
On several spots the weekly highest and lowest tem- peratures are registered, for instance in a sunny spot, in the shadow and in rhe place of hibernation. Diagrams are shown representing rhe yearly varia- tion in these temperatures. Keeping animals this way gives an extra dimension to our hobby.
BREEDING WITH CLOSELY RELATED ANIMALS, NOT WITHOUT RISK
The negative consequences of inbreeding in small populations of reptiles and amphibians are discus- sed. When a species breeds in captivity, the resulting population after several generations often has a limi- ted amount of genetic variation. This is due to the fact that the ancestors of this group are made up of only a few founder-animals. Certain genetic charac- teristics can be expressed more frequent in their off- spring because they tend to accumulate in a small population, especially when the breeder tries to select for certain qualities. Other features are easily lost due to the often limited size of the group, in which only a limited amount of genes can be pre- sent. The animals are no longer wild, but in stead domesticated.
with a coiled tail and a paralysed right hind leg. The remaining egg was opened and contained a still living animal that looked normal from chest to head. The rest ofits body consisted ofan unstructu- red tumour-like process. The healthy looking ani- mals and the lizards with the coiled tails thrived well, although the latter ones lost their abnormal shaped tail within an day.
Olsson et al (1996) describes a very isolated popula- tion of Lacerta agilis in Sweden, in which malfor- med tails and paralysed extremities are often seen. Supported by laboratory experiments he claims that those aberrations are a result of inbreeding.
In captivity populations can often be compared to a very isolated population in nature. Keepers of repti- les and amphibians should be well aware o f the nega- tive consequences ofmating between closely related animals of a species. It is a potential danger for the survival ofsome groups in captivity. It is recommen- ded to artificially enlarge the population ofa species, and with it its genetic variation, by working together with other keepers. Animals can be exchanged to minimize inbreeding, joining a studbook project is especially recommended.
Jur ter Borg
Sometimes negative features can be seen more fre- quent in those populations, especially when siblings are allowed to mate. The author describes offspring ofa brother/sister mating in Lacerta viridis. It is sug- gested, that on their turn their parents were proba- bly offspring of related animals too. Several clutches ofeggs were laid, often not fertilized and often dying off during incubation. Only two healthy looking juveniles hatched from 45 eggs. At first the author thought this was the result of Calcium/vitamin defi- ciency, although he had good results breeding seve- ral species ofPodarcis, giving the same care.
More Calcium and vitamins were provided, resul- ting in a clutch of 12 eggs, ofwhich 3 not fertilized. The other eggs died offduring incubation. An other clutch of 17 eggs contained 6 unfertilized eggs. The rest ofthe eggs resulted in 7 normal looking animals, one fully grown juvenile that had died off just befo- re hatching, one animal with a coiled tail and one with a coiled tail and a paralysed right hind leg. The remaining egg was opened and contained a still living animal that looked normal from chest to head. The rest ofits body consisted ofan unstructu- red tumour-like process. The healthy looking ani- mals and the lizards with the coiled tails thrived well, although the latter ones lost their abnormal shaped tail within an day.
Olsson et al (1996) describes a very isolated popula- tion of Lacerta agilis in Sweden, in which malfor- med tails and paralysed extremities are often seen. Supported by laboratory experiments he claims that those aberrations are a result of inbreeding.
In captivity populations can often be compared to a very isolated population in nature. Keepers of repti- les and amphibians should be well aware o f the nega- tive consequences ofmating between closely related animals of a species. It is a potential danger for the survival ofsome groups in captivity. It is recommen- ded to artificially enlarge the population ofa species, and with it its genetic variation, by working together with other keepers. Animals can be exchanged to minimize inbreeding, joining a studbook project is especially recommended.
Borg, J.P. ter (2002) -
Borisov, V.J. & Orlova, V.F. (1986) -
Borkin, L.J. & Litvinchuk, S.N. & Rosano, Y.M. (1997) -
The hybrid Rana esculenta (diploid) is first recorded for Moldavia. Bombina variegata was previously
confused with B. bombina, as well as Rana dalmatina was confused with the long-legged R. arvalis. The
first confirmed locality of Lacerta vivipara is given. The occurrence of Eremias arguta in Moldavia is
mentioned. The check-list of 12 species of amphibians and 15 species of reptiles of Moldavia is published.
Borkin, L.Ya. & Darevsky, I.S. (1987) -
Боркин Л.Я. & Даревский И.С. (1987) -
Bosch, H.A.J. in den (1994) -
Bosch, H.A.J. in den (1996) -
Bosch, H.A.J. in den & Musters, C.J.M. (1981) -
Note are given on the herpetofauna of Greece, with special reference to some of the (sub-) species. The observations were made during a spring trip.
Böttcher, H. (1967) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1884) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1887) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1917) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1919) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1920) -
Bovenkerk Jr., J. (1955) -
Bovero, S. & Canalis, L. & Crosetto, S. (2013) -
Bowles, F.D. (2002) -
Braak, H. (1967) -
The organon vasculosum hypothalami of Lacerta viridis was investigated by means of light- and electron microscopy. Beneath the ependyma a strongly vascularized nucleus of small bipolar nerve cells was found. No relation could be found between the ultrastructure of the cells and their content of histochemically traceable catecholamines. The clublike processes of neuroplasm penetrate the ventricle and form a dense plexus with cilia and other cell processes. There is a possibility that biogenic amines are secreted through the nerve cell processes into the cerebrospinal fluid. A second type of cell, forming a superficial layer, and the adjacent nucleus ventromedialis tuberis also send processes into the ventricle. It is supposed that these processes have a receptor function.
Braak, H. & Baumgarten, H.G. & Falck, B. (1968) -
The distribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the central nervous system of the lizards Lacerta viridis and muralis was investigated with the fluorescence method of Falck and Hillarp. Microspectrometric analyses revealed that the yellow fluorescence had the characteristics of the fluorophore of 5-hydroxytryptamine and chemical determinations on whole brains demonstrated the presence of considerable quantities of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5,2–6,4 μg/g). Nuclear areas of the mesencephalon, di and telencephalon, which are mainly intercalated in sensory pathways, receive terminal ramifications of 5-hydroxytryptaminecontaining neurons. These fibres are presumed to originate from cells situated in the tegmentum. The nucleus reticularis mesencephali is shown to contain numerous perikarya of nerve cells rich in 5-hydroxytryptamine.
Bradshaw, S.D. & Saint Girons, H. & Bradshaw, F.J. (1991) -
Rates of turnover of oxygen, water and sodium were measured in free-ranging and captive Lacerta viridis in western France during their period of reproduction in May, and again in late autumn prior to their entering winter hibernation. Rates of C02 production and turnover of water and sodium in captive lizards showed little significant variation and these animals appeared to be buffered to a large extent from environmental changes, even though they were exposed to external climatic influences. Overall means for rates of CO2 production in free-ranging individuals did not vary statistically between seasons but considerable individual variation was observed during the breeding season in May. The animals could be divided into `active` and `inactive` groups on the basis of their rate of CO2 production and other significant differences were apparent between these two groups: `active` individuals had increased rates of sodium turnover, lower body water contents and lost body mass during the period of observation whereas the `inactive` individuals gained mass over the same period. These data suggest that not all individuals necessarily participate in the activity associated with breeding in spring in this species and further behavioural studies would seem appropriate in the light of these physiological data. Calculation of the `Water Effectiveness Index` for this species from the ratio of water to energy turnover suggests that Lacerta viridis is a profligate utiliser of available resources when compared with similar-sized species of lizards inhabiting desert environments.
Braña, F. & Bea, A. & Arrayago, M.J. (1991) -
We examined stages of embryonic development at the time of oviposition in 10 populations of seven species of lacertids from northern Spain, including one of the few species of lizards that exhibits reproductive bimodality (Lacerta vivipara). In the species studied, embryonic development at the time of oviposition ranges, as a whole, from stage 22-34 in the classification of Dufaure and Hubert, showing highly significant differences between populations. Lacerta vivipara (two populations; stages from 30-34) and L. monticola (28-31) are the species with a more advanced intrauterine embryogenesis, while at the opposite end one can find Podarcis bocagei (22-26) and P. hispanica (two subspecies: stages from 24-27). Lacerta viridis, L. schreiberi and P. muralis are in an intermediate situation (stages 25-29), without appreciable differences among species. Our data show that species with more advanced egg retention reach the highest elevations in the study area, and there also seems to exist a relationship between the egg retention level and the northern distribution limit for oviparous lizards in Europe. However, there is no evidence of intraspecific variability in that regard. No significant correlations were found between developmental stage at oviposition and female size, clutch size, or egg mass, but relative clutch mass (RCM) was significantly larger in species with a more advanced embryonic development at oviposition. This difference in RCM was mainly due to an increase in clutch size (adjusted for female size) and not to an increase in the mass of individual eggs, which tended to be lower in relation to female mass in those species with a more prolonged egg retention.
Breg, A. & Janota, B. & Peganc, M. & Petrovič, I. & Tome, S. & Vamberger, M. (2010) -
Brelih, S. (1962) -
Brelih, S. (1963) -
Bressi N. (1995) -
Bressi, N. (1999) -
The Herpetological Collection of the Trieste Natural History Museum has almost 700 specimens of European Sauria belonging to about 33 taxa, including all the lacertids of northern Adriatic re- gions. The origin of the collection dates back to the foundation of the Museum of Trieste in 1846, but it was increased mainly between 1871 and 1939. The Herpetological Collection of the Trieste Natural History Museum has a great scientific and historical importance; it documents the varia- tion of the composition and distribution of northern Adriatic Sauria fauna during this century, in- cluding endemic varieties typical of little islands.
Brückner, M. & Düring, A. (2002) -
Brückner, Martina & Klein, Birgit & Düring, Andreas & Mentel, Tobias & Rabus, Stefanie & Soller, Jan T. (2002) -
Bruno, S. (1986) -
Bruno, S. (1988) -
Bruno, S. (1989) -
Bruno, S. & Maugeri, S. (1976) -
Brusina, S. (1874) -
Brusina, S. (1908) -
Bühler, M. (2015) -
Bühler, M. (2014) -
Bund für Naturschutz (2019) -
Buresch, I. & Zonkow, J. (1933) -
Buttle, D. (1989) -
Cabela, A. & Grillitsch, H. & Happ, H. & Happ, F. & Koller, R. (1992) -
Cabela, A. & Grillitsch, H. & Tiedemann, F. (1997) -
Cabela, A. & Tiedemann, F. (1985) -
Cabot, D.B. (1965) -
Cafuta, V. & Trilar, T. (2008) -
In seasons 2003 and 2004 we examined 312 individuals of
lacertid lizards for ectoparasites in central and southwestern Slovenia.
Collected were 538 Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acarina, Ixodidae)
(71.7% larvae and 28.3% nimfae) on 103 lizards (33.0%). The region of
forelimbs (armpit) was the most preferred attachment site of ticks. Most
infested were lizards living near woods, least infested those living in
areas with no vegetation coverage. Males were more infested than
females, but only in the spring time. Lizards living in the
submediterranean area were significantly less infested than lizards in
areas with continental climate. We noticed a certain dynamics in the
number of larval and nymphal stages throughout the season. The Green
Lizard (Lacerta viridis complex) was the most infested lizard species
(77.4% infestation), and the Italian Wall Lizard (Podarcis sicula) was
the least infested (11.1% infestation). There was only a weak correlation
between lizard size and tick number.
We also noticed 1101 parasitic mites (subclass Acarina,
excluding Ixodida) infesting 25.9% of lizards. Some mites were
collected and later identified as Ophionyssus lacertinus and
Ericotrombidium sp. (Trombiculidae). The Italian Wall Lizard
(Podarcis sicula) was most infested lizard species with parasitic mites
(76.7% infestation). The majority of parasitic mites was concentrated in
the region of hind legs, under belly scales and on the tail. There was no
statistically significant difference in infestation in various habitats or
between males and females. Lizards living in the submediterranean area
were significantly more infested than lizards in areas with continental
climate (exactly the opposite as infestation with ticks). These are the
first data on parasitic mites on lacertid lizards in Slovenia.
Cakmak, M. & Akman, B. & Yildiz, M.Z. (2017) -
In this investigation, we aimed to determine the amphibian and reptile species distributed in Bartın province (Northwest Blacksea Region of Turkey). As a result of previously and current studies, we recorded two Urodela amphibian species (Ommatotriton ophryticus and Triturus ivanbureschi), six Anura amphibian species (Bufo bufo, Bufotes variabilis, Hyla orientalis, Pelophylax ridibundus, Rana macrocnemis and R. dalmatina), three turtle species (Emys orbicularis, Mauremys rivulata and Testudo graeca), four lizard species (Anguis fragilis, Darevskia rudis, Lacerta viridis and Podarcis muralis) and eight snake species (Coronella austriaca, Dolichophis caspius, Eirenis modestus, Natrix natrix, N. tessellata, N. megalocephala, Vipera transcaucasiana and Zamenis longissimus) in Bartın Province, which totally 23 species. There are no endemic species in our country among them. Natrix megalocephala is also a new record for Bartın province.
Calori, L. (1858) -
Camerano, L. (1885) -
Camerano, L. (1886) -
Camerano, L. & Lessona, M. (1885) -
Capriglione, T. & Olmo, E. & Odierna, G. & Kupriyanova, L.A. (1994) -
Cytological and molecular evidence is provided to characterize the sex chromosomes of several species of Lacertidae. Observations on pachytene and lampbrush stages show that sex chromosomes have different condensation cycles and are only partially paired during meiosis. Bkm probe hybridization to Pst I-treated genomic DNA of Podarcis sicula and Lacerta vivipara shows the same pattern both in males and females. In situ hybridization of the same probe to Lacerta vivipara chromosomes shows no preferential localization of this DNA sequence. The results obtained clearly exclude the possible involvement of Bkm in sex-chromosome differentiation in the species investigated.
Castilla, A.M. & Van Damme, R. & Bauwens, D. (1999) -
We discuss three aspects of the thermal biology of lacertid lizards. First, we provide an overview
of the available data on field body temperatures (Tb), the thermal sensitivity of various performance
functions and selected body temperatures in different species of lacertid lizards. We also
briefly summarise information on the mechanisms of thermoregulation. Second, we discuss recent
developments to estimate the »precision« of thermoregulation, and the contribution of distinct behavioural
mechanisms. Finally, we revise available evidence for the existence of evolutionary adjustments
of thermal characteristics in lacertid lizards. Existing studies have mainly dealt with
within- and among-species differences in thermoregulatory behaviour (selected temperatures) and
thermal physiology of adults (optimal temperatures, heating rates). Available data provide only
limited evidence for clear-cut evolutionary shifts in thermal physiology characteristics along climatic
Cattaneo, A. (2017) -
The European distribution of Montivipera xanthina includes the coastline of the eastern central Greek Thrace (southeastern Rhodopes and southern Evros). While in south-eastern Evros, the easternmost part of its distribution, Montivipera xanthina seems to be a well-defined evolutionary line, in the central area of this wide territory, in south-western Evros, this viper seems to be very rare or absent; this means that the westernmost populations (those of the Rhodopes) have undergone some kind of isolation or semi-isolation that might have induced the formation of a new subspecies: Montivipera xanthina occidentalis ssp. nov. The new taxon differs from other known subspecies for the tendency to a reduced size and correspondingly for a lower number of intercanthals and of dorsal scales rows, both in the midbody (mostly 21-22) and in the posterior part of the body (often 15-16). A list of herpetological species found in the study area (south-western Evros, Greece NE) is also reported.
Cerbo, A.R. di & Faraone, F.P. & Sperone, E. (2016) -
Čerňanský, A. (2010) -
The earliest world record of the green lizards, Lacerta viridis group, is described from the lower Miocene of Central Europe. The fossils come from greenish, calcareous marls and limnic clayey silts of the Ottnangian zone MN 4 of the Dolnice locality near Cheb in the Czech Republic. Sediments are interpreted as marginal, riparian facies. The material consists of isolated frontal bones of two different ontogenetic stages and one isolated fragment of parietal. Their morphology is identical to that of the extant members of the L. viridis group. However, the fossil material is much older than the previously described specimens of green lizards. Therefore, this finding extends our knowledge about the evolution and stratigraphic range of the group and about composition of the early Miocene herpetofauna in central Europe.
Çevic, I.E. (1999) -
In this investigation, lizard species of Turkish Thrace are investigated indetail for the first time. Morphological
characretirstics, range, distribution and subspecific states of the species are given.
Furthermore, some observations concerning their biological and ecological characteristics are also given. In this study a total of 678
specimens and 10 species belonging to 3 families of Lacertilia have been investigated from Turkish Trace.
Çevik, I.E. (1999) -
Araştırmada Trakya Bölgesinin kertenkele türleri ayrıntılı olarak incelenmiştir. İlk önce adı geçen bölgede türlerin tespiti yapılmış ve bunların morfolojik karakterleri, dağılışları ve alttür durumları açıklanmıştır. Ayrıca Biyolojik ve ekolojik özelliklerden gözlenebilenler hakkında bilgiler verilmiştir. Bu çalışmada 3 familya’dan 10 tür ve toplam 678 örnek değerlendirilmiştir.
Çevic, I.E. & Kumlutaş, Y. (1999) -
In this research, A total of 64 males and 37 female adult specimens from Turkish Thrace and 158 male and 188 female adult specimens from Anatolia were investigated comparatively as two separate populations groups to determine the subspecific status of the species in Turkey. No significant differences are discernible between the two population groups from the viewpoints of pholidosis, morphometrical measurements and rations and pattern and coloration characteristics. So the Turkish L. viridis populations belong to a single subspecies L. v. meridionalis.
Çevik, I.E. & Kumlutaş, Y. (1999) -
Châtelain, G. (1985) -
Cheylan, M. (1983) -
Chondropoulos, B.P. (1986) -
The Greek lizard fauna consists of 26 species from which 5 are monotypic and the other ones are represented by a total of 86 subspecies. Five species and 61 subspecies are endemic of Greece. A checklist including the geographical distribution of each taxon in the Greek region is presented.
Clark, R. (1991) -
A list of the herpetofauna of Samothraki is given in Table 2. In this list I have tried to include all amphibia and teptilia to which I can find certain references. Only two amphibians are known, R. ridibunda and B. viridis. I looked persistently for Brown Frogs but to no avail although conditions were suitable. The streams that run across to the north coast rise at fairly low altitude but the water is cool enough to support the life style of, say, R. graeca. Higher mountain streams might well contain Brown Frogs but these were not visited. The co-existence of two wall lizards that do not normally come together on islands is noteworthy: P. erhardii
and P. muralis. Both seem uncommon or even rare and probably represent populations in decline. The snake-eyed Lizard, Ophisops elegans, is absent from Samothraki. This fact, and the occurrence of P. erhardii, demonstrates that this island did not receive faunal elements from Asia Minor. Regarding the snakes all species are what one might anticipate for this coastal island. An exception is E. longissima (Buttle 1989) which otherwise is not known from islands in the Aegean region. The presence of E. quatuorlineata sauromates (Wettstein 1953 p.800) is based on a sight identification but can be taken to be sufficient documentation to
allow its inclusion, as with Buttle`s siting of E. longissima. Viperine snakes have not been found.
Clark, R. (1992) -
Clark, R. (1999) -
The herpetofauna of Thassos consists of 5 amphibians (2 toads, 3 frogs) and 14 reptiles (1 tortoise, 1 terrapin, 6 lizards, 6 snakes), a total of 19 species. The possibility that some of the species mentioned in List B may also occur brings the total to a porentlal 24. In addition a further two species need to be considered: Ablepharus kitaibelli, Snakeeyed Skink, and Emys orbicularis, European Pond Tortoise. As I have indicated (Clark, 1993) the apparent absence of the former species is curious considering its otherwise ubiquitous range. This little skink prefers cool, dampish situations and is most commonly found in the early spring and autumn. E.orbicularis has recently been recorded from Samothraki (Broggi, 1988) where it is sympatric with Mauremys caspica.
Clark, R.J. & Clark, E.D. (1973) -
Codina, A. (1918) -
Cogălniceanu, D. & Rozylowicz, L. & Székely, P. & Samoilă, C. & Stănescu, F. & Tudor, M. & Székely, D. & Iosif, R. (2013) -
e reptile fauna of Romania comprises 23 species, out of which 12 species reach here the limit of their geographic range. We compiled and updated a national database of the reptile species occurrences from a variety of sources including our own eld surveys, personal communication from specialists, museum collections and the scienti c literature. e occurrence records were georeferenced and stored in a geoda- tabase for additional analysis of their spatial patterns. e spatial analysis revealed a biased sampling e ort concentrated in various protected areas, and de cient in the vast agricultural areas of the southern part of Romania. e patterns of species richness showed a higher number of species in the warmer and drier regions, and a relatively low number of species in the rest of the country. Our database provides a starting point for further analyses, and represents a reliable tool for drafting conservation plans.
Cogalniceanu, D. & Samoila, C. & Bajenaru, B. (2016) -
We studied the habitat availability and use of four lizard species occurring in the Natura 2000 ROSCI0123 Măcin Mountains protected area, located in the southeastern part of Romania, at the northern limit of the Balkan Peninsula, close to the Danube River. It covers an area of 18,546 ha and the highest peak rises 467 meters above sea level. Eleven Natura 2000 habitat types were identified and mapped within the protected area. We used over 1500 georeferenced occurrence records for the four species of lizards occurring there collected during an ongoing inventory that started in 2006. The species occurrences were each associated with a habitat type, and we assumed that the number of records within each habitat type was a proxy of habitat use. All four lizard species showed selectivity in habitat use to different degrees. Thus Podarcis tauricus avoided 55% of habitat types, Lacerta viridis and Ablepharus kitaibelli avoided 64% while Lacerta trilineata avoided 73% of habitat types. All four species preferred one single habitat: 40C0 “Ponto-Sarmatic deciduous thickets”. The habitat with the highest preference was 8230 “Siliceous rocks with pioneer vegetation...” for Podarcis tauricus, 8220 “Siliceous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation” for Lacerta trilineata, 40C0 “Ponto-Sarmatic deciduous thickets” for L. viridis and 91AA “Eastern white oak woods” for Ablepharus kitaibelli. The habitat niche of the four species varied largely, thus reducing competition and predation by larger species.
Cooper Jr., W.E. & Pyron, A. & Garland, T. jr. (2014) -
One of Darwin`s most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator–prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards.
Cooper, J.E. & Gschmeissner, S. & Holt, P.E. (1982) -
Corbett, K.F. (1985) -
Corti, C. & Lo Cascio, P. (2002) -
Courty, Y. & Morel, F. & Dufaure, J.P. (1987) -
During the reproductive period (spring) under the control of testosterone the epididymis of the viviparous lizard secretes a group of major proteins with an approximate Mr of 19,000 named L protein(s). These proteins are recognized by a specific immunoserum and bind to the heads of spermatozoa. During spring, translation in reticulocyte lysate of RNA from secreting epididymis (stage 6) produced 5 immunoprecipitable bands with Mr values from 21,500 to 25,000. Such synthesis is undetectable during sexual rest in summer (stage 1). The 5 bands disappear when translation is performed in the presence of dog pancreas microsomes although a new band of Mr 19 000 becomes prominent. This suggests that synthesis of L protein involves two steps, i.e. synthesis of precursors (L preproteins) followed by a maturation process. At least 11 translation products (including L-preproteins) are involved in annual variations that follow the differentiation of the epididymal epithelial cells and their androgen dependency was studied by castration and in-vitro stimulation by testosterone. In these conditions, testosterone is able to control accumulation of RNA corresponding to L preproteins and to a translation product of Mr 29 000.
Covaciu-Marcov, S.D. & Cicort-Lucasiu, A.S. & Gaceu, O. & Sas, I. & Ferenti, S. & Bogdan, H. (2009) -
The south-western part of Mehedinţi County comprises many herpetofauna species,
compared to most regions in Romania. This is how we managed to encounter 14 amphibian
species (Salamandra salamandra, Lissotriton vulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Triturus dobrogicus,
Bombina bombina, Bombina variegata, Pelobates fuscus, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea,
Pelophylax ridibundus, Pelophylax lessonae, Rana dalmatina, Rana temporaria) plus Pelophylax kl.
esculentus and 15 reptile species (Emys orbicularis, Testudo hermanni, Ablepharus kitaibelii, Lacerta
agilis, Lacerta viridis, Podarcis muralis, Podarcis taurica, Darevskia praticola, Anguis fragilis,
Zamenis longissimus, Dolichophis caspius, Coronella austriaca, Natrix natrix, Natrix tessellata,
Vipera ammodytes). Salamandra salamandra, Bombina variegata and Rana temporaria were
identified at very low altitudes, lower than any other indication from Romania up to present.
This is explained by the fact that mountain valleys, bearing here a typical aspect, reach all the
way to the Danube, carrying with them the occurring species. In Blahnita Plain, Darevskia
praticola appears in cleared areas, being present in the vegetation girdles bordering the canals
found between agricultural fields.
Covaciu-Marcov, S.D. & Ghira, I. & Cicort-Lucaciu, A.-St. & Sas, I. & Strugariu, A. & Bogdan H.V. (2006) -
In Dobrudja we encountered 10 species of amphibians (Triturus dobrogicus, Bombina bombina, Hyla arborea, Pelobates fuscus, Pelobates syriacus, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Rana dalmatina, Rana ridibunda, Rana lessonae), 16 species of reptiles (Emys orbicularis, Testudo graeca, Ablepharus kitaibelli, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta trilineata, Podarcis taurica, Podarcis muralis, Eremias arguta, Coronella austriaca, Zamensis longissimus, Elaphe quatuorlineata, Dolichophis caspius, Natrix natrix, Natrix tessellata, Vipera ammodytes) and also Rana kl. esculenta populations. Some species of amphibians (Pelobates fuscus, Pelobates syriacus) that were only previously known inform the lower regions of the Danube’s meadow and in the vicinity of the Black Sea, were recorded in the high areas of northern Dobrudja. Also here, all three forms of the green frogs’ complex documented for Romania have been encountered, but Rana lessonae and Rana esculenta are very rare, being found only in the north. The central sectors of Dobrudja are severely impacted by human activities, almost completely cleared as a result of agriculture and showed very low number of herpetofauna species as being present. The most important areas for the herpetofauna are the northern and south-western regions.
Covaciu-Marcov, S.D. & Popovici, P.V. & Cicort-Lucaciu, A.S. & Kovács, I.S. & Cupsa, D. & Ferenti, S. (2020) -
Herpetofauna is of interest in protected areas because of the large number of protected species. We studied the herpetofauna of Cozia National Park (CNP) between 2016 and 2018. CNP is situated in the central part of the Southern Romanian Carpathians. We recorded 10 species of amphibian (Salamandra salamandra, Triturus cristatus, Lissotriton vulgaris, Bombina variegata, Hyla arborea, Bufo bufo, Bufotes viridis, Pelophylax ridibundus, Rana dalmatina and R. temporaria), and 11 reptile species (Lacerta agilis, L. viridis, Podarcis muralis, Darevskia praticola, Zootoca vivipara, Anguis colchica, Natrix natrix, N. tessellata, Coronella austriaca, Zamenis longissimus and Vipera ammodytes). Reptiles dominate in number of species, number of individuals and distribution records. CNP is situated at the northern limit of the distribution range of some of these reptiles, notably D. praticola and V. ammodytes. Mountain species associated with a colder, moist climate are very rare or even absent. Zootoca vivipara is restricted to the highest areas of Mount Cozia, above 1 350 m. Although mountain species are well represented in other Carpathian regions, the warmer, drier climate of CNP and its surroundings has limited their distribution in the area, pushing Z. vivipara to higher and higher altitudes. Lacerta agilis is syntopic with all the other lizard species. In some areas, as many as four lizard species cohabitate. The distribution of the herpetofauna in CNP has been negatively influenced by past human activity. The dams on the River Olt have favoured species related to large, stagnant bodies of water, in a region where such habitats were naturally missing. In addition, massive deforestation has decreased the abundance of herpetofauna in many areas of CNP.
Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J. (2018) -
Cyrén, O. (1924) -
Cyrén, O. (1933) -
Cyren, O. (1933) -
Czernay (1851) -
Dathe, F. (1985) -
Davies, R.S. (1984) -
Dely, O.G. & Stohl, G. (1982) -
Comparative analyses were carried out about the variability of the pileal shields of different species belonging to the family Lacertidae. The results of the comparisons have been evaluated in respect to the phylogenetical relationships existing between the different genera and species of the family.
Denneman, A.K. & Denneman, W.D. (1978) -
in the very centre of Burgundy (France) was visited in the summer of 1975 and 1977 during 4 and 3 weeks. An area of 50 square kilometers was investigated mainly in respect to the reptiles and amphibians. They appeared to be well represented, the amphibians with 5 species: Rana temporaria, Bujo bujo, Bombina variegata, Trilllrus helveticus and Salamandra s. terrestris. We also met the following species of reptiles: Lacerta agilis, Lacerta vivipara, A nguis fragilis, Coronella austriaca, Natrix natrix and presumably Elaphe longissima.
The occurrence of Lacerta muralis and Lacerta viridis near Beaune is mentioned.
Depoli, G. (1898) -
Dhora, D. & Beqiraj, S. & Dhora, D. (2001) -
Dieckmann, M. (2011) -
Dieckmann, M. (2017) -
Diesener, G. & Reichholf, J. (1986) -
Dietrich, N. (1998) -
Dietrich, N. (2008) -
Dolce, S. & Lapini, L. & Sterguld, F. (1982) -
Preliminary investigations on the herpetofauna of the lower plain of Friuli. Eco-ethological notes on Amphibians and Reptiles of `Bosco Baredi` and `Selva di Arvonchi` (Muzzana del Turgnano, Udine). -- The lower plain of southern Friuli, ranging from the `line of springs` until the sea, is characterized by the presence of plain-growing woods, now reduced to very small surfaces. Their main feature is the high level of the subsoil water, which, owing to the clayey ground, is very near to the soil surface or even emerging during some periods of the year. This survey is a preliminary investigation on the herpetological species living in this environment, the researches are now carried on in the forest called `Bosco Baredi` and `Selva di Arvonchi`, belonging to the Commune of Muzzana del Turgnano, in the Province of Udine (Italy). The community of Amphibians included eight species (Triturus vulgaris meridionalis Boul., Triturus cristatus carnifex Laur., Bombina variegata variegata L., Bufo bufo spinosus Daud., Hyla arborea arborea L., Rana esculenta — complex, Rana dalmatina Bon, and Rana latastei Boul.) and so also the population of Reptiles (Emys orbicularis (L.), Lacerta viridis viridis (Laur.), Anguis fragilis fragilis L., Coluber viridiflavus carbonarius Bon., Coronella austriaca Laur., Elaphe longissima longissima (Laur.), Natrix natrix (L.) and Vipera aspis francisciredi (Laur.). Instead it was not possible to establish the presence of Salamandra salamandra salamandra L., Bufo viridis viridis Laur. and Pelobates fuscus insubricus Corn. Eco-ethological data on the observed herpetological species are given, particularly on their biology, reproduction period, annual activity, frequented substrates, in connection to special climatic factors as the temperature of the water and of the substrates frequented by the specimens. Some bromatological observations on the Ophidians living in this wood could be carried on. It was established that the predation of Vipera aspis (L.) includes in addition to several species of small Mammals also Rana dalmatina Bon. and/or Rana latastei Boul. and interfers with Natrix natrix (L.), which usually eats Amphibians. The importance of the still existing residual planitial woods is underlined in the conclusions. These woods represent typical refugium habitats for many stenotopic species tied to specially humid and fresh microclimates.
Donev, A. (1984) -
Donev, A.D. & Mollov, I.A. & Kechev, M.O. (2005) -
A study on the trophic spectrum of three species of lacertid lizards (Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis and Podarcis taurica) was carried out, based on 32 specimens collected in the period 1959-1968 in various localities in South Bulgaria. The analyzed data showed that the insects (Insecta) are the most numerous and the most frequently met among the alimentary components of the total amount of food of the studied stomachs. The insects consisted 80,0% of the total amount of food of Lacerta agilis, 88,8% of Lacerta viridis and 72,6% of Podarcis taurica. The insects were mainly presented by Coleoptera (Lacerta agilis - 40,0%, Lacerta viridis – 66,6% and Podarcis taurica – 30,2%) followed by Diptera and larvae of Lepidoptera. The noninsect components consisted spiders (Lacerta viridis - 7,4%, Podarcis taurica - 16,6%), amphipods (Podarcis taurica - 3,1%) and gastropods (Lacerta agilis – 20,0%). In our opinion, the variety of the trophic spectrum of each species suggests that most likely there isn’t strong competition for food between these three species of lizards in their sympatric localities.
Doronin, I.V. & Doronin, M.A. & Milto, K.D. (2018) -
И.В. Доронин, М.А. Доронина, К.Д. Мильто (2018) -
Dreismann, G. (1978) -
Drinda, S. (1981) -
Dücker, G. & Rensch, B. (1973) -
Dumbović, V. & Posavec Vukelić, V. & Duplić, A. & Katušić, L. & Jelić, D. & Boršić, I. & Partl A. (2009) -
Duméril, A.M.C. & Bibron, G. (1839) -
Dünzen, H. (1939) -
In der Milz der Eidechse (Abb. 4a) ist keine Sonderung in weiße und in rote Pulpa nachweisbar. Auch kommt eine Unterteilung der roten Pulpa in besondere Pulpastränge hier noch nicht vor. In dieser Hinsicht ist also die Pulpa der menschlichen Milz komplizierter gebaut (s. Abschnitt Schlußfolgerung beiBlechschmidt 1937).
In der Milzkapsel fehlen Muskeln.
Die Verteilung der Arterien und der arteriellen Kapillaren erfolgt gleichmäßig (Abb. 6).
Die größeren Arterien teilen sich vorwiegend dichotomisch (Abb. 6,P); die Aufteilung in die Kapillaren erfolgt pinselartig („Kapillarbüschel“ Abb. 6,KB).
In der Eidechsenmilz gibt es keine Kapillarhülsen.
Die arteriellen Kapillaren enden im Reticulum (Abb. 10).
Im Reticulum sind engere und weitere Maschen zu unterscheiden. Letztere ordnen sich zu röhrenförmigen Gebilden — denReticulumröhrchen (Abb. 10,R).
Die in der Eidechsenmilz vorhandenen venösen Sinus (Abb. 10,US) stehen nur selten untereinander in Verbindung. Ihr Anteil an der Masse des Reticulums ist gering. Ihre Wand entspricht der vonS. Mollier für andere niedere Wirbel angegebenen Bauweise.
Die Pulpavenen (Abb. 11,PV) besitzen keine Muskularis. Ihr Bindegewebe ist während ihres weiteren Verlaufes im Inneren der Milz auffallend schwach. Hier werden diese Venen nur durch die Arterien gestützt (Abb. 12, V). Eigentliche Trabekel gibt es nicht.
Dzukic, G. & Kalezic, M.L. (2001) -
Eberhardt, K. (1934) -
Ehrenhardt, H. (1936) -
Zwei flächengleiche Reizfiguren, Kreis und Kreuz, wurden, nacheinander geboten, auf dem Wege der Futterdressur von keiner Eidechse als Futteranzeiger sicher erlernt. Alle Sukzessivdressuren blieben erfolglos.
Dieselben zwei Figuren, nebeneinander geboten, werden schon ohne Dressur spontan voneinander unterschieden. Die natürliche Wahlneigung gilt dem Kreis. Es besteht die folgende spontane Rangordnung fallender Beliebtheit: Kreis, Quadrat, Dreieck, achtzackiger Stern, Kreuz.
Simultandressuren glückten immer nur im Sinne der Spontantendenz, konnten also stets nur die natürliche Neigung bekräftigen, die die weniger gegliederte Figur dem stärker gegliederten Partner vorzieht; das gilt selbst für Figurenpaare, die in der Beliebtheitsreihe nächstbenachbart sind.
Da im Spontanversuch alle einzeln dargebotenen Figuren gleich behandelt wurden, kann unter Mitberücksichtigung von 1., falls nicht doch noch einmal Sukzessivdressur mittels Strafreizen andere Ergebnisse zeitigen sollte, vorerst unter Vorbehalt geschlossen werden, daß Eidechsen Formbilder „absolut“ nicht in der Erinnerung festhalten können. Nur im Nebeneinander wählen sie, und zwar „relativ“.
Die Unterscheidungen waren unabhängig von der Raumlage der Figuren, von ihrer Größe nur oberhalb 1 qcm Fläche.
Die Formunterscheidung von Kreuz und Quadrat hält einer weitgehenden Angleichung der einen Figur an die andere stand. So kann ein einfacher Balken das Kreuz dem flächengleichen Quadrat gegenüber vertreten, wenn er gut doppelt so lang ist, wie die Seite des flächengleichen Quadrats. Das Quadrat, dem man an drei Ecken je ein Teilquadrat ausgeschnitten hat, so daß nur noch das vierte stehengebliebene es vom Kreuz unterscheidet, wird immer noch einwandfrei vor dem Kreuze bevorzugt; dabei beißt die Eidechse vorzugsweise in dies allein stehengebliebene Teilquadrat.
Am überlebenden Augapfel der Zauneidechse wurde der Abstand des Knotenpunkts von der Netzhaut mit 2,1 mm bestimmt.
Die histologische Netzhautuntersuchung bestätigte Cajals Angaben: Es fehlen Stäbchen; die Zapfen sind meist „gerade“, seltener „schräg“. Es gibt „versprengte Bipolaren“ sowie eine Area im Eidechsenauge.
Das Zahlenverhältnis Zapfen: versprengte Bipolaren: innere Körner: Ganglienzellen beträgt 3∶1∶16∶2.
Aus Schnittuntersuchungen unter Berücksichtigung der Schrumpfung und Beobachtungen an der überlebenden Netzhaut selbst ergaben sich übereinstimmend folgende Werte: die Zapfen sind am breitesten in der Peripherie (7,4 μ) und werden zur Area hin immer schmäler. Etwa 2 mm auswärts von der Area sind sie im Mittel 3,7 μ, in der Area selbst im Mittel 1,9 μ breit.
Der morphologische Sehwinkel beträgt demnach für Lacerta agilis peripher 12′ 7″, nahe der Area im Mittel 6′, in der Area 3′ 6″.
Der „physiologische Sehwinkel“ wurde bestimmt: a) aus der kritischen Entfernung für das Erkennen des Kreuzes zu 29′ 6″; b) für natürliche Beuteobjekte zu 14′ 38″, aus den optomotorischen Reaktionen bei Verwendung c) von Gleichzäunen (minimum separabile) zu 11′ 28″; d) von Weitzäunen (minimum visibile) zu 1′ 19″.
Das minimum visibile und separabile sind beide übereinstimmend abhängig von der Beleuchtungsstärke; an beiden gemessen nimmt die Sehschärfe mit fallender Beleuchtung ab. Die Kurven der Abhängigkeit der Sehschärfe von der Beleuchtung lassen den sonst für Wirbeltieraugen kennzeichnenden Knick vermissen, der dem Eintritt des Zapfenapparates bei Überschreiten der Farbschwelle entspricht. Dazu stimmt gut das morphologische Fehlen der Stäbchen in der Eidechsennetzhaut (vgl. 8.).
Eichenberger, P. (1981) -
The author describes how he discovered that his Lacerta viridis showed reproductive behavior one week after he increased the time of illumi- nation .
His animals are kept in a simple terrarium with a
150 W spotlight as the only source of heat and light. Food consists of insects and worms, but mainly mealworms. Calcium is always present in the form of crumbled coral and eggshells. Vitamin AD3 is supplied daily in the drinking- water (10 drops/100 ml ).
Succesive increases in daylength (50%) with 4 week intervals, resulted always in mating be- havior within a week. Thus it proved to be possib le for a Lacerta viridis fema le to develop two clutches of eggs at a time. Once laid, the eggs were dug up, washed and put in an incubator at 29° C. In a!>
Eichenberger, P. (1991) -
Tbe author describes his discovery that his Lacer- la viridis showed reproductive behaviour one week after he increased the time of ilIumination. His animals are kept in a simpte terrarium with a 150 W spotlight as the only heat source and ligh- ting. Food consists of insects and worms, but mainly mealworms. Calcium is always present in the form of crumbled coral and eggs heUs. Vita- min AD3 is supplied daily in the drinking water (10 drops/lOO mi).
Succesive increases in daylength (50070) with four week intervals, always resulted in mating behavi- our within a week. It proved to be possible for a Lacerla viridis female to develop two clutches of eggs at a time. Once laid, the eggs were dug up by the author, washed and put in an incubator at 29° C. In about 50 days the young hatch, in L. viridis both sexes are equally represented, but Podarcis
pityusensis shows a large surplus o f females at this incubation temperature.
The author gives some remarks about biorhythms and hormonal changes and describes how he gives his lizards an eight week hibernation at 6° C du- ring his holiday.
Six clutches a year are presumed possible per fe- male without damage 10 the lizards.
Eichwald, E. (1840) -
Eimer, T. (1881) -
Elbing, K. (1996) -
Elbing, K. (1997) -
Elbing, K. (1998) -
Elbing, K. (1999) -
Elbing, K. (2000) -
The habitat of one population of green lizards (Lacerta viridis) in Brandenburg (northeastern Germany) was partly damaged by fire in 1993. Recolonisation of the burnt area between 1994 and 1998 is documented in this paper. Recolonisation took place only through young animals, which are immigrating from adjacent undamaged areas. Recolonisation is delayed if there is a lack of those young animals due to hatching failure.
Only few youngs hatched within the burnt area before the fourth year after fire (1997). From 1997 onwards, population density and adult sex ratio corresponded with the figures known from other parts of that particular habitat. The mean age of the animals in the damaged area is significantly lower than in other parts of the habitat. As the reproductive investment is comparatively low in younger animals, the importance of undamaged neighbouring areas will remain for considerable time, exceeding five years after fire (1998).
Incubation temperatures are influencing lenght of incubation as well as `quality` of the emerging hatchling. Body length, weight and status were investigated in an field population of Lacerta viridis in Brandenburg (Northeastern Germany). Hatchlings were found to be smaller, lighter, paler and less agile after cold summers than after warm summers.
Elbing, K. (2001) -
Growth patterns were studied in a 5-year study in three relict populations ofLacerta viridis in north-eastern Germany. Measured snout-vent lengths were adjusted to the logistic growth curve step by step for each age class separately. Growth curves were computed for each population, discriminating between both sexes. Significant increments were found for years 1-3 in popula- tion 1, for years 1-4 in population 3 but only for years 1-2 in population 2. The exact date of maximum growth is shifting towards the end of the season in higher ages. Significant differ- ences were only found concerning individuals from population 1 in their first activity season. These are reaching maximum growth speed about two weeks later than individuals from other populations. Only in population 2 and only in the first year of activity a higher growth of females had to be considered as significant. Differences of growth patterns in and between pop- ulations are the result of adaptation to varying ecological conditions. In this context food sup- ply, microclimate, length of activity season, parasite load, injuries and social status of the indi- vidual have to be mentioned. As of weather conditions and habitat structure many of the men- tioned factors show high variation. Additionally interpretation of SVL data becomes very prob- lematic, if no basic knowledge of life history parameters exists. Therefore final statements about the nature of influencing factors and their interference require more common garden, replacement and/or breeding experiments. The differences should make every field herpetologists suspicious in assigning individualsto a certain age class by their SVL only.
Elbing, K. (2002) -
Elbing, K. & Rykena, S. (1996) -
A new method to recognize individual lizards, based on the analysis of head shield pattern variation, is described. The method allows to discriminate more than 100 individual green lizards in captive breeding experiments and is sucessful also in field studies. It enables to recognize an individual over the whole of its lifespan from hatchling onwards.
Engelmann, K. (1960) -
Engelmann, W.-E. (1972) -
Engelmann, W.-E. & Kabisch, K. (1973) -
Serum proteins of Lacerta v. viridis, L. v. meridionalis, L. trilineata, L. agilis, L. vivipara, L. taurica, L. muralis, Ophisaurus apodus, and Anguis fragilis were separated by polyacrylamidae disc electrophoresis. Among the lacertids, Lacerta viridis and Lacerta trilineata show greater similarities. Ophisaurus apodus and Anguis fragilis are characterized by praealbumins.
Erber, J. (1864) -
Eversmann, E. (1834) -
Farkas, B. & Buzás, B. (1997) -
Fedorov, A.N. & Fedorova, L.V. & Grechko, V.V. & Ryabinin, D.M. & Sheremet`eva, V.A. & Bannikova, A.A. & Lomov, A.A. & Ryskov, A.P. & Darevsky, I.S. (1999) -
A specially optimized restriction analysis of
highly repetitive DNA elements, called DNA taxonprint,
was applied for phylogenetic study of primates and lizards.
It was shown that electrophoretic bands of DNA
repeats revealed by the taxonprint technique have valuable
properties for molecular systematics. Approximately
half of taxonprint bands (TB) are invariable and
do not disappear from the genomes during evolution or
change spontaneously. Presumably these invariable
bands are restriction fragments of dispersed DNA repeats.
Another group represents variable taxonprint
bands that differ even between closely related species.
These variable bands are probably represented by tandem
DNA repeats and could be used as species-specific
markers. It was shown that taxonprint bands are independent
characters since the appearance of a new taxonprint
band does not change the previous band pattern.
Phylogenetic reconstruction carried out on taxonprint data
demonstrated that this approach could be of general utility
for molecular systematics and species identification.
Fejervary, G.J. v. (1914) -
Filiz, H. (2000) -
Fischer-Siegwart, H. (1894) -
Fischer, D. & Rehák, I. (2010) -
A population of Lacerta viridis at a locality in Tiché údolí not far from the Prague district of Suchdol was chosen for a study of its ecology, ethology and variability. The lizards inhabit a south facing slope and two abandoned quarries with an area of approx. 5 ha. The estimated population at the locality was between 40 to 60 individuals of which 30 – 35 were adults. Each year the number fluctuated considerably with regards to the changeable proportion of juveniles depending on the reproductive success. Likewise the population’s age structure fluctuated considerably depending on the reproductive success, where the ratio of individuals older than 2 years : under 2 years was roughly 1 : 1 following successful reproduction and 1 : 0.34 in favour of the older individuals following unsuccessful reproduction. The sex ratio in adults was around 1.22 : 1 in favour of the males. Population density was around 11 (6 – 7 adults) individuals per hectare. If the unused areas are removed then it was around 22 (12 – 14 adults) per hectare. During the reproductive period, the lizards aggregated markedly at certain sites in the locality. Adult males with their original tail achieved overall body lengths of 286.0 (323.6) 353.0 mm and weights of 23.5 (38.9) 53.0 g. Adult females with their original tail achieved overall body lengths of 257.0 (291.8) 327.0 mm and a weight of 18.5 (28.2) 37.0 g. For adult males the tail was 1.94 to 2.29 times longer than the body, for females it was 1.86 to 2.47 times longer. Adult males had considerably longer and wider heads in relation to body length and a far longer parietal scale in relation to the length and width of the head than the females. In contrast, adult females had a considerably larger relative spacing of the limbs and a considerably longer frontal scale in relation to the parietal scale than the adult males. Moreover adult males were found to have higher maximum and average numbers of femoral pores and a broader tail base than females. Individuals from the population showed great individuality in numbers and the arrangement of the scales on the dorsal side of the head. The normal arrangement and number of all of these scales was only found in 4 out of the 35 individuals captured, very often various shields were separated from the parts by a deep groove. 9 to 13 cervical collar scales were recorded. In essence, the colouring of the adult males was uniform – the body and legs were distinctly green with a number of small dark spots, the sides often had a yellow tinge, the abdomen was yellowish-green to clearly yellow, often with dark speckling. The tail was most often the same colour as the body, the head was dark on top with distinct light speckling. The throat, lower jaw and the lateral parts of the head were light blue to greenish-blue, during reproduction, however, this colouring gained in intensity. The throat colouring always ended abruptly at the cervical collar. In contrast the colouration of adult females varied considerably for each individual and can be divided up into several colour types ranging from a colouration that is more or less the same as that of the adult males, including the blue throat in one case, to variants with a dark dorsal stripe, varying sizes of speckling that always increased in density in the caudal direction to a variant that had uniform brown-green marbling. The tail and the rear legs were, on the whole, dark, the dorsal side of the head was olive green with a dark design, only rarely did it have lighter patches, the throat was most often white, the abdomen greyish-white without patches. After hatching the young were monochromatically grey-brown with a row of white spots on the sides of the body, with a creamy white throat and abdomen. The males acquired the characteristic adult colouration before the 2nd hibernation, the females over the next year in three various manners. For all individuals the brown colouring intensified during growth and dark patches appeared followed by light lines on the sides of the body. Gradual greening then began either from the dorsal side of the body, thus in the interphase an individual had a green back and brown hips or, conversely on the sides of the body, thus in the interphase the individual had a brown back and green sides. The last possibility was a gradual breakdown of the brown colouring, it being replaced by green on the entire body, thus the individual had brown-green marbling in the interphase. 62 % of the adult males from the locality had a tail in varying stages of regeneration. For adult females and juveniles this percentage was much lower, that being 18 % for adult females and 6 % for juveniles. The length of the regenerated tail is demonstrably less than that of the original tail. During regeneration there were changes in both its structure and its colouring. An increased incidence of other injuries was recorded in adult males. These included missing parts of the digits, various scars on the body and very frequent abrasions on the head. From the moment the adult females took part in their first mating there was a clear deformation of the scales in the area above the rear limbs caused by the males during copulation. The winter shelters were abandoned at the start of March to mid April depending on the temperature and weather, i.e. during sunny weather and at temperatures above 9 °C. With a gradual warming the adult males were the first to leave the shelter followed shortly afterwards by the sub-adult individuals with nearly a month’s interval before the adult females left. During a sudden warming, individuals of both sexes appeared in all age groups almost simultaneously. Winter shelters were sought and the start of hibernation began when the temperature fell below approx. 16 °C either in the second half of September or up to the first half of October. The young were active by up to 20 days longer than the adults and sub-adults. Within the entire population, hibernation took place en masse in two sites of the locality. The first male ecdysis was the signal to start mating (female ecdysis did not play any role). During favourable weather some of the females in the population mated immediately after laying the first clutch of eggs. The first mating took place during May, during unfavourable weather it was extended to the first half of June, the second mating was during June. In favourable weather mating lasted roughly a week, in unfavourable conditions (rain, cold) it was prolonged to roughly a month. After 19 to 41 days of pregnancy the eggs were laid – in June to the start of July for the first clutch, during July for the second clutch. Incubation ranged from 69 to 86 days. Hatching took place from September to the start of October. The young from the second clutch were first observed on the surface after the hibernation period. After a wet and cold year none of the young survived. The course of the annual cycle, starting with leaving the winter shelters and the first adult male ecdysis followed by the mating season, egg laying and ending with seeking winter shelters is exceptionally synchronised in the population under study. At the start and end of the period of activity the lizards were active during the day roughly from noon to 5 p.m., for the rest of the period of activity from 9.30 a.m. to 7 p.m., at temperatures above 17°C activity was extended to beyond 8 p.m. At the start of the period of activity (April and May) juveniles left the night shelter about 1 – 1.5 hours before the adults and sub-adults. The optimum temperatures at which the largest number of active individuals was found on the surface during sunny weather ranged from 19 °C to 24 °C. On sunny days with temperatures above 28°C the lizards sought shelter or kept to the shadows in the vegetation. The lowest temperature at which an individual was found to be active was 9 °C during sunny weather and 13 °C when overcast. On days that did not have a maximum temperature of 25 °C, activity was unimodal, peaking between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m., at temperatures above 25 °C it was bimodal with a fall in activity roughly between 2 p.m. and 5 p.m. Pregnant females were even active under conditions in which the other individuals did not leave the shelter (in an extreme case at 13 °C with light rain), however, on average, they sought night shelter sooner. During the period of activity the majority of the adults and all of the juvenile individuals dispersed to more or less permanent individual home ranges. A minority of the adult males and all of the sub-adults did not have permanent ranges and lived an itinerant life during the period of activity. The size of the home ranges varied considerably per individual and fluctuated markedly depending on the part of the period of activity the individual was in. In 1995 its range was 5 m2 (62.9 m2) 225 m2 for adult males and 18 m2 (60.0 m2) 186 m2 for adult females, in 1996, when the weather was exceptionally bad, its range was 37 m2 (489.4 m2) 2023 m2 for adult males and 13 m2 (80,3 m2) 313 m2 for adult females. The adult males used the largest home ranges, that being in the period preceding the first mating and the first mating period, especially those that did not manage to obtain a female. The smallest home ranges were recorded for females during pregnancy and males during female pregnancy. It was common for the lizards’ home ranges to overlap, both those of adult males and females. For the large majority of the individuals there was at least one change to the home range during the period of activity, after the mating period the majority of adult males switched to an itinerant lifestyle. After hibernation the lizards had a tendency to occupy the same home range as in the previous year. Within an inhabited home range and outside of it the lizards moved in the proximity of potential shelters, surfaces with no place to hide, such as stony areas and various areas with no vegetation, were consistently avoided. The area of the home range was not used equally. Crannies between stones and tree roots were used as permanent shelters, as were the spaces under large stones or, if needs be, rodent burrows. Various dense, often thorny, bushes were used occasionally. The lizards often clambered up various trees and bushes. During the mating period the lizards formed permanent pairs sharing their home ranges for this period. Over the course of roughly a week they copulated several times over. In this period the males defended their territory very ardently, sometimes forming displays on their borders and any source of acoustic stimuli was thoroughly checked. Those males that had not formed a permanent couple either inhabited a very large home range that often distinctly overlapped with the home ranges of several other males (or pairs) or they wandered over the entire locality. Both these “kinds” of males constantly tested the readiness of those males living with a female and sometimes they managed to mate with a female. The largest number of conflicts occurred between the males during the mating period. During inclement weather the lizards were not able to form permanent pairs and on occasion the females clearly mated with a greater number of males. Copulation was always preceded by complicated precopulatory behaviour that lasted up to 2.5 hours and involved characteristic elements such as sunbathing together, pursuing the female, mounting the female, sniffng the female on the nape of the neck and in the hip area and even biting the female on the tail, body and nape. The female often dragged the male several tens of centimetres as he bit into her tail. A very characteristic female display is circling with one limb or both front limbs asynchronously. This behaviour was even observed in males during averse behaviour by the female. Acoustic displays by the males were also observed (hissing). During copulation, which lasted several seconds up to a minute, the males grasped the females in the area above the hind legs either from above, as with pincers, more often from the side across the back and abdomen. After the mating period ended the majority of males left the pair, however with a second mating they always returned to the same female. Adult males were very intolerant of one another and during the reproductive period, there were many conflicts between them. The vast majority of these are characterised by a rapid lunge followed by a short chase without any real physical contact. In those cases where the individual under attack did not flee, there was an intense flght,which was preceded by brief displays characterised by inflating the throat, lateral flattening of the body, raising up on the front limbs, bowing the head, whipping movements of the tail and swift circling of the limbs. During these displays the males turned their sides to one another and circled one another. A characteristic trait of the actual flight was grabbing the opponent by the head followed by pushing one another around for various time periods. The flight always ended in a brief chase. No displays of aggression were observed between the females or the young nor was there any aggression to the slow-worms and sand lizards that lived in the locality. Upon hatching the young were 83 mm – 85 mm in total length and weighed around 1 g. After 12 months of growth (without the hibernation period), i.e. aged about 21 months the lengths of these individuals (324 mm for males, 291 mm for females) approached the average values for adults, whilst the heaviest of them (17 g) achieved only 44 % (males) or 59 % (females) of the average adult weight. The lizards first reproduced after the third hibernation, i.e. in their third year. During the first 12 months of postnatal development of the young (without the hibernation period) a positive allometric tail growth was found compared to body length growth, there was negative allometric growth in the length of the head compared to the body length and negative allometric growth in head width compared to the growth in body length. The lizards reacted to the threat of danger in several various ways. The most common was flight that being either directly to a shelter or often just hiding in the vegetation. During their flight the lizards often stopped, a characteristic behaviour was to turn sharply after stopping. Some of the individuals relied on their camouflage colouring and remained motionless on the spot – this behaviour was relatively characteristic for pregnant females. During a direct threat, the lizards defended themselves by biting, which was preceded by a threatening behaviour with open jaws accompanied by relatively loud hissing. During a confrontation with a smooth snake the characteristic reaction was a lightning fast escape from its reach, for one individual this was preceded by a relatively high jump. The lizards spent the majority of the day sunning themselves, often in the same places. In the vast majority of cases, they sunbathed at a distance of less than 50 cm from a potential shelter. The females were more often found further from a shelter than the males as they are less noticeable due to their cryptic colouring. Juveniles were observed sunbathing with their front and hind limbs raised above the ground. The time the lizards spent looking after their body covering was negligible, the dominant part was behaviour associated with ecdysis, then cleaning the parts around the jaws and the nostrils using the tongue or rubbing against the ground or vegetation (always after devouring its prey) and scratching using the rear limbs. Over the active period there were three ecdyses in adults. The ecdysis took three to four days and was a wholly passive affair on the part of the lizards. The dominant component of the lizards’ diet in spring was spiders, millipedes, pill-bugs, worms and larvae or cocoons from various insect species, in the summer and autumn they ate grasshoppers and locusts. Throughout the year they hunted various beetles, crane flies, bee-flies, flesh-flies and on rare occasions even aposematic coloured prey such as wasps and bugs from the genus Pyrrhocoris. Two basic means of acquiring food were observed; those being active searching and the sit & wait strategies. The first of these was, to a great extent, only observed in a short period after leaving the winter shelter, for the rest of the active period the sit & wait strategy clearly dominated. Comparing the data obtained from the study with that of the literature, it emerges that:- The lizards in the population under study clearly had smaller dimensions than those discovered by other authors in other parts of the extended area.- The number of scales on the cervical collar and femoral pores were in the range presented by other authors. In contrast to some Czech authors, the observed number and arrangement of scales on the dorsal side of the head had a far greater variability.- The colouring of the adults in the observed population was in the range of variability presented in the literature. The colouring of newborn young corresponded to the species Lacerta viridis. The changes in colouring during the postnatal development of the young are in agreement with the literature. In addition, a variant was found in which the brown colouring gradually breaks down to be replaced by green on the entire body.- The observed weights and sizes of the young upon hatching are in agreement with the data in the literature. The data on the growth of the young is closest to the results obtained in a study of a population in the nearby city of Brest.- The data on attaining sexual maturity agrees with the results obtained from the Ukrainian Carpathians and from a locality in Brest and differs from the data of certain Czech authors.- The phenological data obtained is considerably close to the results obtained in a population from southern France, from the area above Odessa, the Ukrainian Carpathians and the Rhineland, in contrast it differs relatively markedly from data published from the Czech Republic. As concerns the lizards’ relationship to temperatures, these results are closest to the data from the Rhineland and differ quite markedly from that of Czech authors.- In contrast to the majority of authors, it was found that the females laid two clutches a year, which was only observed by authors studying a population in France.- Compared to Czech authors the observed period of pregnancy was markedly shorter. However the results are almost identical with data obtained from the Rhineland and French populations.- The incubation period was in the range given by the majority of authors.- Overall, the observed daily activity agreed with the published data. In relation to temperatures the results were closest to those from the Rhineland, compared to the other authors, however, the population under study is distinctly more cryophilic. - The observed sex ratio is close to the results from France and the Rhineland, however, it differs from some of the data in the Czech Republic (e.g. Krivoklátsko).- The data obtained on the age structure and its fluctuation in relation to the weather agrees with the data in the literature.- The observed sizes of the home ranges cannot be compared to the cited authors because, for instance, their work does not include the marked fluctuation in the size of the home ranges over the course of the period of activity that was observed in this population.- In principle, the observed data on reproductive behaviour agrees with the published data. Moreover, certain aspects were found that were not looked into by the given authors.
Údolí Vltavy ve středních Čechách se krajinným rázem výrazně odlišuje od okolní krajiny. Vyznačuje sespecifickýmteplotním,vodnímavzdušnýmrežimemazvláštnostmigeologickéhopodkladu. Je domovem typických rostlinných a živočišných společenstev vázaných na charakteristický komplex ekosystémů spojený s hluboce zaříznutým říčním údolím (tzv. říční fenomén – blíže viz Ložek 1988). Výrazná urbanizace a další antropogenní vlivy zdejší původní plně rozvinutý říční fenomén ovšem vý- razně narušily.
Na území pražské zoologické zahrady v Troji se cenná společenstva svázaná s říčním fenoménem díky zvláštnímu režimu územního využití zachovala v pozoruhodné míře. Projevuje se to i unikátními, říčním fenoménem podmíněnými výskyty teplomilných živočichů. Jejich nápadnými a z hlediska ochra- nářského významnými reprezentanty jsou v České republice kriticky ohrožené druhy plazů – užovka podplamatá a ještěrka zelená. Pro zajištění jejich účinné ochrany na území Zoo Praha je potřebné zís- kat řadu údajů z autekologie místních populací. Zatímco výzkum užovky podplamaté zde již po ně- kolik let probíhá, ucelenější údaje o ještěrce zelené z teritoria zoologické zahrady nemáme k dispozici žádné. S výjimkou příspěvku Peciny (1993), nahodilých pozorování a alarmujících informací od pamět- níků o úbytku ještěrek zelených oproti stavu před několika desetiletími. Vysvětlován bývá někdy pre- dací volně se pohybujících pávů. Daleko pravděpodobnější však je souvislost se změnami zahradnic- kého managementu na území zoo, jak nasvědčuje i pozorování Peciny (1993).
Zásadní význam pro pochopení populační dynamiky lokální populace ještěrky zelené v Zoo Praha a stanovení vhodného ochranného režimu mají výsledky výzkumu populace ještěrky zelené z protileh- lého břehu Vltavy, které byly provedeny v rámci diplomové práce prvního z autorů stávajícího sdělení (Fischer 1998), vzniklé na přírodovědecké fakultě Univerzity Karlovy v Praze v rámci výzkumné spolu- práce Přírodovědecké fakulty UK a Zoo Praha pod vedením druhého z autorů. Značnou roli zde mo- hou sehrát i zkušenosti s následným cíleným managementem této lokality, který vedl k výraznému posílení lokální populace, což v současnosti vyhodnocujeme opakovaným ekologickým výzkumem. Opatření jsou na lokalitě realizována prvním z autorů kontinuálně od roku 1999, přičemž finančně je postupně zajišťuje Okresní úřad Praha – západ, MŽP ČR (Program péče o krajinu) a Krajský úřad Stře- dočeského kraje (zákonná péče o místní zvláště chráněné území). V předkládaném sdělení podáváme přehled základních výsledků komplexně pojaté studie této povltavské lokální populace ještěrky zele- né, zabývající se jak její autekologií, etologií a reprodukční biologií, tak i zhodnocením vnější morfo- logie a zbarvení. Ještěrka zelená, Lacerta viridis (Laurenti, 1768) patří k největším a nejznámějším evropským zástup- cům čeledi Lacertidae. Tento druh je součástí komplexu taxonů druhové a poddruhové úrovně, ozna- čovaného jako „zelené ještěrky“, kam je v současnosti, vedle Lacerta viridis, řazeno ještě několik dal- ších, mnohdy navíc polytypických druhů (Elbing et al. 1997). Jedná se o evolučně mladé, morfologicky mnohdy dosti podobné formy, jejichž klasifikace ještě není úplně ustálená, Donedávna byl vlastní druh Lacerta viridis široce pojat – s rozšířením v širokém pásu Evropy mezi atlantickým pobřežím na západě (severní Španělsko, západní Francie, Channel Islands), pobřežím Středozemního moře na jihu a Černo- mořím na východě (na severovýchodě do Podněpří, na jihovýchodě v severozápadním Turecku). Ve střední Evropě se na sever od souvislého areálu rozšíření vyskytuje i izolovaně na příhodných lokali- tách v povodí Labe a Rýna (Mikátová et Nečas 1997, Naulleau 1997). Zjištění o odlišných adaptivních jednotkách v rámci tohoto areálu, hybridizační pokusy a následně vyšetření molekulárními a genetic- kými metodami a fylogeografické analýzy vedly k rozlišení dvou sesterských biologických druhů a te- dy rozdělení stávajícího široce pojímaného druhu Lacerta viridis s. l. na druhy Lacerta bilineata Daudin, 1802 a Lacerta viridis s. str. (Rykena 1991, Amann et al. 1997, Elbing et al. 1997, Brückner et al. 2001, Jo- ger et al. 2001, Godinho et al. 2005, Böhme et al. 2006, Joger et al. 2007).
Západoevropské populace (Velká Británie, Španělsko, Francie, Švýcarsko, Itálie, Andora, Monako, San Marino) připadly druhu Lacerta bilineata, na území Chorvatska, Slovinska a Německa se v současnosti vyskytují oba druhy (v Německu Lacerta bilineata v Porýní a Lacerta viridis v Braniborsku) a populace ze zbytku bývalého areálu rozšíření ještěrky zelené (ČR, SR, Maďarsko, Rakousko, Ukrajina, Balkán) pak zůstávají druhu Lacerta viridis (Amann 1997, Elbing et al. 1997). Ve skutečnosti může být situace ješ- tě poněkud komplikovanější a názory na fylogeografii komplexu zelených ještěrek jsou stále ve vývoji (Böhme et al. 2006a, Joger et al. 2007).
Lacerta viridis a L. bilineata jsou morfologicky a barevně velmi těžko odlišitelné (Gűnther 1996) a přes- tože lze mezi nimi zaznamenat drobné rozdíly ve folidóze a proporcích těla, v konkrétních případech je využití těchto znaků pro určení jednotlivých druhů problematické, neboť individuální variabilita je větší než statistické mezidruhové rozdíly (Elbing et al. 1997). Jediným spolehlivým vnějším znakem pro rozlišení Lacerta viridis a L. bilineata jsou zřetelné rozdíly ve zbarvení novorozených mláďat (Ryke- na 1991, Rykena et al. 1996 a, b).
Přestože z našeho území (Dolnice u Chebu) jsou popsány v rámci střední Evropy vůbec nejstarší (sp. miocén) fosilní doklady formy blízké ještěrce zelené (Čerňanský 2010), je recentní rozšíření ještěr- ky zelené (L. viridis) u nás výhradně výsledkem postglaciální holocenní expanze zelených ještěrek z již- nějších glaciálních refugií (Böhme et al. 2006a). Taxonomicky patří naše ještěrky zelené nominotypic- kému poddruhu (L. v. viridis). V České republice je ještěrka zelená rozšířena na řadě lokalit, spadajících do povodí Dunaje (Morava), které tvoří součást souvislého výskytu tohoto druhu, sahajícího dále na jih a jihovýchod. Vedle toho je známa i z řady lokalit v Čechách z povodí Labe (údolí Berounky, Vltavy, Sá- zavy, Ohře a Labe), které jsou však od souvislého druhového areálu geograficky izolovány a svou exis- tencí jsou úzce svázány s tzv. říčním fenoménem (Ložek 1988, Strödicke 1995). Jejich izolovanost (i když z geologického hlediska nedávná) se odráží i v signifikantní genetické odlišnosti (i v nižší genetické va- riabilitě) ve srovnání s populacemi moravskými (Böhme et Moravec 2005, srv. též Böhme et Berendonk 2005, Böhme et al. 2006b). Konkrétní údaje o výskytu ještěrky zelené na našem území přinášejí např. Prach (1861), Štěpánek (1949), Hanák et al. (1959), Laňka (1965), Opatrný (1973, 1979), Šapovaliv (1980 - nepubl., 1988), Strődicke (1995) nebo Kerouš (1996). Mapku rozšíření v Čechách publikovali např. Lo- žek (1988), Mikátová et Nečas (1997) a Böhme et Moravec (2005).
U nás patří ještěrka zelená mezi kriticky ohrožené druhy a její přežití, hlavně na lokalitách v Čechách, je díky silnému narušení stanovišť nejisté (Baruš et al. 1989, Kerouš 1996, Mikátová et Nečas 1997). Při- tom izolované lokality v Čechách jsou z hlediska dalších výzkumů velmi zajímavé, a to hned z několika důvodů. V první řadě se jedná o lokality, kde ještěrky přežívají na hranici druhových možností, s čímž úzce souvisí i jejich značná zranitelnost. Přitom je pro pochopení ekologických souvislostí velmi cenné a důležité, že české populace obývají namnoze stanoviště původního charakteru. Údaje získané výzku- mem takovýchto populací mají neocenitelný význam při další ochraně druhu. Dále je výzkum izolova- ných populací jako takových, na jehož důležitost poukazují rovněž Elbing et al. (1997), velmi zajíma- vý i teoreticky - poskytuje podklad pro další mezipopulační srovnání s jinými obdobnými populacemi, existujícími např. v Německu, které podrobně zkoumali Böker (1990 a, b) a Elbing (1997) nebo s popu- lacemi ze souvislého areálu rozšíření. České reliktní autochtonní populace mají mimořádnou vědec- kou a konzervačně biologickou hodnotu a vzhledem ke genetické výjimečnosti související s izolova-ností, fragmentací, malou populační početností, genetickým driftem, sníženou variabilitou a možností výskytu unikátních genetických variant vyžadují i speciální metody konzervačního managementu (srv. Böhme et al. 2007, Joger et al. 2010).
Úroveň znalostí o Lacerta viridis z našeho území je zvláště v kontextu s jejich potřebností možno hod- notit jako značně nedostatečnou a útržkovitou, na což mimo jiné upozorňuje i např. Strödicke (1995). Údaje o ní sice přináší např. již Prach (1861), dále pak Štěpánek (1949), Lác (1968), Opatrný (1973) a řa- da dalších autorů, ale ve většině případů se jedná o informace spíše obecného charakteru (mnohdy bez udání zdrojů), které často zcela opomíjejí některé důležité aspekty biologie tohoto druhu. Zajímavé pů- vodní postřehy z ekologie a etologie ještěrky zelené se vyskytují spíše v článcích menšího rozsahu, které se objevují v některých populárnějších přírodovědných časopisech. Jedná se např. o příspěvky Nováka (1954), Houby (1958), Hanáka et al. (1959), Laňky (1965), Vogela (1980) nebo Šapovaliva (1988). Vněj- ší morfologii ještěrky zelené u nás podrobněji zpracovali Šapovaliv (1980 -nepubl.) a Lomičková (1990 – nepubl.), dentici se podrobně věnuje Roček (1980). Řadu poznatků týkajících se ekologie a etologie (hlavně epigamních projevů) pak přináší Šapovaliv (1980 - nepubl., 1988) a Horáčková (1970 – nepubl.). Podrobnější fenologická data jsou k dispozici pouze ze sousedního Slovenska v práci Holece et Kmini- aka (1970). Z výše uvedeného jednoznačně vyplývá naléhavá potřeba studií zaměřených na bližší po- znání všech aspektů biologie Lacerta viridis u nás, což je i cílem námi předkládané práce.
Fischer, J. v. (1888) -
Fischer, K. (1960) -
Fischer, K. (1961) -
Fischer, K. & Birukow, G. (1960) -
Fitch, H.S. (1970) -
Fitzinger, L.I. (1826) -
Foxon, G.E.H. & Griffith, J. & Price,M. (1953) -
Using radiological methods, Prakash has recently investigated the mode of action of the heart of the lizard Uromastix hardwicki and has concluded that there is very considerable mixture of the blood from the two auricles in the partially divided ventricle.
Frank, R. & Edelman, M. (2015) -
Franzen, M. (1990) -
Frauenfeld, G. (1853) -
Fretey, J. (1986) -
Fritz, K. & Cerff, D. (1992) -
Fritz, U. (1992) -
Fritz, U. (1993) -
Froer, E. (1979) -
Froer, E. (1980) -
Froesch-Franzon, P. (1982) -
Froesch, P (1980) -
Frommhold, E. (1960) -
Frommhold, E. (1962) -
Frör, E. (1982) -
Frör, E. (1984) -
Fuhn, I.E. (1932) -
Fuhn, J.E. & Mertens, R. (1959) -
Gábor, H. & Renáta, K. & Katalin, B. & Orsolya, M. & János, T. & López, P. & Martinm J. (2010) -
Gachet, H. (1833) -
Gállego-Castejón, L. & López, S. (1983) -
Gamble, H.J. (1952) -
Garve, E. & Podloucky, R. (2013) -
The authors report on the observation on an unusual ventral side sunbasking behaviour of a juvenile Green Lizard (Lacerta viridis meridionalis) in Bulgaria and ducument this with photos. In the relevant lacertid literature no evidence was found for this behaviour. Also lacertid professionals haven’t observed such esposure to the sun or haven’t further registered.
Gebhart, J. (2020) -
Geisenheyner, L. (1888) -
Geißler, L. & Brühl, A. (1980) -
Gerzeli, G. & Piceis Polver, P. (1970) -
Geyer, Wilh. (1895) -
Giovine, G. (1993) -
Amphibians and reptiles of the Parco Regionale dei Colli di Bergamo. -- This article considers the herpetofauna of the Parco Regionale dei Colli di Bergamo that is composed of ten species of Amphibians and nine of Reptiles. The species are those one would expect to find in a similar landscape. Among these is relevant to mention Bombina variegata, now rare in Lombardy, and Rana latastei. The Author analyzes the corological categories noting a certain predominance of the European species (68%) on the Eurocentroasiatic (22%) and the Italic (10%) ones. The study of the microcommunitiesm has evidenced three fundamental models: the m. of the submediterranean wood (with prevalence of Reptiles), the m. of the umid environments (with prevalence of Amphibians) and the m. of the damp woods (with the typical species Salamandra salamandra).
Glowacinski, Z. & Sura, P. (2018) -
Glowacinsky, Z. (1992) -
Göcmen, B. & Oguz, M.A. & Karis, M. & Kösemen, C.M. (2016) -
During fieldwork excursions on June and September 2015 we obtained new distributional records for three lizard species. Here, we present the first record of Darevskia rudis tristis and Lacerta viridis meridionalis from Turkey’s Ankara province and confirm the occurrence of Anguis fragilis in this locality.
Godinho, R. & Crespo, E.G. & Ferrand, N. & Harris, D.J. (2005) -
Partial DNA sequences from three mitochondrial (cytochrome b, 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) and two nuclear (-fibrinogen intron 7 and C-mos) genes were used to estimate the phylogenetic relationships among all eight extant species of green lizards, Lacerta sensu stricto, and many currently recognized subspecies. All eight species form a monophyletic group. L. agilis, L. schreiberi and L. strigata are genetically well differentiated species. L. trilineata and L. pamphylica are not monophyletic units based on analyses of the -fibrinogen intron 7. Lacerta media is closely related to some Lacerta trilineata. L. bilineata and L. viridis are closely related, and recognition of L. bilineata as a distinct species makes L. viridis paraphyletic also. For both L. bilineata and L. viridis, some subspecies appear to remain in their southern glacial refugia, while a single genetic entity shows successfully postglacial expansion. The topology derived from C-mos variation is concordant with that derived from mtDNA, with substitutions occurring at a similar rate to that of transversions in the rRNA genes. Although C-mos is typically used at deeper taxonomic levels it is also phylogenetically informative within green lizards. -fibrinogen intron 7, typically used for assessing phylogenetic relationships among bird species, is a useful phylogenetic marker for reptiles also, showing considerable variation between species. There is not complete concordance between estimates of relationships derived from the mtDNA and nuclear markers, probably because rapid diversification led to incomplete lineage sorting in the green lizards. Introgression could also be occuring between some species.
Göhler, V. (1981) -
Göhler, V. (1982) -
Göke, G. (1963) -
Goldby, F. (1934) -
Goldby, F. (1937) -
Goldby, F. & Robinson, L.R. (1962) -
The degeneration resulting from lesions in dorsal spinal root fibres and in ascending tracts of the spinal cord in Lacerta viridis has been studied, using the Holmes silver impregnation method and a modified Nauta technique. The nature and criteria of degeneration as revealed by these methods are reviewed. Some features of the normal dorsal roots and spinal cord are described. Severance of three adjacent dorsal roots at the levels of the limb plexuses produced ipsilateral degeneration in dorsal column fibres ascending to the dorsal part of the medulla in fasciculi corresponding closely with the cuneate (forelimb) and gracile (hindlimb) fasciculi of mammals. Intraspinal connexions in the ventral horns and in the roots of the dorsal horns were also demonstrated. Hemisections of the cord resulted in additional degeneration in the superficial part of the lateral column. This could be traced to the cerebellum and, less certainly, to the midbrain. Numerous collaterals were given off to the reticular formation in the medulla. It is concluded that the arrangement of dorsal spinal root connexions and of ascending tracts in the dorsal and lateral columns of the spinal cord is very similar to that found in mammals. No evidence for the presence of long ascending tracts in the anterior columns of the spinal cord was found.
Gomes, V. & Tagar, A. & Carretero, M.A. (2013) -
Infestation by ticks affects several vertebrate groups, including reptiles. Castor bean tick Ixodes ricinus is the most widespread tick species. Here we report an impressive tick infestation of a male green lizard Lacerta viridis/bilineata found in 2012 in the vicinity of Bilpa cave in the Kolpa valley, Slovenia. Lizards as tick hosts can play an important role in the life cycle of I. ricinus and may also be potential vectors of Lyme disease
González Mantilla, M.X. (2011) -
Goose, V. & Bels, V.L. (1990) -
Goose, V. & Castanet, J. (1989) -
Gorman, G.C. (1969) -
Karyotype data are presented for 12 species of lacertid lizards. Of these, 4 Acanthodactylus, 2 Eremias, 1 Ophisops, and 4 Lacerta have n = 19, with all chromosomes acrocentric. This is the typical lacertid karyotype, as reported in previous literature. One species, Lacerta parva, is quite different from all the others. The haploid number is 12, consisting of 7 pairs of metacentric macrochromosomes and 5 pairs of microchromosomes. The fundamental number (number of arms in the karyotype) is the same in L. parva as in all the other species studied. The possibility of female sex chromosomal heteromorphism is raised, but data are not sufficient to confirm this.
Gray, J.E. (1831) -
Gray, J.E. (1838) -
Grechko, V.V. & Fedorova, L.V. & Ryabinina, N.L. & Ciobanu, D.G. & Kosushkin, S.A. & Darevsky, I.S. (2006) -
Four types of nuclear DNA markers identified by the taxonprint, RAPD, and IMP (Inter-MIR-PCR) methods, and the nucleotide sequences of satellite DNA monomers have been used to analyze the molecular genetic similarity between some populations, subspecies, and species of lizards combined into the group Lacerta s. str., as well as representatives of some other genera. The notions on the systematics and phylogeny of this group based on morphological and zoogeographic criteria have been compared to the conclusions based on molecular genetic data. The genus and species subdivisions of populations based on nuclear molecular markers and morpho- logical characters generally agree with each other, the degree of genetic differences being correlated with the tax- onomy suggested by zoomorphologists. The degree of differences between the subspecies of one of the species studied, Lacerta agilis, varies depending on the molecular markers used: according to the results of RAPD anal- ysis, all subspecies substantially differ from one another, the variation within populations being small; with respect to other markers, the differences are smaller and not equivalent. The existence of the so-called eastern and western clades of this species earlier assumed by other researchers on the basis of mtDNA and morphological data has been confirmed. There are no distinct gradations exceeding individual variation in 14 populations of L. agilis exigua (the eastern clade) with respect to IMP markers, although these populations inhabit a vast area from the Ural Mountains to the Kabardino-Balkar Republic (the Caucasus). These data suggest that the subspecies has been rap- idly spreading northwards since the Pleistocene glaciation (about 15,000 years ago).
Гречко В.В., Федорова Л.В., Рябинин Д.М., Рябинина Н.Л., Чобану Д.Г., Косушкин С.А., Даревский И.С. (2006) -
целью сравнительного изучения молекулярно-генетического сходства некоторых популяций, подвидов и видов комплекса ящериц, объединяемых в группу Lacerta s. str., и представителей некоторых других родов использовали четыре вида маркеров ядерной ДНК, выявляемых методами так-сонопринта, RAPD, IMP (Inter-MIR-PCR), а также при изучении нуклеотидной последовательности мономеров сателлитных ДНК. Представления о филогении и систематике этой группы рептилий, выработанные на основании морфологических и зоогеографических критериев, сопоставлены с выводами, основанными на молекулярно-генетических данных. Показано, что родовые и видовые подразделения популяций по ядерным молекулярным маркерам и по морфологическим признакам, в целом, согласуются, а степень генетических различий коррелирует с таксономией, предлагаемой зооморфологами. Различия между подвидами одного из изученных видов - Lacerta agilis - при сравнении разных молекулярных маркеров выражены неодинаково: по данным метода RAPD все подвиды существенно отличаются (при низкой внутрипопуляционной изменчивости этого признака), по другим маркерам эти различия выражены меньше и неравноценны. Подтверждается существование так называемых восточной и западной подгрупп этого вида, выделенных ранее другими авторами по результатам изучения мтДНК и по морфологии. Не обнаружено отчетливых градаций, выходящих за пределы индивидуальной изменчивости, в 14 популяциях подвида L. agilis exigua (восточная группа) по маркерам IMP несмотря на то, что эти популяции обитают на огромной территории от Урала до Кабардино-Балкарии. Эти данные можно рассматривать как свидетельство быстрого распространения подвида на север после плейстоценового оледенения (около 15000 лет назад).
Grechko, V.V. et al. (1997) -
Multiple band patterns of DNA repeats in
the 20–500-nucleotide range can be detected by digesting
genomic DNA with short—cutting restriction endonucleases,
followed by end labeling of the restriction
fragments and fractionation in nondenaturing polyacrylamide
gels. We call such band patterns obtained from
genomic DNA ‘‘taxonprints’’ (Fedorov et al. 1992).
Here we show that taxonprints for the taxonomic groups
studied (mammals, reptiles, fish, insects—altogether
more than 50 species) have the following properties: (1)
All individuals from the same species have identical taxonprints.
(2) Taxonprint bands can be subdivided into
those specific for a single species and those specific for
groups of closely related species, genera, and even families.
(3) Each restriction endonuclease produces unique
band patterns; thus, five to ten restriction enzymes (about
100 bands) may be sufficient for a statistical treatment of
phylogenetic relationships based on polymorphisms of
restriction endinuclease sites. We demonstrate that taxonprint
analysis allows one to distinguish closely related
species and to establish the degree of similarity among
species and among genera. These characteristics make to use this phenomenon for phylogenetic aims (Cooke
1975; Christie and Skinner 1979; Brown and Dover
1979, 1980; Elizur et al. 1982; Hembelen et al. 1982;
Buckland 1983; Dandieu et al. 1984; Lima de Faria et al.
1984; Shubina and Mednikov 1986; Turner et al. 1991),
but this approach has not been extensively applied. In
this paper we have reexamined the problem on the basis
of our own preliminary results, partly published in Russian
journals, confirming the ideas about possible correlations
between evolution of DNA repeats and speciation
(Fedorov et al. 1992; Grechko et al. 1993; Potapov and
We have demonstrated that the modified method designated
‘‘DNA taxonprint’’ (Fedorov et al. 1992) can be
effectively used for revealing species—specific genomic
markers in different taxonomic groups. These taxonprint
markers are found to be helpful for evaluation of the
degree of species similarity between species, genera, and
families. More than 50 species from different taxa were
Gregorovičová, M. & Černíková, A. (2015) -
The chemical defence of Heteroptera is primarily based on repellent secretions which signal the potential toxicity of the bug to its predators. We tested the aversive reactions of green lizards (Lacerta viridis) towards the major compounds of the defensive secretion of Graphosoma lineatum, specifically: (i) a mixture of three aldehydes: (E)-hex-2-enal, (E)-oct-2-enal, (E)-dec-2-enal; (ii) a mixture of these three aldehydes and tridecane; (iii) oxoaldehyde: (E)-4-oxohex-2-enal; (iv) secretion extracted from metathoracic scent glands of G. lineatum adults and (v) hexane as a non-polar solvent. All chemicals were presented on a palatable food (Tenebrio molitor larvae). The aversive reactions of the green lizards towards the mealworms were evaluated by observing the approach latencies, attack latencies and approach–attack intervals. The green lizards exhibited a strong aversive reaction to the mixture of three aldehydes. Tridecane reduced the aversive reaction to the aldehyde mixture. Oxoaldehyde caused the weakest, but still significant, aversive reaction. The secretion from whole metathoracic scent glands also clearly had an aversive effect on the green lizards. Moreover, when a living specimen of G. lineatum or Pyrrhocoris apterus (another aposematic red-and-black prey) was presented to the green lizards before the trials with the aldehyde mixture, the aversive effect of the mixture was enhanced. In conclusion, the mixture of three aldehydes had the strong aversive effect and could signal the potential toxicity of G. lineatum to the green lizards.
Grillitsch, B. (1985) -
Grillitsch, H. & Cabela, A. (1992) -
The attempt is made to define the distributional patterns of the reptiles in Carinthia (Austria) by selected parameters of climat and vegetation.
Grillitsch, H. & Cabela, A. (2002) -
Grimm, H.G. (1886) -
Groddeck, J. & Schmidt, P. & Elbing, K. & Schneeweiß, N. (2006) -
Großhans, R. (2017) -
Grozdanov, A. & Peshev, H. & Stoynov, E. & Vangelova, N. & Leest, M. van & Wielpstra, H. & Parvanov, D. (2016) -
Due to its species richness, Kresna Gorge is relatively well investigated in herpetological aspect. However, almost all of the researchers concentrate their efforts in the well-known biodiversity hot spots situated in the middle and the southern parts of the area, thus leaving the northern parts almost unexplored.
Most of the locations of the researched species presented in this work are newly identi ed, since the areas of investigation remained out of the scope of the majority of scientists.
In addition the research presents some of the conservation measures in the area, taken by the non-governmental organization Fund for Wild Flora and Fauna (FWFF), which directly affected the prosperity of the researched species populations. The identi ed nature conservation bene ts and possible fails of these measures were evaluated.
Grozdanov, A.P. & Tzankov, N.D. (2014) -
Sexual size dimorphism or SSD is widespread among many species of reptiles. The present research aims to analyze and compare the SSD in two lacertid lizards in Bulgaria – the Green lizard (Lacerta viridis) and the lowland subspecies of the Sand Lizard (Lacerta agilis chersonensis). Ten experimental territories were selected in Sofi a and Plovdiv plains and neighboring areas. A total of 68 sand lizards and 65 green lizards were analyzed. For every individual were measured or counted 8 metric traits (transformed in to 12 indexes) and 12 meristic traits. Data scores were analyzed by mean of uni- and multivariate statistical technique. Investigating the meristic traits, we found statistically signifi cant differences only in the number of horizontal lines of ventral shields between sexes in both species. Concerning the metric traits and indexes, we found statistically signifi cant tendencies for larger absolute and relative head size in male sand lizards in comparison with females. In green lizard we stated similar signifi cant tendency for larger head size and larger absolute and relative size of legs in male individuals. The presented results could be explained with the different roles of the sexes of those two species. SSD is more prominent in green lizard in comparison with sand lizard. In conclusion all that factors lead to bigger morphological differences between sexes in green lizards.
Gruber, U. (1994) -
In diesem Naturführer werden auf über 100 Farbfotos alle mitteleuroipäischen Arten und darüber hinaus auch süd- und osteuropäische vorgestellt: Frösche, Kröten, Molche und Salamander, Schildkröten, Echsen und Schlangen. Fachkundige Texte informirern über Kennzeichen, Vorkommrn, Verhalten, Fortpflanzung, Ernährung und Besonderheiten. Der bewährte Kosmos-Farbcode teilt die Amphibien und Reptilien nach ihrer Verwandtschaft in 5 Gruppen ein und erleichtert so die Bestimmung. Die praktischen Klappen bieten interessante Zusatzinformationen über Froschlurchentwicklung, Laichformen und anatomischen Besonderheiten bei Reptilien.
Gruschwitz, M. (1985) -
Gruschwitz, M. (1992) -
Gruschwitz, M. & Braun, U. & Schneider, W. & Lenz, S. & Thomas, F. (1984) -
Gubanyi, J. & Gubanyi, J. (1997) -
Gugler, W. (1903) -
Guske, E. (1976) -
Gyovai, F. (1984) -
In the course of a two years` study, author processed data of 634 individuals of the 3 lizard species (Lacerta taurica, L. agilis and L. viridis) living o n a sandy grassland. The density of the lizard population was 557 individuals per hectare. The migration of the juvenile L. taurica tended towards the surrounding grazed areas. The L. taurica population belongs to mortality type No. I I . The main mortality factor is predation. The covering by vegetation segragetes L. taurica from the other two populations. The consequences regarding habitude of the morphological differences between the 3 species presumably act in the direction of a decrease in interspecific competition between the individuals more than 1-year-old. The lizards represent a biomass of 1725 g/ha at the sampling area. Their annual nutriment consumption is 1.3 g / m ` , 18% of the complete secondary consumption, and 8 % of the primary consumers` production. The lizards play a significant role in the regulation of the Coleoptera, Aranei and Orthoptera populations.
Haas, G. (1951) -
Hahnemann, S. (2014) -
During a herpetological field trip in a quarry on the edge of Gyenesdias (western Lake Balaton, Hungary) I observed more than twenty Common Wall Lizards (Podarcis muralis muralis) as well as a good dozen of European Green Lizards (Lacerta viridis viridis) within a period of about 45 minutes. The Green lizards had a remarkable low flight distance.
Harris, D.J. & Salvador, A. (2011) -
Harta, I. & Winkler, D. & Erdö, A. (2017) -
HABITAT SELECTION OF THE EUROPEAN GREEN LIZARD [Lacerta viridis (LAURENTI, 1768)] IN THE FERTŐMELLÉKI HILLS.
The aim of this research was to determine the habitat selection of the European Green Lizard (Lacerta viridis) in the aera of the Fertőmelléki Hills (Northwest Hungary). During the field work 60 lizard individuals` (adult, yearling, hatchling) habitat-texture were quantified also including the hideaways and perching sites. For the lizard survey the line transect method was used. Field data set was evaluated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to test which factor mostly affect the three age groups of lizards and Discriminant Function Analysis (DA) to identify differences in lizard habitat pattern. According to the results, habitat selection of the European Green Lizard is mostly affected by the habitat mosaic structure. Both PCA and DA analyses yielded significant differences in habitat choice between the three age groups studied. The most important proposal for the active protection of this species is the appropriate treatment of edge ecotones.
Hassl, A.R. (2012) -
Häupl, M. (1982) -
Hawlitschek, O. & Morinière, J. & Dunz, A. & Franzen, M. & Rödder, D. & Glaw, F. & Haszprunar, G. (2016) -
We present the first comprehensive DNA barcoding study of German reptiles and amphibians representing likewise the first on the European herpetofauna. A total of 248 barcodes for all native species and subspecies in the country and a few additional taxa were obtained in the framework of the projects ‘Barcoding Fauna Bavarica’ (BFB) and ‘German Barcode of Life’ (GBOL). In contrast to many invertebrate groups, the success rate of the identification of mitochondrial lineages representing species via DNA barcode was almost 100% because no cases of Barcode Index Number (BIN) sharing were detected within German native reptiles and amphibians. However, as expected, a reliable identification of the hybridogenetic species complex in the frog genus Pelophylax was not possible. Deep conspecific lineages resulting in the identification of more than one BIN were found in Lissotriton vulgaris, Natrix natrix and the hybridogenetic Pelophylax complex. A high variety of lineages with different BINs was also found in the barcodes of wall lizards (Podarcis muralis), confirming the existence of many introduced lineages and the frequent occurrence of multiple introductions. Besides the reliable species identification of all life stages and even of tissue remains, our study highlights other potential applications of DNA barcoding concerning German amphibians and reptiles, such as the detection of allochthonous lineages, monitoring of gene flow and also noninvasive sampling via environmental DNA. DNA barcoding based on COI has now proven to be a reliable and efficient tool for studying most amphibians and reptiles as it is already for many other organism groups in zoology.
Haxhiu, I. (1998) -
Hecht, G. (1930) -
Hecht, G. (1931) -
Hecke, A. van (1975) -
A drowned Lacerta viridis was saved by pressing the water out of its lungs.
Hecke, A. van (1976) -
Heltai, B. & Sály, P. & Kovács, D. & Kiss, I. (2015) -
Different types of semi natural habitats has important role in long-term survival and maintenance of reptile species in urban environments. Heterogeneous urban green islands can provide conditions that enable competing species to live together in relatively small areas. However, the key mechanism of coexistence could vary from types of habitats and taxa. We investigated the population structure, the fine scale habitat segregation and diel activity pattern of two lizard species ( Lacerta viridis and L. agilis) coexisting populations in a town cemetery. We hypothesized, that fine scale habitat segregation is a more important factor in coexistence than differences in diel activity pattern, because of the environmental dependent thermoregulation constrain. During the study, 178 L. agilis and 79 L. viridis occurrences were recorded. The daily activity patterns of both species were very similar, with peaks found in the forenoon and afternoon. Lizards were found to be the most active at 31-32°C. The probability of occurrence of the species was influenced more by the differences in the random selection of parcels rather than the random differences in the survey days. Around the proximate observation point the bush covered areas was significantly higher than average in the parcels. Our results showed that niche segregation based on fine scale habitat patches had a fundamental role in the coexistence of the two lizard species. L. agilis preferred the more open spaces, whereas L. viridis preferred areas with more bushes, but there was no difference in the daily activity pattern of the two species.
Henf, M. & Alfermann, D. (2004) -
Das Vorkommen der Smaragdeidechse in der Nähe von Runkel im hessischen Teil des Lahntals
wird beschrieben. Es bleibt zu klären, ob es sich hierbei tatsächlich um Tiere der Westlichen
Smaragdeidechse handelt. Selbst bei eindeutiger Bestätigung einer Population von Lacerta
bilineata bleibt offen, ob es sich eindeutig um autochthone Tiere handelt.
Faktoren, die für ein autochthones Vorkommen sprechen, werden aufgeführt
Henle, K. (1997) -
Henle, K. & Steinicke, H. & Gruttke, H. (2004) -
Herczeg, G. (2011) -
Herczeg, G. & Kovács, T. & Korsos, Z. & Török, J. (2007) -
Microhabitat selection and seasonal activity of the snake-eyed skink, Ablephaus kitaibelii fitzingeri, are compared to the two lacertid lizards (Lacerta viridis and Podarcis muralis) that co-occur in many of its habitats. The food composition of A. k. fitzingeri is also described. Significant differences in microhabitat selection and seasonal activity among the three species were found. The snake-eyed skink was associated with open grasslands, and with a low level of scrub, bare soil and rock cover. The microhabitat preference of L. viridis was quite similar to that of the skink, but with a higher preference for scrub. P. muralis occurred in places with greater rock and bare soil cover, and more scrub than A. k. fitzingeri. Activity of the snake-eyed skink decreased dramatically in summer, probably because of the reduced thermal inertia originating from the extremely small size of this species, but its seasonal activity overlapped with those of the lacertids. Stomach content analysis of the snake-eyed skink suggests that it is a generalist predator of small, mainly flightless arthropod prey. Competition with juvenile lacertids and predation by adult L. viridis are conceivable for the snake-eyed skink.
Herczeg, G. & Török, J. & Korsós, Z. (2007) -
The rate of heat exchange with the environment is of obvious importance in determining the time budget of behavioural thermoregulation in ectotherms. In small reptiles, heating rate depends mainly on their physical characteristics. We analysed the effect of body size, and the possible joint effects originating from shape and colour differences on heating rate in three small-bodied (0.15-20 g) sympatric lizard species. Heating rate was strongly influenced by body size, while no joint effects with the two other factors were detected. We found that the increase in heating rate with decreasing body size accelerated dramatically below a body weight of 2-3 g. We also analysed associations between body size, seasonal activity patterns and thermal characteristics of the sites where lizards were encountered in the field. Differently sized lizards occurred in thermally different sites and differed in their seasonal activity patterns, both within and among species. Smaller (<2-3 g) lizards occurred in cooler sites and exhibited very low activity during summer. Our results suggest that body size has a considerable influence on the spatial and temporal distribution of extremely small lizards in environments subject to a danger of overheating.
Herz, M. (2014) -
Heusinger, G. (1984) -
Heusser, H. (1979) -
Hill, J. & Klepsch, R. (2008) -
Hipsley, C. (2012) -
The evolutionary diversification of many terrestrial vertebrate groups is strongly linked to climatic events in the Cenozoic, the period from 65 Million years ago to today when modern animals first appeared. I investigated the effects of Cenozoic climate change on the taxonomic and morphological diversification of the Old World lizard family Lacertidae, with particular emphasis on the African radiation. African lacertids exhibit an unusual pattern of diversification, in which their highest species richness occurs in deserts north and south of the equator, despite being spread throughout the continent. This disparity is particularly surprising given that desert lacertids are thought to be evolutionarily younger than their mesic-dwelling relatives, suggesting increased diversification rates in arid habitats. To identify the evolutionary factors underlying this pattern, I use a combination of phylogenetic, morphological and ecological techniques. In Chapter 1, I apply Bayesian methods and fossil-based calibrations to molecular sequence data to construct a time-calibrated phylogeny for Lacertidae. I estimate that the family arose in the early Cenozoic, with the majority of their African radiation occurring in the Eocene and Oligocene. In Chapter 2, I describe changes in lacertid body shape across biomes and substrates, and find widespread morphological convergence in similar habitat types. I suggest that in addition to foraging demands, fluctuating and extreme climatic conditions, largely driven by precipitation and temperature, contribute to morphological convergence across independent arid-dwelling clades. Finally, I test if ancestral transitions in ecology, morphology, and rates of diversification temporally coincide with paleoclimatic events in the Cenozoic. I use High Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography to characterize changes in the skull related to life in arid habitats, and apply maximum likelihood methods to test if the origins of those traits temporally coincide with significant shifts in habitat, diversification rates and climatic changes. My results show that African lacertids experienced three major peaks in diversification, accompanied by the evolution of suites of arid-adapted morphological traits. These changes coincide with climatic shifts in Africa, including the transition from closed forests to open grasslands and savanna in the late Oligocene, prior to the peak temperatures of the mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, and following the formation of the Benguela current leading to hyper-aridity in southern Africa. I conclude that deserts are important centers for reptile evolution, but that expected changes in climate due to global warming may outpace the ability of arid-dwelling species to adapt and persist in the future.
Hirschler, J. (1928) -
Hirtz D. (1911) -
Hirtz, M. (1923) -
Hitschfeld, E. (2010) -
Höger, J. (1936) -
Hohenacker, F.R. (1831) -
Hollec, P. & Kminiak, M. (1970) -
Honnorat-Bastide, E.-F. (1891) -
Horn (1913) -
Horváth, G. & Mészáros, B. & Urszán, T. & Herczeg, G. (2016) -
The biological validity of consistent between-individual behavioural differences (i.e. animal personality) and correlations between different behaviours (i.e. behavioural syndrome) became widely accepted during the last decade and ‘personality research’ is now one of the fastest growing fields of behavioural ecology. However, our understanding on how behavioural consistency emerges and evolves is still incomplete. One interesting question is how unstable state variables (e.g. energy reserves) could play a role in the emergence of stable behavioural differences? One solution is that feedback loops act between the behaviour and the underlying state variable stabilizing the system. The amount of available energy has a key role driving behavioural decisions and shaping behavioural strategies. Moreover, in ectotherms, body temperature is a vital factor in maintaining optimal metabolic rate and physiological performance. Here, we studied how food and body temperature affected male European green lizards’ (Lacerta viridis) behaviour. We used 40 adult males from a Hungarian population during the mating season (April-May) of 2014. We applied a full factorial experimental design with high vs. low food treatments and short vs. long available basking periods. We assessed activity and risk-taking three times for every lizard. We focused on two components of individual behavioural variation: individual mean behaviour and within-individual behavioural variation. We also tested for the presence of animal personality and behavioural syndrome in the treatment groups. Lizards with limited basking time took higher risk and expressed their activity with lower variation. Lizards in all treatment groups showed activity and risk-taking personalities. We found support for an activity – risk-taking behavioural syndrome only in the low food treatment. Our findings show that individual state indeed affects behavioural strategies in this species, from the expression of single behaviours to the emergence of a correlation between functionally different behaviours.
Horváth, G. & Mészáros, B. & Urszán, T., Bajer, K. & O. Molnár (2017) -
Understanding the background mechanisms affecting the emergence and maintenance of consistent between-individual variation within population in single (animal personality) or across multiple (behavioural syndrome) behaviours has key importance. State-dependence theory suggests that behaviour is ‘anchored’ to individual state (e.g. body condition, gender, age) and behavioural consistency emerges through behavioural-state feedbacks. A number of relevant state variables are labile (e.g. body condition, physiological performance) and expected to be affected by short-term environmental change. Yet, whether short-term environmental shifts affect behavioural consistency during adulthood remains questionable. Here, by employing a full-factorial laboratory experiment, we explored if quantity of food (low vs. high) and time available for thermoregulation (3h vs. 10h per day) had an effect on activity and risk-taking of reproductive adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis). We focussed on different components of behavioural variation: (i) strength of behavioural consistency (repeatability for animal personality; between-individual correlation for behavioural syndrome), (ii) behavioural type (individual mean behaviour) and (iii) behavioural predictability (within-individual behavioural variation). Activity was repeatable in all treatments. Risk-taking was repeatable only in the low basking treatments. We found significant between-individual correlation only in the low food × long basking time group. The treatments did not affect behavioural type, but affected behavioural predictability. Activity predictability was higher in the short basking treatment, where it also decreased with size (≈ age). Risk-taking predictability in the short basking treatment increased with size under food limitation, but decreased when food supply was high. We conclude that short-term environmental change can alter various components of behavioural consistency. The effect could be detected in the presence/absence patterns of animal personality and behavioural syndrome and the level of individual behavioural predictability, but not in behavioural type.
Houba, J. (1957) -
Hubert, J. (1970) -
The primary gonocytes contain numerous yolk granules and lipid droplets; there is also some glycogen in their cytoplasm. Mitochondria are located in a juxtanuclear area. The chromatin is diffuse and in some reptiles a ring-shaped nucleolus is noted. Near the nucleolus there is a peculiar area which we have called “masse paranucléolaire”. The fate of all these cellular components was studied throughout embryonic development and during postnatal life. These cytologic characteristics permit the identification of the gonocytes from the gastrula stage. The “masse paranucléolaire” permits the clear demonstration of a continuity of the germinal line from gastrulation to the adult stage.
Hür, H. & Ugurtas, I.H. & Isbilir, A. (2008) -
The amphibians and reptiles of Kazdağı in western Anatolia were investigated. In the study area, 190 specimens belonging to 34 species from 15 amphibian and reptile families were determined. Three of these species are urodelan, 5 are anurans, 2 are turtles, 1 is a tortoise, 12 are lizards, and 11 are snakes. Rana dalmatina Bonaparte, 1840, Anguis fragilis Linnaeus, 1758, and Podarcis sicula (Rafinesque, 1810) were recorded at Kazdağı for the first time.
Iersel, R. van (1951) -
Iftime, A. & Iftime, O. (2006) -
The preliminary results of herpetological studies in the Cozia massif in Vâlcea county,
Romania, are presented; the 10 reptile species identified in the field (4 of which are new records) are
presented together with data on their habitat association, abundance and impact of human activity.
Iftime, A. & Iftime, O. (2010) -
The results of herpetological studies in the Eastern Jiu and Upper Lotru basins in the Parâng- Lotru-aureanu mountain massif (Hunedoara and Vâlcea counties, Romania), are presented. 16 amphibian and reptile species were identified in the field in 33 sites investigated; these are presented together with data on their habitat association and intra-specific variability.
Iftime, A. & Iftime, O. (2013) -
The results of herpetological investigations in the Buila-Vânturariţa massif (Southern Carpathians, Romania) and its surrounding areas are reported here. 19 amphibian and reptile species were identified (Salamandra salamandra, Triturus cristatus, Ichthyosaura alpestris, Lissotriton vulgaris, Bombina variegata, Bufo bufo, B. viridis, Hyla arborea, Rana temporaria, R. dalmatina, Pelophylax ridibundus, P. lessonae, Emys orbicularis, Lacerta agilis, L. viridis, Podarcis muralis, Zootoca vivipara, Zamenis longissimus, Natrix natrix) and are presented together with distribution and ecological data.
Iftime, A. & Iftime, O. (2014) -
The results of studies on the amphibians and reptiles of the “Nordul Gorjului de Est” site of community interest on the south-facing slope of the Parâng massif and associated foothills (Gorj county, Romania), are presented. 11 amphibian and 8 reptile species were identified in the field. Their distribution within and around the site is discussed, together with ecological data, correlating these with the local climate influences. A new altitude record for Romania is given for Hyla arborea.
Iftime, A. & Iftime, O. (2016) -
The results of faunistical surveys of the amphibians in Teleorman county (Southern Romania) are presented here; we have identi ed nine amphibian species (Triturus cristatus, Lissotriton vulgaris, Bombina bombina, Pelobates syriacus, P. fuscus, Bufo bufo, B. viridis, Hyla arborea, Rana dalmatina, Pelophylax ridibundus), two amphibian hybrids (Triturus cristatus × T. dobrogicus and Pelophylax kl. esculentus) and six reptile species (Emys orbicularis, Lacerta agilis, L. viridis, Podarcis tauricus, Natrix natrix, Dolichophis caspius), with new records for many of these.
Ihász, N. & Bayer, K. & Kopena, R. & Molnár, O. & Herczeg, G. & Török, J. (2006) -
Survival of animals in the wild is fundamentally affected by their success in predator avoidance. The success of escape behavior – one main form of predator avoidance – may depend on the absolute speed difference between the prey and its predator, or on reaching a suitable refuge. Refuge use is influenced by the familiarity with the area. Use of unknown refuges can be more costly than attempting to reach a known and suitable refuge despite a temporally increased predation risk. We tested the predictions of this hypothesis in a population of the territorial, ground-dwelling Green lizard (Lacerta viridis) in the northern part of the Great Hungarian Plain, in the summer of 2005. Predatory attacks of an active forager mammal were simulated by walking slowly toward individual lizards until they fled. The researcher approached and made the observed green lizards to flee in a way by either (i) blocking them from the suitable refuge or (ii) allowing a free route to that refuge. Comparing escape events provoked by the above mentioned methods revealed that these lizards try to reach the suitable refuge irrespective of the position of the predator. We suppose that the benefit of using a familiar and suitable refuge is greater than the risk resulting from fleeing towards the predator.
Más állatcsoportokhoz hasonlóan a gyíkok túlélését a természetben alapvetıen befolyá- solja, hogy milyen sikerrel kerülik el ragadozóikat. A menekülés minden állat esetében az egyik fı vi- selkedési forma, amelynek sikere alapulhat a zsákmányállat és a ragadozó közti abszolút sebességkü- lönbségen, illetve egy megfelelı búvóhely elérésén. A búvóhelyhasználatot befolyásolja a terület ismerete. Egy ismeretlen búvóhely használatának több lehetséges költsége ismert: (i) nem nyújt megfele- lı védelmet; (ii) már tartózkodik benne egy ragadozó vagy egy agresszív fajtárs. Ezért egyes helyzetek- ben egy ismert és megfelelı búvóhely elérése akár nagyobb pillanatnyi predációs kockázat árán is nyere- séges lehet. Ennek a hipotézisnek a predikcióit teszteltük a talajlakó, territoriális zöld gyík (Lacerta viridis) egy észak-alföldi populációjában, 2005 nyarán. Az aktívan keresı emlıs ragadozót ember mo- dellezte. A terepen megfigyelt zöld gyíkokat (i) a megfelelı búvóhelytıl elvágva, vagy (ii) a búvóhely felé szabad utat engedve közelítettük meg és késztettük menekülésre. A kétféle módon kiváltott menekü- lési reakciók összehasonlításából kiderült, hogy a kifejlett zöld gyíkok a ragadozó helyzetétıl függetle- nül a megfelelı búvóhely elérésére törekedtek. Ez a viselkedési stratégia a nıstény egyedeknél volt kife- jezettebb. Eredményeink alapján a territoriális gyíkfajoknál elıfordulhat, hogy az ismert búvóhely használatának elınye nagyobb, mint a ragadozó felé való menekülés veszélye.
Iković, V. & Tomović, L. & Ljubisavljević, K. (2016) -
We present the distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the Bjelopavlici region (central Montenegro) based on our field work records and of literature data. Twelve species of amphibians and 25 species of reptiles were recorded at 49 localities of which 57 % records has not been previously published. The greatest diversity of batracho- and herpetofauna was recorded at sites in the river Zeta plain. Our study provides the important information for assessments of diversity of batracho- and herpetofauna of Montenegro and their conservation.
Ineich, I. & Doronin, I. & Lescure, J. (2017) -
The life and work of the Alsatian Louis Amédée Lantz (1886-1953), a pioneer of European herpetology. A trained and professional research-chemist, the Alsatian Louis Amédée Lantz was an active and particularly dynamic herpetologist. His residence of nearly twelve years in Russia enabled him to make several field trips to regions such as the Caucasus and Iran. He always carried with him a home made telescopic net that he used to catch lizards. That net became symbolic of Lantz for most people around him. He realized significant herpetological collections mainly deposited in the Museum of the Zoology Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg. Soon after the Russian Revolution in 1917, he had to leave the country and stayed for a few years in France before joining England. During this period, Lantz visited the French Pyrenees and the Mediterranean border (Hyeres Islands, Bandol), enabling him to discover for the first time oviparous populations of common lizard and also to describe a new species of lizard from the French Pyrenees. Lantz is also at the origin of the discovery of unisexual reproduction by parthenogenesis in reptiles. His collaboration with the Swedish amateur herpetologist Otto Cyrén, whom he met through the German herpetologist Willy Wolterstorff, was particularly successful throughout his career. Lantz died at the age of 66 years, in Switzerland, as he was about to join the team of herpetologists at the Natural History Museum in Paris.
Ineich, I. & Doronin, I.V. & Cheylan, M. & Campbell, P.D. (2019) -
Several recent papers have reviewed the life and work of French herpetologist Louis Amédée Lantz. They have detailed the composition of his collections deposited in several museums. However, since then, several other important specimens from his collections deposited at the Natural History Museum (NHM, UK) have come to light and we here present all of them in detail. We discovered paralectotypes of Lacerta saxicola obscura Lantz & Cyrén (BMNH 1922.214.171.124–7), syntypes of Lacerta boemica Sukhov (BMNH 19126.96.36.199–30, BMNH 1965.337–342) and Lacerta viridis media Lantz & Cyrén (BMNH 19188.8.131.52, 1966.512). We also identified numerous specimens from the French Mediterranean islands in Lantz’s collection deposited at the NHM, some of which represent the first reported specimens of their species from certain islands. We here provide data on all these specimens. We also place the Mediterranean island specimens from the Lantz collection in their historical context and emphasize the historical and taxonomic value of these collections.
Ingram, G.A. & Molyneux, D.H. (1984) -
European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) were injected intraperitoneally, subcutaneously or orally with viable Leishmania agamae promastigotes. Neither promastigotes nor amastigotes were later found in blood and tissue impression smears, or in blood and selected organ cultures. However, by the use of an immunoperoxidase technique, parasite antigens were detected in the liver, stomach, small intestine, kidney, gonad, heart, lung and skin but not in the bone marrow, brain or spleen. Non-precipitating antibodies with beta 2-electrophoretic mobility were induced against L. agamae. They were detected in the sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 3-7 days post-infection. The titres increased significantly above background levels (P less than 0.001) and reached maxima after 6-7 weeks, with 27 out of 29 lizards producing antibodies. The mean serum protein concentration significantly increased after infection (P less than 0.005) with no significant differences in mean values between male and female animals. Lizard sera separated into 7 components on cellulose acetate membranes with migration rates comparable to albumin, alpha- and beta-globulins of human serum; gamma-globulins were absent. Significant decreases occurred (P less than 0.05) in the albumin fraction, with significant increases in the beta-globulin region of anti-L. agamae sera. C-reactive protein was not detected in either normal or immune lizard sera.
Jablonski, D. (2011) -
In June 2007, 12 species of Amphibia and 19 species of Reptilia were found during investigations at 18 localities situated from sea level up to 1507 m a. s. l. in Albania. The highest number of amphibians (5) was recorded at Shelegurë, 1032 m a. s. l. and of reptiles (9) at Diviakë, 1–5 m a. s. l. The highest total number of species (5 amphibians and 6 reptiles) was recorded at Shelegurë. Testudo hermanni was the most abundant species of reptile recorded. Of the amphibians, Bombina variegata and Pelophylax ridibundus were also abundant and Podarcis muralis occurred at the highest locality (Llogarë, Cikës Mts., 1507 m a. s. l.). Herein, are presented new faunistic records for 11 species of Reptilia. From the zoogeographical point of view, 50.0% of the amphibians recorded are Mediterranean, 33.3% European and 16.7% Palaearctic species. Of the reptiles, 52.6% are Mediterranean, 15.8% European and 31.6% Palaearctic species. Mediterranean faunal elements are predominant in the batrachofauna and herpetofauna of Albania. Four of the amphibians recorded (Triturus macedonicus, Pelophylax epeiroticus, P. shqipericus, Rana graeca) and three reptiles (Algyroides nigropunctatus, Podarcis erhardii, Anguis graeca) are endemic to the Balkan Peninsula. An annotated list of all the species recorded in Albania in 2007 is presented.
Jablonski, D. & Jandzik, D. & Gvoždík, V. (2012) -
Bosnia and Herzegovina plays an important role for the diversity of herpetofauna of the Balkans. The composition of the amphibian and reptile fauna has been influenced by both continental and Mediterranean climate. So far, 18 species of amphibians and 29 species of reptiles have been found to inhabit the territory, but due to the overall neglected faunistic research of this region in the last decades, this is presumably not the final number. At 31 localities we observed 12 species of amphibians and 17 species of reptiles representing 66.7 and 58.6% of the total known diversity of amphibians and reptiles, respectively. We recorded new distribution data for 8 species of amphibians and 9 species of reptiles. A zoogeographic analysis showed that the herpetofauna of Bosnia and Herzegovina could be classified into at least 12 chorotypes. While the amphibian assemblages are predominantly influenced by the European temperate climatic conditions, the Mediterranean climate plays a key role for the composition of the reptile fauna.
Jablonski, D. & Stloukal, E. (2012) -
Jammes Jr., Y. & Allison, A. (1976) -
1. a triphasic ventilatory rhythm associated with inspiratory movements of the throat. A highly significant correlation exists between breathing pause duration and preceding inspired volume. 2. a moderate efficiency of the lung-pharynx system, i.e. oxygen extraction coefficient was lower (9.3%) and convection requirement higher (1.40 mlBTPS/μmole) than those measured in other airbreathers. Body confinement procedure showed a cutaneous respiration, through a highly vascularized dermis, assuming 10% of overall O2 transfer and 16% of CO2.
Jan, G. (1865) -
Janev-Hutinec, B. & Karaica, D. (2010) -
Popularno-znanstveni priručnik koji sadržava podatke o koji opisuju stanje i distribuciju svih vrsta vodozemaca i gmazova unutar granica Parka prirode Medvednica. Također, zbog detaljnih opisa juvenilnih i odraslih oblika može poslužiti kao ključ za određivanje vrsta vodozemaca i gmazova.
Jansen, E. (1983) -
Jelić, D. (2014) -
An updated checklist is presented for the amphibian and reptile fauna of Croatia. According to historical and recent literature sources, 20 amphibian and 41 reptile species have been recorded so far. Two reptile species, Blanus strauchi and Typhlops vermicularis, are considered doubtful, although there are individual museum vouchers for the country. Presence of a total of 59 species can be considered valid, with two additional considered doubtful. This paper summarizes data from 700 scientific and popular publications, which is the first attempt to publish a complete Croatian herpetological bibliography. Full bibliography is also given for all occurring species and constitutes a basis for future publications.
V članku je podan posodobljen seznam dvoživk in plazilcev Hrvaške. Po zgodovinskih in recentnih literaturnih virih je bilo doslej v državi zabeleženih 20 vrst dvoživk in 41 vrst plazilcev. Za dve vrsti plazilcev, Blanus strauchi in Typhlops vermicularis, je pojavljanje v državi vprašljivo, čeprav obstajajo njuni muzejski primerki. Tako je bilo skupaj najdenih 59 vrst, medtem ko sta dve vprašljivi. V članku je povzetih 700 strokovnih in poljudnih publikacij, kar je prvi poskus objave celotne bibliografije o herpetološki favni Hrvaške. Podana je tudi celotna bibliografija za vse vrste, ki je hkrati izhodišče za prihodnje objave.
Jelić, D. & Kuljerić, M. & Koren, T. & Treer, D. & Šalamon, D. & Lončar, M. & Podnar Lešić, M. & Janev Hutinec, B. & Bogdanović, T. & Mekinić, S. & Jelić, K. (2012) -
Jessat, M. (1998) -
Während der Expeditionen vom Naturkundlichen Museum Mauritianum Altenburg und des Förderkreises Mauritianum Altenburg e. V., die hauptsächlich in die Auen von Großer Kokel und Mieresch/Mures (Siebenbürgen) führten, sind vom Verf. auch die herpetologischen Beobachtungen notiert und zusammengestellt worden. Im einzelnen werden detaillierte Notizen (Datum, Lokalität, z. T. Höhenstufe und gefundene Anzahl der Arten) zu folgenden Arten gegeben: Salamandra salamandra, Triturus vulgaris, T. montandoni, Bombina bombina, B. variegata, Pelobates fuscus, Bufo bufo, B. viridis, Hyla arborea, Rana dalmatina, R. temporaria, R. ridibunda; Emys orbicularis, Anguis fragilis, Lacerta agilis, L. viridis, L. vivipara, Podarcis muralis, Coronella austriaca, Elaphe longissima, Natrix natrix, N. tessellata, Coluber jugularis caspius.
Joger, U. & Amann, T. & Veith, M. (2002) -
Joger, U. & Fritz, U. & Guicking, D. & Kalyabina-Hauf, S. & Nagy, Z.T. & Wink, M. (2007) -
A phylogeographic analysis of eight species complexes of European reptiles was performed using different molecular methods. While mitochondrial genes (mainly cytochrome b sequences) enabled conclusions about phylogeography and differentiation, additional application of bisexually inherited markers provided information about speciation stages. As species with similar distribution patterns in southern and Central Europe were selected, matching phylogeographic patterns are useful for drawing general conclusions:
The species complexes are in different stages of speciation. In some cases, cryptic species were detected.
Highest genetic diversity occurs in southern Europe, the Near East and the Caucasus, regions corresponding with glacial refuges in the Iberian, Apennine and Balkan Peninsulas as well as in Turkey and the Caucasus. Often, several microrefugia must have existed in close neighbourhood. Additional microrefugia were located in southern France and in the Carpathian Basin.
North Africa and the Middle East did not serve as glacial refuges for Central or northern European lineages and are typically inhabited by independent clades.
Evidence for multiple range retractions and expansions, which were postulated for the times of Pleistocene climatic oscillations, could be found in the Balkans, but in Central Europe their traces have been wiped out by the last glacial. Only the Holocene invasion has left imprints in the genomes from this area.
Central and northern Europe were recolonized from Balkan and Pontic refugia in the Holocene.
Groups from the Iberian and Apennine Peninsulas rarely conquered other regions. This limitation can be attributed to the barrier function of the Pyrenees and the Alps.
Jolly, K. (1957) -
Jorga, W. (1984) -
Jurinac, A.E. (1887) -
Kabisch, K. (1966) -
Kabisch, K. & Engelhard, H. (1964) -
Kammel, W. (2010) -
Bestandserhebungen zum Vorkommen der Smaragdeidechse in der Steiermark wurden im Zeitraum 1. Mai bis 1. September 2009 durchgeführt. Ein Nachweis der Art konnte an 150 Fundpunkten getätigt werden. Gesonderter Augenmerk wurde auf Erhaltungszustand, potentielle Gefährdungsursachen und nötige Schutzmaßnahmen gelegt. Der typische Lebensraum der Smaragdeidechse liegt auf sonnenbeschienenen Hängen, an denen Deckung bietende Vegetationsstrukturen (Waldränder, Hecken) mit sonnenexponierten Lebensräumen (Wiesen, Halbtrockenrasen, Ruderalfluren) zusammentreffen. Dabei spielt ihre hohe Affinität zu steinig-felsigen Strukturen und Totholz eine bedeutende Rolle. Derartige Strukturelemente kommen ihrer Vorliebe für Klettermöglichkeiten zu Gute. Das Auftreten in Gärten und Weinanbaugebieten demonstriert die Rolle der Art als Kulturfolger des Menschen. Vorkommen des als erloschen geltenden Teilareals im Großraum Graz konnten keine bestätigt werden, ebenso nicht im Großraum Eibiswald. Eine größere Verbreitung der Art ließ sich nur im Bereich der „Windischen Bühel“ (Südsteiermark) feststellen. Diese Hügellandschaft zwischen den Gemeinden Heimschuh, Großklein, Arnfels, Leutschach und Gamlitz weist noch einen hohen Anteil an extensiv bewirtschafteten Wiesenbereichen und eine mäßig hohe Dichte an Weinanbaugebieten auf. Der Verbreitungsschwerpunkt der Smaragdeidechse in der Südsteiermark liegt demnach im Raum Eichberg-Trautenburg und Oberfahrenbach. Dieses Vorkommen setzt sich südlich des Karnerberges in den Bereichen Fötschach, Pößnitz und Sernau fort. Im Bereich der Südsteirischen Weinstraße existieren Vorkommen nur mehr in kleinräumigen und hochgradig isolierten Vorkommen (Spielfeld, Ratsch an der Weinstraße, Glanz an der Weinstraße, Schloßberg). Bislang nicht wissenschaftlich dokumentiert konnten Vorkommen im Sausal nördlich der Sulm festgestellt werden. Hier existieren zwei Teilareale im Bereich Tillmitsch / Heimschuh (Silberberg – Kogelberg – Kittenberg) sowie in Einöd (Gem. Kitzeck i. S.), auch ein Einzelfund bei Altenberg (Kitzeck i. S.) konnte dokumentiert werden. Hochgradig isoliert und kleinräumig erwiesen sich sämtliche Vorkommen in der Oststeiermark. Eines der Vorkommen liegt im Natura 2000-Gebiet ESG 1 „Feistritzklamm / Herberstein“. Großflächigere Vorkommen (Durchmesser des potentiellen Vorkommens über 2 km) konnten nur im Raum Bad Gleichenberg (Gleichenberger Kogel – Bschaidkogel – Gossendorf - Trautmannsdorf) sowie in Kapfenstein – Gutenberg festgestellt werden. Weitere kleinräumige Isolate existieren noch am Stradner Kogel, am Zinsberg bei Fehring sowie in Aigen. Auch zu angrenzenden, ebenfalls hochgradig isolierten Vorkommen im Süd-Burgenland existiert keine direkte Verbindung der Lebensräume. Hauptgefährdungsursache in der Oststeiermark liegen in der Isolation der Gebiete und einer zunehmenden Verwaldung an aktuellen Standorten. Die Fundorte liegen zumeist auf südwest- bis südostexponierter Hanglagen. Eine Analyse der 150 Fundpunkte zeigt eine deutliche Präferenz der Smaragdeidechse zu Waldrandsituationen und dem Vorhandensein von Hecken und Gebüschgruppen, häufig angrenzend an Halbtrockenrasen und Ruderalflächen. Vor allem in der Südsteiermark spielen für den Weinanbau genutzte, sonnenexponierte Hänge eine bedeutsame Rolle. Eine hohe Bedeutung besitzen auch Strukturen, die für Verstecke und Sonnenplätze genutzt werden können, wie Feldgehölz, Felsen, Gemäuer, Totholz oder Holzstöße.
Die potentielle Verbreitung der Art umfasst in der Oststeiermark ca. 6 km², in der Südsteiermark etwa 80 km². Allerdings können derzeit nur ca. 10 % dieser Flächen von Lacerta viridis als Lebensraum genutzt werden.
Schutzmaßnahmen sollten vor allem eine extensive Wiesenbewirtschaftung, Aufbau stufiger Waldsäume und –binnensäume, Heckenanlagen, Reduktion des Herbizideinsatzes im Weinbau sowie eine gezielte Öffentlichkeitsarbeit umfassen.
Karaman, S. (1921) -
Karaman, S. (1922) -
Karmishev, Y. & Yarigin, O. (2013) -
This work presents data on reproductive features of Ukrainian fauna Lacertidae lizards in laboratory conditions and comparative data on lizards clutches in wild nature. Terms of egg incubation of these lizards in the laboratory in a stable, relatively low temperatures can significantly exceed those in nature, which allows to obtain embryonic material with a smooth, long process of development. The most prolific representatives of different major types - green lizard (Lacerta viridis) and nimble (Lacerta agilis). Females sand lizard can be aggressive towards other females clutches, which is manifested in the destruction of nests.
Katalin, B. (2013) -
Sexual selection favors traits that make individuals able to increase their reproductive success. Reproducing individuals can signal their mate quality through various visual, accoustic and chemical traits or behavioural displays. Honesty of those signals arises from the cost linked to development or maintainence, thus only individuals of better quality are able to bear intensive signals. With estimating honest signals, females are able to choose mating partners of better quality, and adjust their reproductive investment according to their choice of preference. Colour signals of different types can raise different costs, thus they can signal different aspects of individual quality. In contrast of pigment based colours, structural colours do not need pigment molecules, therefore they have previously been decided to be not costly.
All reptile species examined so far are capable of UV perception, and sexual dichromaitsm in the UV range is present in many taxa. In my studies, I used a manipulative approach to investigate the nuptial UV colouration of male European green lizards during intra- and intersexual selection and maternal investment. To investigate the costs of developing the UV singal, I tested the effect of two fundamental environmental factors, food and temperature, on the sexual signal. My results demonstrate that the UV colouration of males is preferred during female mate choice and it predicted the outcome of male contast when females and males could not make their decisions based on other morphological differences. Intensity of UV colouration was affected by environmental temperature, independently of food. Maternal investment was determined by the males’ UV colouration, because males differed solely in this morphological character, and cluchtes sired by preferred males included heavier eggs. Clutch size was affected by the mean male body size.
This is the first study to find evidence for the role of UV colouration in mate choice in a reptile, using a manipulative approach in which the role of the colouration is tested independently of other morphological traits. Moreover, I have found an example that a UV trait can be important is both mate choice and male contast, suggesting that its evolution might be different of Fisherian runaway selection, and can be an honest signal. This concept is futher strengthened by the result that the development of the UV signal depends on the availability of high temperature and thus high physiological activity in this ectoterm vertebrate. This can be of high cost in a species which reaches high body temperature by behavioural thermoregulation. UV colouration also affected maternal investment, as females invested differently into clutches based on the direct preference showed for the UV colouration manipulated within the natural range.
Taken together, my results suggest that structural colour signals can be as costly as pigment based colours, thus, they can be honest signals affecting the patterns of maternal investment.
Kattinger, E. (1941) -
Kattinger, E. (1972) -
Kattke, P. (2014) -
Kaya, N. & Özuluğ, O. (2017) -
Amphibia and Reptilia collections at the Zoological Museum, University of Istanbul (ZMUI) were studied and revised. The samples were collected from 1921 until today. The localities of most species are found in the different regions of Turkey. The collection have 75 species of which 21 species are amphibians and 54 species are reptiles. With this study a zoological collection belong to ZMUI was given for the first time.
İstanbul Üniversitesi Zooloji Müzesi (ZMUI) Amphibia ve Reptilia koleksiyonu çalışıldı ve revize edildi. Örnekler 1921 yılından günümüze kadar toplanmıştır. Çoğu türün lokalitesi Türkiye’nin farklı bölgelerindendir. Koleksiyonda 75 tür bulunmakta olup bunların 21 türü amfibi ve 54 türü sürüngenlerdendir. Bu çalışma ile ilk defa ZMUI’a ait bir zoolojik koleksiyon verilmiştir.
Keller, E. (1958) -
Keller, M. & Vassilakaki, M. (2002) -
Keller, M. & Vassilikakis, M. & Nettmann, H.K. (2001) -
Keymar, P.F. (1985) -
Keymar, P.F. (1986) -
Kirmse, W. (1990) -
Kirmse, W. (1994) -
Report on the present situation of relict populations of Lacerta viridis in Brandenburg. Problems concerning the release and re-introduction of captive-bred animals are discussed.
Kirpik, M.A. & Altunoğlu, M.K. & Tanrikulu, D. (2019) -
Animal diversity of Aktaş Lake and surrounding was determined within the scope of the Aktaş Lake Management Plan Project completed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, General Directorate of Nature Conservation and National Parks in 2017. Aktaş Lake studies and literature data were evaluated together. As a result, 14 insecta species belonging to aquatic invertebrates, 1 exotic and invasive species belonging to Crustacea class and 24 Insecta species from terrestrial invertebrates were identified. In addition, 20 species of plant and animal plankton were identified. 6 fish (Pisces), 2 Amphibia, 5 reptiles (Reptilia), 107 birds (Aves) and 15 species of mammals (Mammalia) were identified in the natural fauna of Aktaş Lake.
Tarım ve Orman Bakanlığı, Doğa Koruma ve Milli Parklar Genel Müdürlüğü’nün 2017 yılında tamamlanan Aktaş Gölü Yönetim Planı Projesi kapsamında yapılan bu çalışmada Aktaş Gölü ve çevresindeki hayvan çeşitliliği tespit edilmeye çalışıldı. Aktaş Gölü ile ilgili yapılan çalışmalar ve literatür verileri birlikte değerlendirildi. Sonuç olarak, göl ve çevresinde sucul omurgasız hayvanlardan Crustacea sınıfına ait 1 ekzotik ve istilacı tür, 14 Insecta ve karasal omurgasızlardan 24 Insecta türü tespit edildi. Ayrıca bitkisel ve hayvansal özellikte 20 plankton türü tespit edildi. Aktaş Gölü’nün doğal faunası içerisinde yer alan 6 balık (Pisces) türü, Çift yaşamlılardan (Amphibia) 2, sürüngenlerden (Reptilia) 5, kuşlardan (Aves) 107 ve memelilerden (Mammalia) 15 sucul ve karasal omurgalı türü tespit edildi.
Kleinstra-Semplonius, M.J. (1955) -
Klemmer, K. (1957) -
Klepsch, R. (1999) -
Kletečki, E. (1995) -
Klingelhöffer, W. (1900) -
Kminiak, M. (1992) -
Koch, C.L. (1828) -
Kocikova, B. & Majlath, I. & Majlathova, V. (2018) -
Reptiles often serve as hosts for various endo- and ectoparasites including protozoan blood and intestinal parasites. In this study, we report the occurrence of protozoans belonging to three families: Trichomonadidae, Proteromonadidae, and Lankesterellidae, in lizard blood samples. A total of 738 individuals of 4 lizard species (Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Podarcis muralis, and Zootoca vivipara) captured from 4 European countries (Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia) were examined. One blood smear obtained in 2008 from L. agilis (Odolanów, Poland) was found to be infected with trophozoites representing three genera: Karyolysus lacazei, Tritrichomonas sp., and Proteromonas sp. Moreover, Proteromonas sp. were detected by molecular methods in another individual of Lacerta agilis exigua (Romania, Vadu), which revealed 100% similarity with the isolate of Proteromonas lacertae isolated from the American Type Culture Collection (GenBank accession number U37108). Sporozoites of Schellackia sp. were detected in blood smears from 2 individuals of L. viridis from Slovakia. Molecular detection revealed the occurrence of Schellackia sp. in 2 individuals, L. viridis (Slovakia) and Lacerta agilis erythronota (Romania) and showed 99% and 90% similarity, respectively, with isolates of Schellackialike parasites obtained from Lacerta schreiberi (GenBank acc. no. JX984675, JX984674) and Podarcis hispanica (GenBank acc. no. X984676, JQ762306, KJ18938) from Portugal and Spain. This study represents documentation of multiple infections (trophozoites of Karyolysus sp., Tritrichomonas sp., and Proteromonas sp.) detected in a sand lizard from 1/7 Poland, and the first report of Schellackia in populations of a green lizards (Slovakia) and sand lizards (Romania), as well as the first evidence of Proteromonas sp. from the Romania population of sand lizards.
Koen, G. (1960) -
Köhler, H. (1938) -
In den Skeletmuskeln der untersuchten Reptilien kommen zwei Fasertypen vor: Fasern mit Fibrillenfelderung und Fasern mit Säulchenfelderung. Die Fasern mit Fibrillenfelderung besitzen Fibrillen, die einen Durchmesser von höchstens 1,3 μ erreichen und die gleichmäßig über den Faserquerschnitt verteilt sind. In den Fasern mit Säulchenfelderung sind die Fibrillen nicht gleichmäßig über den Faserquerschnitt verteilt; sie stehe in Gruppen eng beieinander und bilden auf diese Weise „Säulchen“, die einen Durchmesser von 3,5 μ erreichen können. Eine sich vom umgebenden ungefärbten Plasma unterscheidende Säulchengrundsubstanz ist nicht vorhanden. Wohl aber zeigen die Fasern mit Säulchenfelderung erheblich breitere Plasmazwischenräume zwischen den Säulchen als die Fasern mit Fibrillenfelderung zwischen den Fibrillen.
Bei allen untersuchten Reptilien kommen Fasern vor, die hinsichtlich ihrer Struktur eine Zwischenstellung zwischen den beiden Fasertypen einnehmen.
Es wurde die Verteilung der beiden Fasertypen in den Muskeln einiger Reptilien untersucht. Die Fasern mit Säulchenfelderung sind in den Muskeln am häufigsten, die Dauer- oder Haltefunktionen besitzen.
Koleska, D. & Svobodova, V. & Husak, T. (2016) -
Kolodziej, K. (2017) -
Kolodziej, K. & Cenker, C. (2018) -
Kolombatović, J. (1886) -
Kolombatović, J. (1888) -
Kolombatović, J. (1904) -
Kolora, S.R. & Faria, R. & Weigert, A. & Schaffer, S. & Grimm, A. & Henle, K. & Sahyoun, A.H. & Stadler, P.F. & Nowick, K. & Bleidorn, C. & Schlegel, M. (2017) -
We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the Western green lizard (Lacerta bilineata) using Illumina technology and additional Sanger sequencing. The assembled 17 086 bp mitogenome had a GC content of 40.32% and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and one control region (CR), with a gene order identical to the chordate consensus. In addition, we re-sequenced the mitogenome of the closely related Eastern green lizard L. viridis using the same techniques as for L. bilineata. The mitogenomes of L. bilineata and L. viridis showed a sequence identity of 94.4% and 99.9%, respectively, relative to the previously published L. viridis mitogenome. The phylogenetic reconstruction based on 17 Lacertinae mitogenomes using Anolis carolinensis as the outgroup supported L. bilineata and its sister species L. viridis as distinct lineages.
Kolora, S.R.R. & Weigert, A. & Saffari, A. & Kehr, S. & Beatriz, M. & Costa, W. & Spröer, C. & Indrischek, H. & Chintalapati, M. & Lohse, K. & Doose, G. & Overmann, J. & Bunk, B. & Bleidorn, C. & Grimm-Seyfarth, A. & Henle, K. & Nowick, K. & Faria, R. & Stadler, P.F. & Schlegel, M. (2018) -
Background Lacerta viridis and L. bilineata are sister species of European green lizards (eastern and western clades respectively), which until recently were grouped together as the L. viridis complex. Genetic incompatibilities were observed between lacertid populations through crossing experiments, which led to the delineation of two separate species within the L. viridis complex. The population history of these sister species and processes driving divergence are unknown. We constructed high quality de novo genome assemblies for both L. viridis and L. bilineata through Illumina and PacBio sequencing, with annotation support provided from transcriptome sequencing of several tissues. To estimate gene flow between the two species and identify factors involved in reproductive isolation, we studied their evolutionary history, identified genomic rearrangements, detected signature of selection on non-coding RNA and protein-coding genes. Findings Here we show that the gene flow was primarily unidirectional from L. bilineata to L. viridis after their split at least 1.15 Mya. We detected positive selection of the non-coding repertoire; mutations in transcription factors; accumulation of divergence through inversions; selection on genes involved in neural development, reproduction and behavior, as well as in UV-response possibly driven by sexual selection, whose contribution to reproductive isolation between these lacertid species need to be further evaluated. Conclusion The combination of short and long sequence reads resulted in one of the most complete lizard genome assemblies. The characterization of a diverse array of genomic features provided valuable insights into the demographic history of divergence among European green lizards, as well as key species differences, some of which are candidates that could have played a role in speciation. In addition, our study generated valuable genomic resources that can be used to address conservation related issue in lacertids.
König, R. (1958) -
Kopena, R. & López, P. & Martin, J. (2009) -
In spite of the importance of chemical signals (pheromones) in the reproductive behaviour of lizards, only a few studies have examined the role of specific chemical compounds as sexual signals. The secreted chemicals vary widely between species but whether this variation reflects phylogenetic or environmental differences remains unclear. Based on mass spectra, obtained by GC-MS, we found 40 lipophilic compounds in femoral gland secretions of male green lizards (Lacerta viridis), including several steroids, alpha-tocopherol, and esters of n-C16 to n-C20 carboxylic acids, and minor components such as alcohols between C12 and C20, squalene, three lactones and one ketone. We compared these chemicals with those previously found in other closely related green lizard species, and discussed how phylogenetical differences and/or environmental conditions could be responsible for the differential presence of chemicals in different lizard species.
Kopena, R. & Martin, J. & López, P. & Herczeg, G. (2011) -
In spite that chemoreception is important in sexual selection for many animals, such as reptiles, the mechanisms that confer reliability to chemical signals are relatively unknown. European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) have substantial amounts of α-tocopherol ( = vitamin E) in their femoral secretions. Because vitamin E is metabolically important and can only be attained from the diet, its secretion is assumed to be costly. However, its role in intraspecific communication is unknown.
Here, we experimentally show that male European green lizards that received a dietary supplement of vitamin E increased proportions of vitamin E in their femoral secretions. Furthermore, our experiments revealed that females preferred to use areas scent marked by males with experimentally increased vitamin E levels in their secretions. Finally, female preferences were stronger when vitamin E differences between a pair of males` secretions were larger.
Our results demonstrate that female green lizards are able to discriminate between males based on the vitamin E content of the males` femoral secretions. We suggest that the possible cost of allocating vitamin E to secretions, which might be dependent on male quality, may be a mechanism that confers reliability to scent marks of green lizards and allows their evolution as sexual signals.
Kopstein, F. & Wettstein, O. (1920) -
Körber, U. (1984) -
Koren, T. (2004) -
Kornilev, Y.V. & Popgeorgiev, G. & Vacheva, E. & Tzankov, N. (2018) -
We provide details on the first documented cases of complete or partial melanism of lacertid lizards from Bulgaria. We obtained three instances of partial melanism in Lacerta viridis and two of complete one in Zootoca vivipara. We discuss a case of tail bifurcation in L. viridis that resulted in partial melanism of the secondary tail. Overall, our field data suggests that both complete or partial melanism in lacertid lizards in Bulgaria are rare (< 0.01% of observations).
Korsós, Z. (1982) -
Population dispersion of two sympatric lizard species, Lacerta viridis (Laur.) and L. agilis L., was calculated by Morista`s index, indicating aggregated populations. Association values have been computed by three methods for the interrelationship between the two species, which has corroborated the distinctness between the lizard populations. Examining the relative growth of individuals, 2-variable discriminant analysis was performed for the quotiens tail length to total length and the tail length data. Generalized distance (D2) between the two populations was 0.4932. Of the various data collected in 1981, a morphological and a microclimatic variable group have been identified by principal component analysis. As a result of discriminant analysis performed for seven environmental variables, the measure of niche overlap between the two lizard species was found to be 34 percent.
Korsós, Z. (1984) -
A capture-mark-recapture investigations on two sympatric populations of Lacerta viridis and L. agilis has been carried out for a period of two years. Niche segregation has been studied from three main points of view: microhabitat, daily activity pattern and food selection. Schoener`s measure of niche overlap was used in clarifying the roles of various factors. Food niche breadths of the two species has been described by an analysis of resource utilization curves. The following approximately equal in weight three factors are considered to be of greatest importance in the ecological segregation: 1. Microclimatic and activity pattern differences, 2. Prey taxa, and 3. Prey size.
Korsós, Z. (1986) -
One of the central aims of ecology is to clarify the reasons for the coexistence of variousorganisms. Niche theory is a favorized framework for such investigations /Van- dermeer, 1972/, because of its operative usefulness for studying the relationship bet- ween the tolerance of the populations and their complementary environment. However, there are several other ecological phenomena which may play important roles in the sympatry of the species. In the following, a short survey of the niche relationships of two popu- lations of Lacerta viridis and L. agilis is given, with results on their growth, age struc- ture and home range.
Korsós, Z. & Nagy, Z.T. (2006) -
A total melanistic specimen of the East European Green Lizard (Lacerta viridis) is reported from Central Hungary. The subadult male was caught, photographed and released in June, 1998 in the Kiskunság National Park. Referring to the literature, black individuals in the Green Lizard occur very rarely, observations of the Western European species, Lacerta bilineata DAUDIN, 1802 could only be found.
Kovacs, D. & Kiss, I. (2016) -
Although Ablepharus kitaibelii and its subspecies are wide-spread, being distributed from the Carpathian Basin through the Balkans to Iraq, their habitat and environmental niche is poorly known. Ablepharus kitaibelii fitzingeri is almost entirely limited to the Carpathian Basin, and is amongst the most strictly protected and least known reptiles of Central and Eastern Europe. The main aim of our study was to determine habitat use preferences of different age groups of A. kitaibelii fitzingeri and Lacerta viridis. The occurrence of green lizard was determined by the abundance of refugia rather than by the naturalness of grasslands. The snake-eyed skink prefers semi-natural grasslands with abundant tussock-forming grass or sedge species, avoiding densely shrubby places. For the first time, we show that woodland mosaics lacking shrubs and temporary grasslands next to forest edges are important for the species. Microhabitat use by snake-eyed skink varies with age group; adults preferring shady edge zones rich in leaf litter and shadier grassland spots provided by woodland mosaics, whereas juveniles were found in natural, more open grasslands far from forest edges and in woodland mosaics with dense shrubby understory. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the ecological needs of A. kitaibelii fitzingeri. Our methodology could be adapted to other species and subspecies of Ablepharus. Based on our results, it is important to reconsider habitat management activities, which should not be limited to shrub control: the main goal should be the development of a diverse habitat structure.
Kovács, T. & A. Brandon (2005) -
Kramer, E. & Stemmler, O. (1988) -
Kroniger, M. & Zawadzki, M. (2005) -
Krpan, M. (1962) -
Kryštufek, B. & Kletečki, E. (2007) -
Species–area relationships and nestedness patterns were studied in three groups
of small terrestrial vertebrates (mammals, reptiles, amphibians) on 14 landbridge islands of the
eastern Adriatic. islands ranged in surface area between 15 and 410 km2 and contained from eight
to 36 species from a total species pool of 48. reptiles were the most species rich group (S = 28),
and had more species than mammals (S = 13) and amphibians (S = 7) combined. island surface
area predicted species richness best in reptiles (r2 = 0.79) and most poorly in amphibians (r2 = 0.52).
Mammals showed a significantly lower slope of the species–area curve than amphibians and
reptiles, and thus accumulated species counts with increase in area at the lowest rate. Nestedness
patterns in all groups were significantly more organised than expected by chance. Amphibian
nested structure points to extinction dominated and well insularised populations with no
subsequent recolonisations. frequent unexpected presences and absences in the nestedness patterns
of mammals and reptiles suggest complex biogeographic histories for these two groups, with
several factors putatively in operation: heterogeneity in habitats and the original source fauna, post-
isolation immigrations and differential extinction rate due to human-caused habitat degradation.
Kúdelová, M. & Jánosová, M. & Belvonciková, P. (2018) -
Murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) is a natural pathogen that infects murid rodents, which serves as hosts for Ixodes ricinus ticks. For the first time, MHV-68 was detected in immature I. ricinus ticks feeding on Lacerta viridis lizards trapped in Slovakia, which supports the idea that ticks can acquire the virus from feeding on infected hosts. The recent discovery of MHV-68 infection and MHV-68 M3 gene transcripts in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks collected in Slovakia also supports this suggestion. Here, for the first time, we report MHV-68 infection, which was detected by nested PCR, in I. ricinus adults collected from the vegetation, and the viral load in infected ticks was determined by quantitative PCR. The viral incidence in ticks was 38.1% (21/55), and the viral load varied from 1.5 × 103 to 2.85 × 104 genome copies per tick. These results suggest that the I. ricinus ticks became infected with MHV-68 from biting infected rodents; thus, I. ricinus ticks may play a role in the spread of this virus in nature.
Kühne, B. (1898) -
Kuhne, K. (1913) -
Kühnemann, K. (1981) -
Kukushkin, O.V. & Doronin, I.V. & Tuniyev, B.S. & Ananjeva, N.B. & Doronina, M.A. (2017) -
An overview of the cases of introduction (both accidental and intentional) of amphibians and reptiles in
the Caucasus and Crimea is provided. The introduction cases are systemized in accordance with the goals
and ways of introduction and with regards to the expected scale of the impact and its nature. No negative
consequences of the introduction of amphibian and reptile species in the Crimea and Caucasus are currently
observed on any of the known examples. No cases of species naturalization, which the “invasion”
term can be applied to, have been revealed. The importance of allochthonous populations as experimental
sites to study microevolutionary processes and ecological adaptations of the species in new environmental
conditions is discussed.
Кукушкин О.В., Доронин И.В., Туниев Б.С., Ананьева Н.Б., Доронина М.А. (2017) -
Представлен обзор случаев интродукции (как случайной, так и преднамеренной) земноводных и пресмыкаю- щихся на Кавказе и в Крыму. Факты интродукции систематизированы по целям и путям проникновения живот- ных с учетом предполагаемого масштаба воздействия и характера влияния на природные комплексы. Негатив- ные последствия интродукции видов земноводных и пресмыкающихся в Крыму и на Кавказе в настоящее время не прослеживаются ни на одном из известных нам примеров; случаи натурализации видов, к которым обосно- ванно может быть применен термин «инвазия», не выявлены. Рассмотрено значение аллохтонных популяций как экспериментальных полигонов для изучения микроэволюционных процессов и экологических адаптаций видов в новых для них условиях.
Kuljerić, M. & Šilić, T. & Šalamon, D. (2007) -
On a surface area of only 56 542 km2, making for 0, 5% of European territory, Croatia harbours a rich herpetofauna of 21 amphibian and 36 reptile species, which is 26, 9% and 34, 8% of European species richess, respectively. This relatively high biodiversity can be attributed to a high diversity of habitat types and the position of Croatia in the area of four major european biogeographical regions. Since most of the country was left outside ice-cover in the glacials, it served as one of the refuges for European herpetofauna. The specificity of Croatian herpetofauna is characterized by: - high degree of endemism: 11 regionally endemic species and 6 local endems, 9 species with restricted areals in Europe - isolation on islands has produced a number of spatially restricted forms of Podarcis sicula and P. melisellensis whose taxonomic status is still under review, but at least several of them can be considered as endemic subspecies - edges of species` distribution areals for 16 species - hybridisation zones for Pelophylax ridibundus and P.lessonae, Bombina bombina and B. variegata, Triturus carnifex and T. dobrogicus and contact zone for Lacerta bilineata and L. viridis - eight species listed in IUCN red list, categories NT to EN The existing literature on herpetofauna in Croatia is scarce and unsystematic. Published data is summarized and previously unpublished data from field workers is gathered to give an account of a current knowledge of herpetofauna distribution. Species distributions and diversity according to biogeographical regions, type of habitat and altitude are given.
Kumlutaş, Y. (1996) -
In this study, a total of 333 L. viridis specimens. 114 ♂ ♂ 144 ♀♀, 56 Subadult and 19 Juveniles, collected from Black Sea region of Anatolia were examined .These specimens collected from 8 different regions (Adapazan, Bolu, Zonguldak, Kastamonu, Sinop, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun) were considered according to their morphological characters, habitat features, geographical distribution and taxonomical status. As a result of this study, of the 3 subspecies given previously from the Black Sea Region, only the presence of L viridis meridionalis is confirmed.
Kumlutaş, Y. & Ilgaz, C. & Yakar, O. (2017) -
Turkey has very high biodiversity, due to its various topographical, geological, and climatic features. Although previous studies have dealt with amphibians and reptiles from Karabük province no detailed study has yet been conducted on the herpetofauna of Karabük province. Here, we provide some records for herpetofauna of Karabük province and contribute to the literature on the Turkish herpetofauna. This study was carried out from March to June 2014. The specimens of amphibians and reptiles were collected using different techniques according to habitat conditions. The systematics of the examined materials was studied using current literature. Also, the conservation status of the species was given with national and international agreements in which Turkey is included. Result of the fieldwork conducted in Karabük province, 17 reptile species (two turtles, one tortoise, seven lizards, and seven snakes) and seven amphibian species (one urodelans, six anurans) were determined. According to our results, Parvilacerta parva, Lacerta viridis, Zamenis longissimus, Coronella austriaca and Elaphe sauromates are new records for Karabük province. This study underlines the importance of Karabük province as a herpetological area.
Kumlutaş, Y. & Tok, V. & Türkozan, O. (1998) -
In this study, 17 reptile and amphibian species were recorded from 19 different localities in the Ordu-Giresun region. Of
these, 3 belong to the urodelans species group, 6 belong to anurans, 4 belong to lizards and 4 belong to snakes.
Kwet, A. (2005) -
Lác, J. (1968) -
Lac, J. & Cyprich, D. & Kiefer, M. (1972) -
Laforgia, V. & Capaldo, A. & Varano, L. & Putti, R. & Cavagnuolo, A. (1993) -
Laforgia, V. & Varano, L. & Capaldo, A. & Cavagnuolo, A. & Putti, R. (1990) -
The distribution and the ratios between noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) cells in eight species belonging to the family Lacertidae were studied. There are variations in the distribution of the two cell types within the gland and a wide range of variation in the NA/A cell ratio. Comparing their data with palaeontological, anatomical and biochemical evidence, the authors are inclined to consider G. galloti and L. graeca as the most ancient lizards among those studied and to ascribe L. graeca to the group Lacerta part II together with L. dugesii. P. pityusensis should also be ascribed to the same group on the basis of the result, of this study. The other four species studied (L. lepida, L. trilineata, L. viridis and L. schreiberi) appear to be of fairly recent origin and should be ascribed to the group Lacerta part I, on the basis of the homogeneous distribution of the chromaffin cells inside the adrenal gland and their low NA/A cell ratios.
Langerwerf, B. (1980) -
Lantermann, W. (2017) -
Lantermann, W. & Lantermann, Y. (2017) -
Lapini, L. (2006) -
Laube, M. (2001) -
Laube, M. & Kuehn, R., (2006) -
Laube, M. & Leppelsack, H.-J. (2007) -
Laurenti, J.N,. (1768) -
Leblanc, O. (2006) -
Lehrs, P. (1902) -
Lehrs, P. (1909) -
Leptien, R. (2016) -
Letacq, A.-L. (1898) -
Lever, C. (2009) -
Leviton, A.E. & Anderson, S.C. (2010) -
Leydig, F. (1872) -
Lichtenstein, H. (1823) -
Lichtenstein, H. & Martens, E. von (1856) -
Literak, L. & Robesova, B. & Majlathova, V. & Majlath, I. & Kulich, P. & Fabian, P. & Roubalova, E. (2010) -
Papillomatous skin lesions from a green lizard (Lacerta viridis) were examined histologically, using electron microscopy and DNA was isolated from the lesions for herpes-viral DNA detection. Histology confirmed the lesions to be squamous epithelial papillomas. Using electron microscopy, no virus particles were detected. The specific sequence of herpesviral DNA-directed DNA polymerase (EC 184.108.40.206) was amplified using degenerate primers in a nested format. The 235-base-pair (bp) sequence was sequenced and compared with previously published DNA-directed DNA polymerase sequences from various reptile herpesviruses. The sequence from the green lizard showed significant similarity with sequence of fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesviruses from sea turtles.
Litzelmann, E. (1928) -
Ljubisavljevic, K. & Tomovic, L. & Urpsevic, A. & Gvozdenovic, S. & Ikovic, V. & Zagora, V. & Labus, N. (2018) -
The southern part of Montenegro has been identified as an area with high diversity of herpetofauna. However, comprehensive studies of distribution and diversity patterns of reptiles on the country level are still missing. Such studies are essential in designating areas of special conservation importance and nature protection planning in a milieu of increased habitat loss and degradation due to rapid urbanization and tourism development in this small Mediterranean country. To make progress on this problem, we analyzed distribution and diversity patterns of the lizards in Montenegro using a large database consisting of literature data and our unpublished records. We found that fifteen lizard species inhabit Montenegro, and two additional species may be present. The lizards were most diverse in the Maritime biogeographic region of Montenegro, while low diversity was found predominantly along the state borders in the Mountain-valley region. The identified pattern of lizard diversity is at least partly influenced by sampling bias. The eastern mountainous subregion had a distinct species composition compared to all other parts of the country. The East-Mediterranean chorotype was the most dominant, represented by seven species. The great diversity of the lizard fauna of Montenegro can be attributed to its specific topographic position with great influence of Mediterranean climate, heterogeneity of biomes, complex geological history and diverse physiogeographic features. High lizard species richness in the Maritime region and a unique species composition in the eastern subregion of Montenegro indicate that these areas are of high conservation interest.
Lončar, M. (2005) -
Loos, K. (1913) -
Lopez Seoane, V. (1885) -
Lugt, A. van der (1994) -
Herpetological observations were made over a period ofeight days in three areas ofsouthern France. The places visited included the Camargue, the area below Perpignan and the surroundings of the town of Privas. The 19 species we saw, are described in this article and are mentioned in the accompanying table.
Lutz, D. & Mayer, W. (1985) -
Albumins from several species assigned to Lacerta s. 1. and Gallotia were investigated by means of the Micro-Complement fixation technique. The phylogenetic trees evaluated according to Fitch & Margoliash (1967) and Beverley & Wilson (1982) led us to infer a division, which is in accordance with protein electrophoretic results (Mayer & Tiedemann, 1982) as well as with the subgeneric division used before the studies of Böhme (1971) and Arnold (1973).
Luznik, M. & Antonac, E. & Cimermancic, M. & Cabraja, M. & Kompare, N. & Pavliha, G. & Praprotnik, E. & Rosic, T. & Zun, E. & Kalan, K. (2013) -
Species composition and abundance of reptiles was examined in three different habitats on the island of Cres (Croatia) adjacent to the town of Osor in May 2013. The aim of our study was to examine the sensitivity of biodiversity and similarity indices in reptiles. In each habitat visual observations of reptiles were made by groups of 10 people for 1 hour along a 1 km sampling path. In the first habitat, overgrown pastures surrounded by stone walls, 5 lizard (Podarcis melisellensis, Algyroides nigropunctatus, Podarcis muralis, Lacerta viridis and Pseudopus apodus) and 2 snake species (Hierophis gemonensis and Elaphe quatuorlineata) were observed. In the second habitat, a gravel road on Osorščica hill surrounded by macchia, 3 lizard (P.melisellensis, A. nigropunctatus and L. viridis) and 2 snake species (H. gemonensis and E. quatuorlineata) were found. In the final habitat, stone buildings and walls in the town, 3 species of lizards (P. melisellensis, A. nigropunctatus and Dalmatolacerta oxycephala) were recorded. The dominant species in all three habitats was the Dalmatian Wall Lizard (P. melisellensis). Two biodiversity indices were applied to the data. Simpson’s diversity index indicated that that the second habitat (0.56) had the greatest diversity in terms of species and their abundance, while the Margalef’s index indicated that the first habitat had more diversity (1.69). In addition, Jaccard’s index of similarity indicated that the urban habitat was dissimilar to the other two, while the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index showed a weak differentiation between the overgrown pastures and the other habitats. The discrepancy in the outputs from the indices highlights the importance of choosing an appropriate mathematical construct to examine biodiversity and habitat similarities.
Lyubuschenko, S.Y. & Tabachishin, V.G. (2000) -
Contemporary researches show the green lizard to occur within the study area less fre- quently than reported earlier. The lizard distribution is limited to inundated and neighbouring lands along the Dniestr, the Southern Bug and their tributaries. In Podolye region active lizards may be observed from the 1st half of April till the middle of October. Breeding period starts soon after lizards leave their hibernation shelters, in the first half of May. Hatching takes place in June, the 1st half of July. 6 to 14 this-year-born-lizards (average -9) with body size of 39.7 to 58.6 mm appear from second half of July and in August. The eggs size before young lizards leave them is 8.4-9.5 or 12.4-14.1 mm (at n=15 the size is 8.9×0.06, 13.3×0.08). Before hiberna- tion this-year-young-lizard body reaches 69.0 mm long. Food pattern of the green lizard corre- lates with invertebrates within each biotop. The lizards food preferences are Coleptera, Diptera, Arachnoidea, Homoptera, etc. Being an important low-abundant component in the forest-steppe biocenosis at the edge of the species range and taking into account ever-growing human affect the green lizard in Vinnitsky region should be entered into the regional Red data book.
Любущенко С.Ю., Табачишин В.Г. (2000) -
Magnin (1936) -
Majláth, I. & Majlathova, V. (2009) -
The escape behavior of the green lizard (Lacerta viridis) was investigated in natural conditions of the Slovak Karst, Slovakia. The seasonal changes of approach distances and types of escape behavior were monitored for both sexes, also in relation to differences in anthropogenic influence. In our study, the escape behavior of green lizard changed significantly during the season, and differ significantly between localities and in respect to human disturbance. At the beginning of the season, females stayed in close proximity to a refuge and hid immediately after being disturbed. Among males, the distance to and from a refuge was longer and any accessible protrusions were used to hide. The approach distance was greater among males. During the mating period, approach distance for females and males was similar and both sexes hid in a refuge. However, after the mating period, the approach distance for females was decreasing, whereas that of males begun to increase.
Majláth, I. & Smajada, B. & Mester, M. & Mizura, J. & Fekiac, V. (2000) -
Majláth, J. & Fekiac, V. & Smajda, B. & Mester, M. & Mizura, J. (2000) -
Majláthová, V. & Majláth, I. & Derdáková, M. & Vichová, B. & Pet`ko, B. (2006) -
In Europe, spirochetes within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks. Specific associations are described between reservoir hosts and individual genospecies. We focused on green lizard (Lacerta viridis) as a host for ticks and potential host for borreliae. In 2004 and 2005, a total of 146 green lizards infested by ticks were captured, and 469 I. ricinus ticks were removed. Borrelial infection was detected in 16.6% of ticks from lizards. Of 102 skin biopsy specimens collected from lizards, 18.6% tested positive. The most frequently detected genospecies was B. lusitaniae (77.9%–94.7%). More than 19% of questing I. ricinus collected in areas where lizards were sampled tested positive for borreliae. B. garinii was the dominant species, and B. lusitaniae represented 11.1%. The presence of B. lusitaniae in skin biopsy specimens and in ticks that had fed on green lizards implicates this species in the transmission cycle of B. lusitaniae.
Maluk, A.U. & Peskov, V.N. (2011) -
Published sources and original data of morphometric differences between males and females of the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) and green lizard (L. viridis) have analyzed. There is no sex difference in length of the body for 23 populations (60.5%) of the sand lizard. As for another 7 populations (18.4%) — males are larger than females, and for 8 populations (21.1%) — females are larger than males. Found that females of both species have significantly bigger relative length of the trunk and anal plate, males have more massive body, relatively large head, long limbs and tail. Adaptive nature of sex differences is discussesed.
Maluquer, J. (1918) -
Malyuk, A.Y. (2016) -
Morphological differences in the four size-age groups of the sand and the green lizard are analyzed. It is shown that interspecies differences appear on some features already at the stage of the yearling. In males of sand and green lizards, age differences in scale are inferior to those of interspecies, while in young females, age differences are significantly greater than interspecific differences. The adaptive nature of interspecific differences is discussed.
Mantel, P. (1987) -
Mantel, P. (1992) -
THE LACERTA VIRIDIS-COMPLEX Compared with the beginning of this century there has been a considerable change in taxonomy of the, mostly, green large lizards ofthe genus La- certa. Even in the last decade a lot of new facts are published on the green lizards of Turkey.
A classification at the beginning of the century is given. L. agilis, L. jayakari, L. princeps, L. lepi- da, L. pater, L. schreiberi, L. pamphylica, L. stri- gata, L. media, L. trilineata and L. viridis are considered here as one group. A short discription of the species (also of the juveniles), the subspe- cies and the ranges of the species arc enumerated in this article.
Mariani, A. (1933) -
Marschner, J. (1962) -
Martens, E.v. (1892) -
Marzahn, E. & Mayer, W. & Stuckas, H. & Zagar, A. & Cafuta, V. & Fritz, U. (2013) -
Green lizards are widespread in Slovenia. Until now little is known about their taxonomic allocation. First mitochondrial (cytochrome b) and nuclear (ß-fibrinogen- intron7) data show that three different lineages of green lizards occur in Slovenia. In addition to two lineages of eastern green lizards (Lacerta viridis), the existence of the so called ‘Adriatic lineage’ is confirmed. In immediate vicinity (Italy and island of Cres, Croatia), the western green lizard (L. bilineata) occurs. This raises the question of whether there is gene flow between these two species. The nuclear marker provided evidence for gene flow. These results challenge the species status of L. bilineata and L. viridis.
Marzahn, E., Mayer, W., Joger, U., Ilgaz, Ç, Jablonski, D., Kindler, C., Kumlutaş, Y., Nistri, A., Schneeweiss, N., Vamberger, M., Žagar, A. & Fritz, U. (2016) -
Based on broad, nearly rangewide sampling, we reanalysed the phylogeography of the Lacerta viridis complex using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the intron 7 of the nuclear b-fibrinogen gene. Using the mitochondrial marker, we identified in phylogenetic analyses 10 terminal clades clustering in four deeply divergent main lineages whose relationships are weakly resolved. These lineages correspond to Lacerta bilineata, L. viridis, the previously identified Adriatic or West Balkan lineage and a newly discovered fourth lineage from the Anatolian Black Sea coast and the south-eastern Balkan Peninsula. Except for the latter lineage, there is considerable phylogeographic structuring in each lineage, with higher diversity in the south of the distribution ranges. This pattern indicates the existence of two distinct microrefugia in the Italian Peninsula and Sicily and of up to seven microrefugia in the Balkan Peninsula, but of only one refugium along the Black Sea coast of Anatolia. We identified secondary contact zones of the main lineages and of terminal clades within these lineages. However, most of the formerly described putative contact zone of L. bilineata and L. viridis turned out to be a contact zone between the Adriatic lineage and L. viridis, but L. bilineata seems to be involved only marginally. Our nuclear marker could not unambiguously resolve whether there is gene flow in contact zones. Thus, further research is necessary to decide whether the four main lineages are conspecific or whether they represent distinct biological species. We restrict the name L. v. meridionalis to the newly identified genetic lineage from Turkey and south-eastern Europe, synonymize some previously recognized taxa and suggest a tentative nomenclature for the L. viridis complex.
Maslak, R. (1995) -
A reprot on lizard species inhabiting Poland, with remarks about their distribution and habits. There are three species found there undoubtfully. These are: Lacerta agilis, Lacerta vivipara, and Anguis fragilis. The presence of the fourth species - Lacerta viridis - is uncertain. The Population discovered in 1968 has been extincted.
Mattison, C. (1991) -
Maura, M. & Vignoli, L. & Bologna, M.A. & Rugiero, L. & Luiselli, L. (2011) -
The population density of three lacertid lizards (Podarcis sicula, Podarcis muralis, Lacerta viridis) was studied along several transects crossing agro-forest habitats in Mediterranean central Italy. Overall, seven transects, in three different wooded patches, were walked for lizards. Distance sampling (with uniform model design) was applied to the dataset in order to calculate population size, dispersion, and coefficient of variation at each site. In order to detect which factors may influence lizard density, a Generalized Linear Model (GLZ; multinomial distribution and cumulative log link function) was built, with environmental variables and density of predators variables being included in the model as covariates (scale predictor). Density of the three lizard species differed significantly among study sites, evidencing species-specific responses to local patch conditions. None of the environmental variables taken separately in the GLZ model influenced significantly the lizard densities, whereas lizards densities showed species-specific response to the considered environmental variables. The largest species (L. viridis) showed the highest density in the fragment with the most irregular shape and largest wood size, whereas the two smaller Podarcis species presented their highest population density in the site with the smallest wood patch and with a very low snake density. Density of P. sicula was negatively correlated with both the woodland area and Colubridae density, and was positively correlated with woodland shape (i.e. with circularity).
May, H. (2006) -
Mayer, W. & Beyerlein, P. (2002) -
Mayer, W. & Tiedemann, F. (1985) -
37 specimens of Lacerta trilineata and 40 of Lacerta viridis, as well as one hybrid (bred in captivity), were electrophoretically investigated at 16 Genetic loci. The only constant difference was the mobility of the heart LDH. In contrast to the often uncertain morphological differences of species, this protein can be used for the clear identification of both species and possible hybrids. To identify the species (without destroying the animals) only pieces of lizard tails soaking them in PPS and running LDH gels are necessary. The method is discussed in full.
Mazzotti, S. & Miserocchi, D. (2009) -
The collection of Amphibians and Reptiles of the Museum of Natural History of Ferrara has characteristics of historical representation, taxonomic and zoogeography that may be considered as examples of medium-sized types of collections more preva- lent in Italian museums. It consists of a historic part of the study and a donation from Guido Campadelli. The collection consists of 1739 specimens of amphibians (1734 of which held in 437 containers with ethanol and 5 taxidermized specimens) for a total of 78 amphibian species. There are 811 specimens of Reptiles (769 of which are stored in 526 containers with ethanol and 42 taxidermized specimens) representing a total of 108 species. The findings that form the collection of Amphibians come from 153 loca- lities of 15 states and 12 regions and 29 provinces of Italy. In the batrachological col- lection 62.1% of the total European species, and 94.3% of the total species in Italy, are represented. Zoogeographic regions most represented are the Palaearctic with 67% of the species of Amphibians in the collection and the Neotropical with 29%, fol- lowed by the Ethiopian (6%) and Nearctic (5%). Reptiles specimens come from 247 lo- calities of 15 states and 15 regions and 36 provinces of Italy. In the collection 46,2% of European species and 91,5% of the Italian ones are represented. The most represen- ted zoogeographic region are the Palaearctic with 89% of species in the collection, followed by the Ethiopian (14%), the Eastern (13%), Neotropical (11%) and the Nearctic (7%); australian and malagasy species do not exceed 3%. The herpetology collection was the subject of taxonomic and biogeographic analysis.
Meban, C. (1978) -
Méhely, L. (1905) -
Meiri, S. (2008) -
Aim Body size is instrumental in influencing animal physiology, morphology, ecology and evolution, as well as extinction risk. I examine several hypotheses regarding the influence of body size on lizard evolution and extinction risk, assessing whether body size influences, or is influenced by, species richness, herbivory, island dwelling and extinction risk.
Methods I used literature data and measurements of museum and live specimens to estimate lizard body size distributions.
Results I obtained body size data for 99% of the world`s lizard species. The body size–frequency distribution is highly modal and right skewed and similar distributions characterize most lizard families and lizard assemblages across biogeographical realms. There is a strong negative correlation between mean body size within families and species richness. Herbivorous lizards are larger than omnivorous and carnivorous ones, and aquatic lizards are larger than non-aquatic species. Diurnal activity is associated with small body size. Insular lizards tend towards both extremes of the size spectrum. Extinction risk increases with body size of species for which risk has been assessed.
Main conclusions Small size seems to promote fast diversification of disparate body plans. The absence of mammalian predators allows insular lizards to attain larger body sizes by means of release from predation and allows them to evolve into the top predator niche. Island living also promotes a high frequency of herbivory, which is also associated with large size. Aquatic and nocturnal lizards probably evolve large size because of thermal constraints. The association between large size and high extinction risk, however, probably reflects a bias in the species in which risk has been studied.
Meiri, S. & Bauer, A.M. & Chirio, L. & Colli, G.R. & Das, I. & Doan, T.M. & Feldman, A. & Herrera, F.-C. & Novosolov, M. & Pafilis, P. Pincheira-Donoso, D. & Powney, G. & Torres-Carvajal, O. & Uetz, P. & Van Damme, R. (2013) -
Aim Temperature influences most components of animal ecology and life history
– but what kind of temperature? Physiologists usually examine the influence of
body temperatures, while biogeographers and macroecologists tend to focus on
environmental temperatures. We aim to examine the relationship between these
two measures, to determine the factors that affect lizard body temperatures and to
test the effect of both temperature measures on lizard life history.
Methods We used a large (861 species) global dataset of lizard body temperatures,
and the mean annual temperatures across their geographic ranges to examine
the relationships between body and mean annual temperatures.We then examined
factors influencing body temperatures, and tested for the influence of both on
ecological and life-history traits while accounting for the influence of shared
Results Body temperatures and mean annual temperatures are uncorrelated.
However, accounting for activity time (nocturnal species have low body temperatures),
use of space (fossorial and semi-aquatic species are ‘colder’), insularity
(mainland species are ‘hotter’) and phylogeny, the two temperatures are positively
correlated. High body temperatures are only associated with larger hatchlings and
increased rates of biomass production. Annual temperatures are positively correlated
with clutch frequency and annual longevity, and negatively correlated with
clutch size, age at first reproduction and longevity.
Main conclusions Lizards with low body temperatures do not seem to have
‘slower’ life-history attributes than species with high body temperatures. The longer
seasons prevalent in warm regions, and physiological processes that operate while
lizards are inactive (but warm enough), make environmental temperatures better
predictors of lizard life-history variation than body temperatures. This surprisingly
greater effect of environmental temperatures on lizard life histories hints that global
warming may have a profound influence on lizard ecology and evolution.
Ménétries, E. (1832) -
Mertens, R. (1920) -
Mertens, R. (1921) -
Mertens, R. (1932) -
Mertens, R. (1933) -
Mertens, R. (1956) -
Im Anschluß an die in der ersten Folge (1950) veröffentlichten Fälle von Reptilienbastarden werden weitere Bemerkungen über 33 Hybriden gemacht; davon betreffen 5 die Schildkröten und je 1 4 die Eidechsen und Schlangen. Nicht weniger als 14 sind Artbastarde, Die meisten von diesen zeigen einen intermediären Charakter. Es ist bemerkenswert, daß das „erytbronotus`-Merkmal bei Lacerta agilis sich offenbar dominant, das `concolor`-Merkmal bei Lacerta melisellensis fiumana und Lacerta s. sicula dagegen rezessiv vererbt. Eine besondere Beachtung verdient der hypothetische Bastard zwischen Lacerta a. agilis und v. viridis aus Maria Taferl in Niederösterreich sowie die gezogenen Bastarde zwischen Lacerta v. viridis und schreiberi. F1-Bastarde von Natrix n. natrix und n. persa sprechen für die Dominanz des Merkmals „gestreift`.
Mertens, R. (1958) -
Mertens, R. (1964) -
Mertens, R. (1970) -
Mertens, R. & Müller, L. (1940) -
Mertens, R. & Schnurre, O. (1949) -
Mertens, R. & Wermuth, H. (1960) -
Mészáros, B. & Herczeg, G. & Bajer, K. & Török, J. & Molnár, O. (2017) -
Theory of sexual selection states that males often develop showy signals, which reduce their survival but increase their reproductive success. During mate choice, these conspicuous signals can be honest indicators of individual quality conveying information about the signaler`s physiological state. Sexually selected signals are influenced by many environmental factors; however, whether signals and physiological state are affected together is rarely studied. The ultraviolet‐blue throat color of male Lacerta viridis is an intra‐ and intersexually selected signal connected to blood parasite infection and influenced by environmental factors. The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how ecologically relevant environmental factors affect color signal intensity and key physiological traits parallel. During the mating season, we exposed 40 adult male lizards infected with blood parasites to food and basking time treatments in a full factorial design. We measured color, amount of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), hematocrit, immunocompetence, and blood parasite intensity before and after treatments. High basking time resulted in elevated immunocompetence coupled with increased ROMs. The high food treatment increased nuptial color brightness, but also increased ROMs and decreased immunocompetence. In summary, our study provides experimental evidence about environmentally induced parallel changes in an honest sexual signal and several quality‐indicator physiological traits. We showed that available energy and time for high metabolism have independent and sometimes opposite effects on individual state.
Mihaljević, M. & Martinčić, J. (1999) -
Mikátová, B. (2001) -
Mikátová, B. (2002) -
Milne-Edwards, M.H. (1829) -
Mizsei, E. & Jablonski, D. & Végvári, Z. & Lengyel, S. & Szabolcs, M. (2017) -
Although Albania has a rich reptile fauna, efforts to reveal its diversity have so far been limited. To ﬁll this gap, we collected available published and unpublished (museum collections, online sources) records of reptile occurrences and conducted several expeditions to search for reptiles in areas with few or no previous records. Our georeferenced database contains 3731 records of 40 species from between 1918 and 2015. Based on this comprehensive dataset, we prepared distribution maps for each reptile species of the country. Applying spatial statistics, we revealed that overall sampling effort was clustered, with hotspots associated with easily accessible areas and natural heritage sites. The maximum number of species per cell was 26 with an average of seven. Cells harbouring large reptile diversity were located along the Adriatic and Ionian coasts, on the western slopes of south Albanian mountains, i.e. in areas generally considered as Balkans biodiversity hotspots or potential historical refugia. We found that species presence and diversity is strongly inﬂuenced by landscape features. Diversity of land cover, altitudinal variation, temperature and precipitation variation explained the observed pattern in our models. Our study presents the largest database of reptile occurrences to date and is the ﬁrst to analyse reptile diversity patterns in Albania. The database and the diversity patterns can provide a basis for future macroecological studies and conservation planning.
Mlynarski, M. (1956) -
Fossil remains are here described of Lacertlia collected from the bone breccia of Węże, Poland. They consist mostly of skull and mandible fragments, also of vertebrae and bone scales referable to genera Lacerta, Ophisaurus and others, not more closely identifiable. These reptiles come very near to representatives of the same genera described from the Pliocene of Hungary. Ophisaurus pannonicus Kormos occurs in both these faunal assemblages.
Moellendorff, O. von (1873) -
Moeller, T. (1990) -
Mollov, I. & Boyadzhiev, P. & Donev, A. (2012) -
The seasonal variation of the trophic spectrum of two sympatric lizards (Lacerta viridis and Podarcis tauricus) is presented as well as the species’ trophic niche breadth and niche overlap. The material for the current study was collected in 1980-1981 in surroundings of Purvomay Town in South Bulgaria. The main food sources for both lizards are insects. For P. tauricus the predominating food type is Orthoptera (44.62%), followed by Coleoptera (14.36%) and Hemiptera (7.18%) and from the diet of L. viridis predominating are again Orthoptera (34.05%), followed by Coleoptera (12.97%) and Hymenoptera (9.73%). The possible ecological aspects of interspecific competition are discussed.
Mollov, I.A. (2005) -
The current paper reviews the species composition and distribution of 2 amphibian (Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea) and 7 reptile species (Cyrtopodion kotschyi, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta trilineata, Podarcis taurica, Podarcis muralis, Ablepharus kitaibelii, Coronella austriaca) inhabiting three protected territories in the town of Plovdiv. Some aspects of the species ’ ecology are discussed in relation to the urban environment and the recorded amphibians and reptiles are categorized in ecological groups according to their level of synanthropy. Species ’ zoogeographic characteristics, level of endemism, conservation significance and the basic conservation threats and problems in the studied protected territories are also discussed.
Mollov, I.A. (2014) -
The current study determines the level of synanthropy of the amphibians and reptiles in the city of Plovdiv, based on Nuorteva’s Index of synanthropy, with slight modification, proposed here for the first time.
Mollov, I.A. & Kirov, K.H. & Petrova, S.T. & Georgiev, D.G. & Velcheva, I.G. (2013) -
Currently the problem of the effects of the road network and traffic on the amphibians and reptiles in Bulgaria is poorly studied. During the period March 2002 - March 2004 in the Buffer Zone of Biosphere Reserve `Srebarna` (NE Bulgaria) were built two anti-fire roads from the eastern and western side of the lake in area of grasslands of semi-steppe type, typical for north-eastern Bulgaria. The aim of the constructed roads is to provide access for fire vehicles to areas in and around the reserve. The current study aims to provide data on the impact of road traffic and the newly constructed road network and another previously existing road on the amphibians and reptiles inhabiting the buffer zone of the biosphere reserve `Srebarna`. For the entire period of study in the three studied road sections a total of 15 dead specimens of amphibians belonging to 4 species (Bombina bombina, Hyla arborea, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis) and 70 dead specimens of reptiles belonging to 8 species (Emys orbicularis, Ablepharus kitaibelii, Lacerta viridis, Podarcis tauricus, Podarcis muralis, Natrix natrix, Coronella austriaca and Dolichophis caspius) were recorded. Several “hot spots”, where most cadavers were recorded are well described and possible conservation measures are discussed.
Molnár, O. & Bajer, K. & Mészáros, B. & Török, J. & Herczeg, G. (2013) -
During female mate choice, conspicuous male sexual signals are used to infer male quality and choose the best sire for the offspring. The theory of parasite-mediated sexual selection (Hamilton–Zuk hypothesis) presumes that parasite infection can influence the elaboration of sexual signals: resistant individuals can invest more energy into signal expression and thus advertise their individual quality through signal intensity. By preferring these males, females can provide resistance genes for their offspring. Previous research showed that nuptial throat colour of male European green lizard, Lacerta viridis, plays a role in both inter- and intrasexual selections as a condition-dependent multiple signalling system. The aim of this study was to test the predictions of the Hamilton–Zuk hypothesis on male European green lizards. By blood sampling 30 adult males during the reproductive season, we found members of the Haemogregarinidae family in all but one individual (prevalence = 96 %). The infection intensity showed strong negative correlation with the throat and belly colour brightness in line with the predictions of the Hamilton–Zuk hypothesis. In addition, we found other correlations between infection intensity and other fitness-related traits, suggesting that parasite load has a remarkable effect on individual fitness. This study shows that throat patch colour of the European green lizards not only is a multiple signalling system but also possibly acts as an honest sexual signal of health state in accordance with the Hamilton–Zuk hypothesis
Molnar, O. & Bajer, K. & Szövenyi, G. & Török, J. & Herczeg, G. (2016) -
The conspicuous colors found in many lizards transfer information about their owner’s characteristics that are relevant to mating and social systems. Female European Green Lizards (Lacerta viridis) have been shown to prefer males with high ultraviolet (UV) throat reflectance. Additionally, components of throat patch color (such as UV chroma and brightness) have been shown to be condition-dependent and to signal relative head size and health status. In this study, we investigated whether or not different components of male nuptial color and other relevant traits were associated with characteristics of male space use during the reproductive season at two different locations. In Site 1, lizard density was two times higher, territory size was one third as large, and spatial overlap between territories was about half as large as in Site 2. Males at Site 1 showed movement patterns consistent with a mix of territorial and floater individuals, with floaters exhibiting greater throat brightness. Those males at Site 2 moved in a less predictable manner within the study plot, irrespective of their nuptial color. Among territorial males, those of larger head size occupied larger territories but maintained lower brightness and blue chroma. Our results indicate that (1) not all males are territorial; (2) being territorial might have a cost expressed in duller nuptial color; (3) components of nuptial color can signal territory size; and (4) the information content of a multiple signaling system may vary between populations according to the mating system structure present.
Molnár, O.R. (2013) -
Molnar, O.R. & Bajer, K. (2007) -
Territorial behavior is present in many species of reptiles. In these cases, morphological, colour and other attributes of the individual may carry information about the size of the territory, and thereby affect mate-choice and reproductive success. We investigated the relationship between the size of territory and individual quality in the green lizard (Lacerta viridis). Recent observations showed strong territorial behaviour. Observations were made in the breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006. In addition to territory size, we also determined the number of females to be found on each male`s territory as an estimate of the number of the male`s potential reproductive partners. Ectoparasite load, colour and morphological characters did not correlate with the size of the territory. Parasite load showed negative correlation with the number of reproductive partners, while colour, morphological variables and territory size correlated positively with the number of females. In addition we found positive correlation between the robustness of males and their asymmetry, which may suggest that, contrary to many previous findings, asymmetry may be a neutral property in this case, or a cost of robustness. However, the intensity of blue colour on the throat showed positive correlation with the above-mentioned index for robustness. According to these results, though territory size cannot be predicted by morphological and colour characteristics, individual characteristics do predict the number of the male`s potential reproductive partners.
Moosleitner, H. (1984) -
Moravec, J. (2015) -
Moravec, J. & Kulková, H. (2011) -
Mosauer, W. & Wallis, K. (1924) -
Moser, J. (1998) -
Die in Oberösterreich bisher nur aus dem Donautal flußaufwärts von Steyregg und dessen unmittelbarem Umland bekannte Smaragdeidechse (Lacena viridis) konnte an einem neuen Fundort nachgewiesen werden. Bei Sarmingstein (Bezirk Perg) gelang der erster Nachweis einer Smaragdeidechse (Lacerla viridis) im oberösterreichischen Donautal östlich von Linz. Bei gezielten Nachsuchen konnten keine Hinweise auf ein zusammenhängendes Verbreitungsgebiet der Smaragdeidechse (Lacerta viridis) im oberösterreichischen Donautal östlich von Linz gefunden werden.
Moser, J. (2008) -
Mourge, M. (1908) -
Mršić, N. (1987) -
Mudde, P. & Kivit, R. & Mantel, P. (1994) -
On many occasions green reptiles bred in captivity are observed to develop a dull blue coloration instead of their normal bright green colour. It has been shown in green lizards that when such blue individuals are transferred to outdoor accommodations they rapidly revert to their normal colour. However, this does not occur in captive bred Basiliscus plumifrons. which tend to keep a bluish green colour. and some Chondropython viridis also do not revert to their natural green. It is suggested that the blue coloration may be due to the absence and/or the intensity of light and radiation of particular wavelengths. Readers are invited to take record of the occurrence of this phenom- enon, and to report their findings to the authors.
Mulder, J. (1995) -
Müller, H. (1852) -
Müller, L. (1936) -
Müller, L. (1939) -
Müller, M. (2002) -
Müller. M.M. (2007) -
Die vorliegende Arbeit gilt Lacerta viridis, der Östlichen Smaragdeidechse in Mitteleuropa. Einteilung und Unterscheidung von L. viridis und L. bilineata werden angeführt, Grundbegriffe zu diesen beiden Eidechsenarten erläutert. Es folgt eine Zusammenfassung der Phänologie und Verhaltensweise von L. viridis, überblicksmäßig wird auch das Fortpflanzungsverhalten aufgezeigt. Die Schwerpunkte dieser Arbeit beziehen sich auf das Vorkommen (Verbreitung, Lebensraum, zeitliches Auftreten; auch ein lokales Populationsbeispiel wird angeführt) sowie die Gefährdung in Europa und Österreich, mit der Ergänzung möglicher bzw. notwendiger Schutzmaßnahmen, um den Fortbestand dieser Art zu sichern.
Najbar, B (2011) -
Naulleau, G. (1990) -
Naulleau, G. (1997) -
Necas, P. & Modrý, D. & Zavadil, V. (1997) -
Nehring, E. (1880) -
Nekrasova, O.D. & Kuibida, V.V. & Oskyrko, O.S. & Dubyna, A.D. (2018) -
The article consideres information about spread of green lizard (Lacerta viridis) in the Dnieper ecological corridor, Ukraine. As a result of studies conducted in 2010–2016, there were collected and analyzed data on biotopic affinity, spatial distribution, number and features of the morphology of the Green lizard in Dnieper ecological corridor. Lizards are not distributed evenly, forming several local groups: 1. Kiev (Koncha-Zaspa — Ukrainka); 2. Trakhtemirov peninsula and the Kanev mountains (Trakhtemirivska and Kanivsvska); 3. Cherkasy-Svitlovodska; 4. SurskoKamyanska (Dnipropetrovsk region); 5. Nizhniodniprovska (Zaporizhzhya and Dnepropetrovsk regions particularly). It was found that L. viridis is a rare species with a pronounced tendency to decrease number and needs special protection. The most favorable habitat for the species is the locality with presence of rocky outcrops, hilly areas and shrubby forest vegetation or slopes, covered with herbaceous vegetation. We conducted a detailed analysis of variation of folidosis scutes and found that differences between males and females are expressed in body and tail length.
Nemitz-Kliemchen, M. & Andres, C. & Hofmann, S. & Ramirez, A.M.P. & Stoev, P. & Tzankov, N. & Schaffer, S. & Bernhard, D. & Henle, K. & Schlegel, M. (2020) -
Numerous studies showed that habitat fragmentation can affect the constitution of species by impairing living conditions, impeding gene flow and thereby reducing genetic variability. However, populations of the same species may react less sensitive to fragmentation in the core than in the periphery of its distribution range. In the core they are assumed to be more euryoecious compared to the periphery, where they are assumed to be stenoecious with lower genetic diversity and higher genetic differentiation. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the genetic variability of 215 individuals of ten populations of Lacerta viridis from fragmented habitats within its distribution center in Bulgaria using genotype data of 19 microsatellite loci. We could not detect significant alteration of genetic variation, regardless of patch size and isolation by distance, indicating that fragmentation indeed did not had a strong impact on L. viridis in the core area of its historical and recent distribution range. We cannot rule out that the time elapsed since habitat fragmentation occurred was too short to yield a genetic response. However, in a similar study on L. agilis, which is stenoecious in Bulgaria, all genetic diversity indices declined with patch size. This provides indications that fragmentation at present does not have a strong effect on the genetic variation of Bulgarian L. viridis populations.
Nettmann, H.-K. & Rykena, S. (1974) -
Hybridization between Lacerta t. trili~eata and Lacerta v. viridis in captivity is described. 16 hybrids hatched in June 1974. The difficulties of mating between the two species and the color and pattern of the hybrid specimens are described.
Nettmann, H.-K. & Rykena, S. (1984) -
Nettmann, H.K. (2016) -
The use of pictures from the internet as data source for more better distribution maps is demonstrated. Based on pictures within the database www.lacerta.de and using the only known field character “greenish throat colour in hatchlings” first records of Lacerta bilineata in Carintia (Austria) can be stated. And it is shown, that this character is obviously also useful to distinguish the L. bilineata of the “West Balkan clade” (W. Böhme et al. 2007) and L. viridis in the lowlands of Thessalia (Greece). These findings should motivate intensified field herping activities and in case of green lizards more pictures of hatchlings instead of large blue throated males.
Nielsen, B. (1962) -
The chemical regulation of respiration in various species of reptiles has earlier been studied by Siefert (1896), Babak (1914a, b), v. Saalfeld (1934), Vos (1936), Boelaert (1941,1942), Randal, Stullken & Hiestand (1944), and B. Nielsen (1961). A survey of the literature was given by Vos (1936). The present work deals with the effect of different concentrations of O2 in the inspiratory air on respiration of lizards. Further, the combined action of CO2 and different O2 percentages has been studied. Two species of lizard, Lacerta viridis and Tarentola mauretanica served as experimental animals.
Nikolsky, A.M. (1915) -
Noll, F.C. (1866) -
Noll, F.C. (1883) -
Nöllert, A. & Nöllert, C. & Ritter, A. (1986) -
Novák, V. (1954) -
Oefinger, B. & Oefinger, P. (2009) -
Oefinger, B. & Oefinger, P. (2010) -
Oefinger, B. & Oefinger, P. (2012) -
Oefinger, B. & Oefinger, P. (2013) -
Oefinger, B. & Oefinger, P. (2019) -
Olmo, E. & Odierna, G. & Capriglione, T. (1987) -
The occurrence and form of sex chromosomes were investigated with the aid of C-banding and 4′-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining in 13 species of lacertid lizards. The results obtained show the presence in five species of a female heterogamety in which the two sex chromosomes have the same shape and size, but the W differs from the Z in being almost entirely heterochromatic. This condition is clearly similar to that found in some snakes and considered to be an early stage of differentiation of sex chromosomes by Singh et al. (1976, 1980). A more evolved condition may be that found in three other species in which the W is distinctly smaller than the Z. A third situation is that found in all Podarcis species which, even though they are considered to be among the more evolved species in the family, possess two sex chromosomes that are indistinguishable. In general, the situation in lacertids may be compatible with the hypothesis of sex chromosome evolution put forward by Singh et al. (1976, 1980). However a differentiation mechanism of this kind does not seem to be well established in lacertids, and is probably not the only mechanism that is in operation in this family.
Olmo, E. & Odierna, G. & Cobror, O. (1986) -
The karyology of various species from the family Lacertidae (Reptilia, Sauria) has been studied with conventional and C-banding techniques.
The study shows that this family is not so conservative from a karyological viewpoint as considered till now. In fact a higher diploid number than that generally observed in most species of Lacertidae and supernumerary chromosomes have been observed in three of the species investigated. Moreover an evident interand intraspecific variability has been found in the C-banding pattern of the various species studied. The situation found in Podarcis sicula is particularly remarkable. Different C-banding patterns have been observed in three different subspecies and in two populations of the same subspecies. These variations do not show a well defined trend and their role in the evolution of lacertid lizards is discussed.
The C-banding analysis evidences also the existence in two of the species studied of a female sex heteromorphism, in which the W chromosome has the same shape and size as the Z, but differs from it in being completely heterochromatic. This situation reminds that observed in some snakes and suggests that in lacertid lizards the evolution of sex chromosomes might have followed the same steps previously hypothesized for ophidians.
Oyen, W.G. van (1955) -
Pacuta, A. & Zagar, A. & Kocikova, B. & Majlathova, V. & Mihalca, A.D. & Majlath, I. (2018) -
Locomotor performance provides one of the key pieces of information regarding whole-organism function. Experiments encompassing behavioral data commonly endeavor to measure parameters such as burst speed, latency time, distance traveled, and other aspects of locomotion. Behavioral experiments can uncover an immense range of information, from the individual, interspecific, and intraspecific levels up to correlations with ecological factors and parameters from the ecosystem. Here, we explored the locomotor behavior of two lizard species, Lacerta viridis and Lacerta agilis, in an open field test (OFT). The main aim was to reveal changes in locomotion over time. Although we observed no time-related variation in L. agilis, we discovered significant changes in locomotor behavior over the course of the experiment in Lacerta viridis. Measured behavioral traits (resting time, total distance traveled, mean speed) showed significant changes across time in L. viridis, thus indicating the importance of time as a factor when conducting behavioral experiments. Moreover, we observed that in 10-min experimental session, the individuals have undergone different stages from freezing behavior, exploration, to habituation.
Paepke, H.-J. (1970) -
Pafilis, P. & Maragou, P. (2013) -
Parent, G.H. (1978) -
Parker, W.K. (1879) -
Pavletić, J. (1964) -
Pedro Silva, J. & Toland, J. & Jones, W. & Eldridge, J. & Hudson, J. & O`Hara, E. (2009) -
Peek, R. (2011) -
Captive bred lizards in general and especially Emerald Lizards dislays aberrant pale blue/green body colors. These colors are less attractive than the bright yellow/green colors of lizards in the wild. Exoeriments were designed to solve this problem. The author subjected groups of captive bred juvenile Western Emerald Lizards (Lacerta bilineata) to different food and lighting conditions. From these experiments it became clear that artificial UV-light or unfiltered sunlight was not sufficient to induce normal body coloration. By changing the diet of the lizards from captive bred insects to wild-caught arthropods normal body coloration began to appear within one week. The feeding of artrificial pigments to induce the yellow color did not have anyeffect on body coloration, while red pigments (casrotenoids) induced red ventral coloration in male Peloponnese Wall Lizards (Podarcis peloponnesiacus) and red coloration of rostral and labial shields in Ocellated Lizards (Timon lepidus). These results show that the attractive bright body colors typical for Emerald Lizards (and several other lizard species) depend on the source of food.
Peek, R. (2018) -
Perera, A. & Pérez-Mellado, V. (2004) -
Pérez i de Lanuza, G. & Font, E. (2016) -
Many animals display complex colour patterns that comprise several adjacent, often contrasting colour patches. Combining patches of complementary colours increases the overall conspicuousness of the complex pattern, enhancing signal detection. Therefore, selection for conspicuousness may act not only on the design of single colour patches, but also on their combination. Contrasting long- and short-wavelength colour patches are located on the ventral and lateral surfaces of many lacertid lizards. As the combination of long- and short-wavelength-based colours generates local chromatic contrast, we hypothesized that selection may favour the co-occurrence of lateral and ventral contrasting patches, resulting in complex colour patterns that maximize the overall conspicuousness of the signal. To test this hypothesis we performed a comparative phylogenetic study using a categorical colour classification based on spectral data and descriptive information on lacertid coloration collected from the literature. Our results demonstrate that conspicuous ventral (long wavelength-based) and lateral (short wavelength-based) colour patches co-occur throughout the lacertid phylogeny more often than expected by chance, especially in the subfamily Lacertini. These results suggest that selection promotes the evolution of the complex pattern rather than the acquisition of a single conspicuous colour patch, possibly due to the increased conspicuousness caused by the combination of colours with contrasting spectral properties.
Pérez-Mellado, V. (1998) -
Pérez-Mellado, V. & Valakos, E.D. & Gil, M.J. & Guerrero, F. Lulch, J. & Navarro, P. & Maragou, P. (1999) -
Although the herpetofauna of Greece is well known (see for example, Werner, 1938; Wettstein, 1953, 1957; Ondrias, 1968; Chondropoulos, 1986, 1989), several distributional questions still remain unclear, mainly for the mainland but also for islands. ` In this paper we present some chorological information from a field trip of one month (April 1990) to mainland and insular Greece.
Perkins, C.M. (1988) -
Perkins, C.M. & Avery, R.A. (1989) -
Peskov, V.N. & Maliuk, A.Y. & Petrenko, N.A. (2018) -
As it was shown on the example of the common frog Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758 and the green lizard Lacerta viridis Laurenti, 1768, the expressivity of sexual differences by morphological traits increases with age in the late ontogenesis of amphibians and reptiles, as well as the orientation and structure of these characters may change. Sexual differences are poorly expressed (green lizard) or not expressed at all (common frog) in juvenile animals. In the size-age groups of subadultus and adultus, the mean values of many morphological characters are significantly larger in males than in females at the same linear body size. The direction of sexual differences by separate characters can vary with the age of the animals. The sexual differences in amphibians and reptiles have an adaptive nature.
Peters, G. (1962) -
Peters, G. (1970) -
Petrov, B.P. (2007) -
The geographical position, mild climate, mountainous landscape, and habitat heterogeneity determine Bulgaria’s rich diversity of herpetofauna. Currently, 17 species of amphibians (20 subspecies) and 36 species of reptiles (45 subspecies) are known from Bulgaria. Due to its transitional position, Bulgaria lies at the southern or northern distribution limits of many species of amphibians and reptiles. Vertical distribution is presented for all species found in Bulgaria. The richest in terms of diversity and abundance are the areas below 400 m, where nearly 95 % of taxa occur. The geographical ranges of almost all amphibians and reptiles in Bulgaria are well-known, although on a local scale the information is often limited. Zoogeographical analysis demonstrates that amphibian species belong to nine chorotypes, of which the Eastern Mediterranean and the European chorotypes are represented with three species each. Out of the ten chorotypes recognized for the reptiles, 51.4 % of the species belong to the Eastern Mediterranean (25.7 %) and Turanian–Mediterranean (25.7 %) chorotypes. Only two subspecies are Bulgarian endemics (Salamandra salamandra beschkovi and Mediodactylus kotschyi rumelicus). Due to the high diversity and mosaic distribution of habitats in Bulgaria, the herpetofauna has a rather continuous occurrence and high relative abundance. Although 80 % of the Bulgarian herpetofauna is legally protected by the Biodiversity Protection Act (2002) and other conventions, some species are threatened through collection for trade or habitat changes due to construction. Several sites in the southern part of Bulgaria are very rich in herpetofauna (nine to ten species of amphibians and 19 to 21 species of reptiles).
Plass, J. (2007) -
Podnar, M. & Ugarkovic, D. & Plohl, M. & Tvrtkovic, N. (1998) -
Polović, L. & Cadenović, N. (2013) -
In Krnovo area we recorded 3 species of amphibians (Mesotriton alpestris, Bombina variegata, Bufo bufo) and 9 species of reptiles (Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Podarcis muralis, Dinarolacerta mosorensis, Natrix natrix, Natrix tessellata, Coronella austriaca, Zamenis longissimus, Vipera ammodytes) in 8 localities.
Polovic, L. & Cadenovic, N. (2014) -
Polović, L. & Cadenović, N. (2014) -
In this paper, we present the results of a study conducted in the Great Ulcinj Beach area, including its hinterland and Ada Island. In the study area, we recorded 10 species of amphibians (Lissotriton vulgaris, Bombina variegata, Bufo bufo, Pseudepidalea viridis, Hyla arborea, Pelophylax ridibundus, Pelophylax lessonae, Pelophylax shqipericus, Rana dalmatina, and Rana temporaria) and 20 species of reptiles (Testudo hermanni, Emys orbicularis, Mauremys rivulata, Caretta caretta, Hemidactylus turcicus, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta trilineata, Podarcis muralis, Podarcis melisellensis, Anguis fragilis, Pseudopus apodus, Natrix natrix, Natrix tessellata, Hierophis gemonensis, Dolichophis caspius, Zamenis longissimus, Elaphe quatuorlineata, Malpolon insignitus, Telescopus fallax, and Vipera ammodytes). Mauremys rivulata and Telescopus fallax were recorded for the rst time in this area.
Popgeorgiev, G.S. & Kornilev, V.V. (2009) -
The numerous fires during the past decade in the Eastern Rhodopes (southeastern Bulgaria) resulted in extensive loss of habitat for multiple species. In this study on the reptilian fauna found near Kolets village (Haskovo District, Bulgaria) we compared two adjacent territories during 2004–2006, a control and a recently burned. We found no effect on the Shannon-Wiener index of biological diversity (mean for the three years: Hburned = 0.488, Hcontrol = 0.498). However, fire led to decrease of abundance (Ab, individuals / 1000 m), best detected for the following species: Testudo hermanni (Abburned = 1.8, Abcontrol = 5.6; p = 0.003316), T. graeca (Abburned = 1.1, Abcontrol = 3.2; p = 0.071786), Lacerta viridis (Abburned = 16.8, Abcontrol = 40.6; p = 0.000263), and L. trilineata (Abburned = 6.8, Abcontrol = 19.2; p = 0.000879), where values for Ab are combined for 2004–2006.
Popgeorgiev, G.S. & Kornilev, Y.V. (2009) -
Popgeorgiev, G.S. & Mollov, I.A. (2005) -
Popgeorgiev, G.S. & Tzankov, N.D: & Kornilev, V.V. & Naumov, B.Y. & Stoyanov, A.Y. (2014) -
We present the first comprehensive review of the diversity of the herpetofauna of the Natura 2000 site Ponor Special Protection Area. We compiled data from 22 publications covering 20 species and carried out multiple field visits between 1998–2012, recording 375 locations confirming all previously reported species and reporting four new species. These are Hyla arborea complex, Bufotes viridis complex, Coronella austriaca and Zamenis longissimus; we exclude Anguis fragilis complex due to recent taxonomic changes in this group. The presence of three additional potential species (Emys orbicularis, Testudo hermanni and Darevskia praticola) remains to be confirmed. All collected localities fall within 60 of 113 2×2 UTM squares, providing > 53% coverage. The elevation ranges for the species generally conform with their expected distributions in Bulgaria. Nine habitat types are of particular importance for the herpetofauna in Ponor Special Protection Area (Shannon diversity index H’ ≥ 2.00), containing 77% of the locations for the observed species and 100% of the species. Four are either open habitats with high level of naturalness or small-scale extensive agricultural lands and four are natural broad-leaf forests. The currently obtained herpetological data can be used in the development of future management plans for this protection area and should be included in the update of the Natura 2000 Standard Data Form. Ponor Special Protection Area is demonstrated as a site of substantial local importance for the conservation of amphibian and reptile communities.
Porkert, J. & Grosseova, M. (1984) -
Porkert, J. & Grosseová, M. (1986) -
Powell, T.P.S. & Kruger, L. (1960) -
Pozzi, A. (1966) -
Prieto-Ramirez, A.M. & Pe`er, G. & Rödder, D. & Henle, K. (2018) -
The available range of habitats and suitable abiotic conditions like temperature and radiation tends to be narrower toward the periphery of the distribution range of species. Peripheral populations of generalist species could then be more specialized and have a smaller and differentiated realized niche (habitat niche in our study) compared to populations at the core. Likewise, patterns of microhabitat selection can differ between periphery and core. In our study, we compared niche size and microhabitat selection among core (Bulgaria) and northern peripheral (Germany, Czech Republic) populations of Lacerta viridis and estimated niche differentiation among regions. We collected data on vegetation structure and abiotic parameters at the microhabitat scale in each region. In order to compare niche size among regions and estimate niche differentiation, we built multidimensional niche hypervolumes. We applied generalized linear mixed models and model averaging, accounting for spatial autocorrelation when necessary, to analyze microhabitat differences among regions and microhabitat selection in each region. Peripheral populations were more specialized, having a smaller niche than core ones, and their niche differed from that in the core (Sørensen overlap in all comparisons <0.3). Microhabitats at the periphery had lower radiation and soil compaction and less structured vegetation. Microhabitat selection at the core depended solely on abiotic parameters, while at the periphery it was defined by only vegetation structure (Czech Republic) or a combination of both, vegetation structure, and abiotic factors (Germany). Thus, peripheral populations seem to compensate for overall harsher climatic conditions by responding to different parameters of the microhabitat compared to core populations. We suggest specific conservation measures for L. virids in each studied region and point out the general implications of a higher specialization degree of peripheral populations in relation to climate change and habitat fragmentation.
Prieto-Ramirez, A.M. & Röhler, L. & Cord, A.F. & Pe`er, G. & Rödder, D. & Henle, K. (2020) -
The effects of habitat loss on the distribution of populations are often linked with species specialization degree. Specialist species can be more affected by changes in landscape structure and local patch characteristics compared to generalist species. Moreover, the spatial scale at which different land covers (eg. habitat, cropland, urban areas) affect specialist species can be smaller. Specialization is usually assumed as a constant trait along the distribution range of species. However, for several taxa, there is evidence of higher specialization degree in peripheral populations compared with populations in the core. Hence, peripheral populations should have a higher sensitivity to habitat loss, and strongest effects should be found at a smaller spatial scale. To test these expectations, we implemented a patch-landscape approach at different spatial scales, and compared effects of landscape structure and patch characteristics on occupancy probability among northern peripheral, more specialized populations (Czech Republic) and core populations (Bulgaria) of the eastern green lizard Lacerta viridis. We found that landscape structure and patch characteristics affect differently the occupancy probability of Lacerta viridis in each region. Strongest effects of habitat loss were found at a spatial scale of 150m around patches in the periphery, but at a scale of 500m in the core. In the periphery occupancy probability of populations was principally affected by landscape composition, and the effect of habitat quality was stronger compared to core populations. In the core, persistence of populations was mainly explained by characteristics of the spatial configuration of habitat patches. We discuss possible ecological mechanisms behind the relationship between sensitivity to habitat loss, populations’ specialization degree and position in the distribution range, and suggest conservation measures for L. viridis.
Puschnig, R. (1934) -
Quattrini, D. (1953) -
Radovanović, M. (1941) -
Ray, J. (1843) -
Raynaud, A. (1994) -
Raynaud, A. & Adrian, M. (1975) -
Raynaud, A. & Adrian, M. & Kouprach, S. (1974) -
Raynaud, A. & Adrian,M. (1976) -
Raynaud, A. & Bonnet, L. & Clergue-Gazeau, M. (1992) -
Raynaud, A. & Chandola, A. (1969) -
Raynaud, A. & Clairambault, P. (1978) -
Raynaud, A. & Gasc, J.-P. & Renous, S. & Pieau, C. (1975) -
Raynaud, A. & Okuzumi, H. & Kouprach, S. (1974) -
Raynaud, A. & Pieau, C. (1972) -
Raynaud, A. & Raynaud, J. (1966) -
Raynaud, A. & Vasse, J. (1970) -
Raynauf, A. & Pieau, C. (1969) -
Razzetti, E & Bonini, L. & Andreone, F. (2001) -
Common Italian names of the amphibians and reptiles present
in the geographic Italy are proposed. We analysed a large set of
bibliography in order to assess a list of Italian common names
used and we proposed the utilization of a single name, also in
view of the forthcoming publication of the distribution atlas of the
Italian herpetofauna. The criteria used to assign such names follow
in general the current use, the possibility to clearly distinguish
similar species, geographic and linguistic parameters.
Rehák, I. (2015) -
The grounds of Prague Zoo are home to an important population of the European Green lizard Lacerta viridis, which is one of the most threatened species in the Czech Republic. Although generally thought of as common across some of its range, the Green lizard is recorded as critically endangered by legislative regulations in the Czech Republic and is on local Red Data Lists in Germany, although the species is thought to be extinct in other parts of its range. Conservation management is necessary to guarantee the survival of the Green lizard population at Prague Zoo and to coordinate conservation measures with the development of the Zoo site. A detailed conservation-research study was carried out on a model population at the ‘Tiché údolí’ site to obtain the necessary knowledge to establish an appropriate management programme for the Green lizard population at the Zoo. A comprehensive action plan for European Green lizard conservation will be launched at Prague Zoo in 2015.
Richter, K. (1992) -
Rismiller, P.D. (1987) -
Rismiller, P.D. & Heldmaier, G. (1982) -
Voluntary body temperature selection of unrestrained Lacerta viridis revealed consistant photoperiod entrained diel patterns. Each daily cycle was characterized by an elevation in body temperature (T b) to a high level plateau which declined at the onset of scotophase to a low level; both of which were maintained within narrow ranges.
Under natural photoperiod in fall, lizards responded to shorter days by sinking low level T b`s and expanding the duration of these low levels until no rhythmicity was shown. Subsequent exposure to long day, LD 16:8, induced self-arousal and a slightly altered diel T b selection with significantly higher T b`s being chosen at both the elevated and lower daily levels. Changes in the relations of diel T b selection due to shift in photoperiod, suggest that photoperiod acts as a seasonal indicator for thermal adaptation.
Rismiller, P.D. & Heldmaier, G. (1985) -
The European green lizard Lacerta viridis heats more rapidly than it cools when tested during the activity portion of its daily cycle. In contrast, slower rates of cooling relative to heating are not typical when lizards are tested during their normal scotophase rest period. Furthermore, L. viridis cools at a slower rate than do other lizards of equal size. Simultaneously measured oxygen consumption displayed an inverse pattern during daytime heating and cooling with significantly higher metabolic rates during 75% of the entire cooling process, whereas nighttime metabolic responses were practically identical during both heating and cooling. Responses to acute heating and cooling varied according to the time of day tested, coinciding with the activity and rest phases.
Rismiller, P.D. & Heldmaier, G. (1986) -
Lacerta viridis, a primarily heliothermic lizard, demonstrates augmented rates of heating and diminished rates of cooling when tested during their activity portion of tBe day in May /Rismiller and Heldmaier, 1985/. This lizard also displays a strong circa- dian rhythm in body temperature selection, whereby both level and amplitude shift with the seasonally changing photoperiod. Although decades of studies havedocumented hys- teresis between heating and cooling rates of both large /Bartholomew and Tucker, 1963/ and small lizards /Classen and Art, 1981/, seasonal changes in physiological control of thermoregulation have not been considered. Since the voluntary shift in Tj, preference shown by L. viridis most likely involves modification of other physiological parameters, we decided to compare spring rates of heating and cooling with those found in the fall.
Rismiller, P.D. & Heldmaier, G. (1987) -
1. 1. Body temperature Tb of Lacerta viridis was monitored telemetrically under natural photoperiod.
2. 2. At the end of August (LD 14:10) one group of lizards was placed in a short day photoperiod (LD 8:16) and one group received melatonin implants and was maintained at the prevailing long photoperiod.
3. 3. After 3 weeks both groups showed a modified Tb selection pattern similar to that seen under natural photoperiod in fall.
4. 4. Since melatonin mimicked the effect of short photoperiod on Tb selection, it is surmised that this hormone is involved in mediating photoperiodic information which may influence seasonal cueing of thermoregulatory responses.
Rismiller, P.D. & Heldmaier, G. (1988) -
European green lizards, Lacerta viridis, show a distinct annual cycle in their day and nighttime selected body temperature (T b) levels when monitored under natural photoperiod. The amplitude between daily photophase and scotophase temperatures varies throughout the year. Highest body temperatures with smallest day/night variation are selected from May through July. Throughout fall, the difference between day and nighttime selected T b levels increases. Lizards inevitably enter a state of winter dormancy which terminates daily rhythmicity patterns. Under natural photoperiodic conditions, cessation of dormancy occurs spontaneously by mid-March, regardless whether high temperatures are available or not. Lacerta viridis respond to an artificial long photoperiod (16 h light, 8 h dark) at all times of the year with modifications in both diel patterns and levels of selected T b to summer-like conditions. When, however, the natural photoperiod at different phases in the annual cycle is held constant for six to eight weeks, T b selection of Lacerta viridis also remains stable at the level corresponding to the prevailing photoperiod. These results implicate that the photoperiod is a more prominent Zeitgeber for seasonal cueing of temperature selection than has been surmised in the past. Further, we suggest that the large variations recorded in daily T b cycles do not imply that this lizard is an imprecise thermoregulator, but rather indicates an important integral process necessary for seasonal acclimatization.
Rismiller, P.D. & Heldmaier, G. (1991) -
Lacerta viridis maintained under natural photoperiodic conditions show daily and seasonal changes in metabolic rates and body temperature (Tb) as well as seasonal differences in sensitivity to temperature change. At all times of the year lizards have a daily fluctuation in oxygen consumption, with higher metabolic rates during the light phase of the day when tested at a constant ambient temperature (Ta) of 30°C. Rhythmicity of metabolic rate persists under constant darkness, but there is a decrease in the amplitude of the rhythm.
Oxygen consumption measured at various Tas shows significant seasonal differences at Tas above 20°C. Expressed as the Arrhenius activation energy, metabolic sensitivity of Lacerta viridis shows temperature dependence in autumn, which changes to metabolic temperature independence in spring at Tas above 20°C. The results indicate a synergic relationship between changing photoperiod and body temperature selection, resulting in seasonal metabolic adjustment and seasonal adaptation.
Riva, I. de la (1985) -
Robert, J.C. & Guyétant, R. & Hérold, J.P. & Nicolet, M. (1965) -
Le Lézard vert, Lacerta viridis Laur . est un beau reptile commu n dans le Midi, mais que l`on rencontre jusque dans la Forêt de Fontai- nebleau, qui représente vraisemblablement en France sa limite septen- trionale où A.E. BREHM (2) le signalait déjà en 1885. Il ne persiste cependant dans notre région qu`à la faveur de reliefs d`orientation favo- rable qui constituent des refuges d`étendue souvent très réduite .
Roček, Z. (1980) -
Rödder, D. & Schulte, U. (2010) -
There is growing concern that anthropogenic climate change may particularly affect
ectotherm groups such as amphibians and reptiles. Effects of anthropogenic climate
change were already observed on different levels, ranging from changes in the
phenology of individuals to changes in entire populations, their demography and
geographic ranges with losses and range gains. Especially the latter is exacerbated by
interactions of climate change with existing risk factors such as the spread of patho-
gens and invasive species. In extreme cases, species are threatened by extinction,
which is most likely in endemic species occupying restricted ranges. In this review,
possible future climate change scenarios as well as previous observations and general
expectations of climate change induced changes in phenology, demography and bio-
geography of amphibian and reptile species are presented. Individual case studies on
climate change induced changes in demography of the common lizard as well as
possible range shifts in the alpine newt are highlighted, with applied methods being
discussed regarding different elements of uncertainty.
Rohdich, W. (1974) -
Rojko, I. & Mesaric, M. & Sabolek, I. (2018) -
This paper gives an overview of the previously recorded reindeer species in the area of Međimurje County. Literature data for the period from 1884 to present has been presented. Literature data confirm the occurrence of 8 autochthonous reptiles: turtles (Emys orbicularis), Angius fragilis, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Coronella austriaca, Natrix natrix, Natrix natrix tessellata) and beech (Zamenis longissimus). There is also an aloft type of turtle (Trachemys scripta). In the future, research should focus on less well-researched and potentially present species such as reindeer (Vipera berus) and wall lice (Podarcis muralis), but also to research species of rare species such as green beans and beetles. The influence of foreign invasive reptiles on autochthon is also insufficiently researched, especially as there is an alohton type Pseudemys concin on the border of Slovenia and Croatia and it is possible to come to the Croatian side of the Mura River.
Radom se daje pregled dosad zabilježenih vrsta gmazova na području Međimurske županije. Predstavljeni su literaturni podaci za razdoblje od 1884. godine do danas. Literaturni podaci potvrđuju pojavnost 8 autohtonih vrsta gmazova: barske kornjače (Emys orbicularis), sljepića (Angius fragilis), livadne gušterice (Lacerta agilis), zelembaća (Lacerta viridis), smukulje (Coronella austriaca), bjelouške (Natrix natrix), ribarice (Natrix tessellata) i bjelice (Zamenis longissimus). Prisutna je i alohtona vrsta kornjače (Trachemys scripta). U budućnosti je istraživanja potrebno usmjeriti na slabije istražene, a potencijalno prisutne vrste kao što je riđovka (Vipera berus) i zidna gušterica (Podarcis muralis), ali i istražiti vrste čiji nalazi su rijetki, poput zelembaća i bjelice. Utjecaj stranih invazivnih vrsta gmazova na autohtone također je nedovoljno istražen, posebno jer je na granici Slovenije i Hrvatske zabilježena alohtona vrsta Pseudemys concinna te je moguće da dolazi i na hrvatskoj strani rijeke Mure.
Rollinat, R. (1895) -
Rollinat, R. (1900) -
Rösch, J. (1913) -
Rössler, E. (1904) -
Roulet, F.C. (1959) -
Rovatsos, M. & Vukic, J. & Altmanová, M. & Johnson Pokorná, M. & Moravec, J. & Kratochvíl, L. (2016) -
Sex chromosomes are believed to be stable in endotherms, but young and evolutionary unstable in most ectothermic vertebrates. Within lacertids, the widely radiated lizard group, sex chromosomes have been reported to vary in morphology and heterochroma- tinization, which may suggest turnovers during the evolution of the group. We compared the partial gene content of the Z-specific part of sex chromosomes across major lineages of lacertids and discovered a strong evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes. We can conclude that the common ancestor of lacertids, living around 70million years ago (Mya), already had the same highly differentiated sex chromosomes. Molecular data demonstrating an evolutionary conservation of sex chro- mosomes have also been documented for iguanas and caenophidian snakes. It seems that differences in the evolutionary conservation of sex chromosomes in vertebrates do not reflect the distinction between endotherms and ectotherms, but rather between amniotes and anamniotes, or generally, the differences in the life history of particular lineages.
Rucner, D. & Rucner, R. (1971) -
Rykena, S: & Nettmann, H.K. & Mayer, W. (1998) -
Rykena, S. (1976) -
Rykena, S. (1987) -
Rykena, S. (1991) -
Hybridization experiments between the five commonly recognized species L. agilis, L. viridis, L. schreiberi, L. strigata, L. trilineata reveal increased rates of malformation and reduced fertility up to sterility as postzygotic isolating mechanisms. Depending on the combination, 30% up to 100% of hybrid females are sterile while only two sterile males were observed among hundreds. In backcrosses and in the rare cases of F2 generations, a drastic decrease of reproductive success was observed, if fertile offspring occurred. Clear species boundaries between the five species are demonstrated, although different degrees of postzygotic isolation indicate different genetic distances between them. Results from crosses within the taxon L. viridis s. 1. justify the distinction of two polytypic semispecies, L. bilineata in the western part of the range and L. viridis in the eastern part.
Rykena, S. (2002) -
Rykena, S. & Henke, L. (1978) -
Two female hybrids hatched from a crossbreed of Lacerta viridis male X Lacerta agilis female.
One of them is in colour and pattern very similar to L. agilis, while the other one with its green back and its faint pattern looks somewhat intermediate between the two species.
Correlated with these two types of dorsal pattern is the size of scales on the middle back, forming a band of narrowed scales in the agilis-Iike specimen, but differing only very litt!e from the other backscales in the green-backed specimen.
Both hybrids are with 11,1 cm snout-vent-length !arger than any L. agilis, so com- parable to L. viridis. But having a short blunt head, short legs and a short tail they show proportions of L. agilis.
One of the hybrids laid unfertilized eggs at several times.
Rykena, S. & Nettmann, H.-K. & Mayer, W. (2002) -
From the Dirfis mountains at the island of Evvia (Euboea) the new subspecies, Lacerta viridis guentherpetersi ssp. nov., is described. It is a large growing, robust, Green Lizard, lacking any bright blue colour but with green coloration at the throat and headsides in both sexes. It can be distinguished from the L. v. meridionalis by its coloration and proportions and by the lack of a marked massetericum and from the nominate subspecies by the head coloration. Differences based on molecular characters and on hybridisation results have been published already (AMANN et al.
1997, MAYER & BEYERLEIN 2001), while the nominal description is presented here. Two different morphs of subadults pattern are described, which may also occur in other populations. This Green Lizard lives at about 1000 m above sea level in open places around forest. Similar Green Lizard populations occur in mountains of mainland Greece (Olympus, Pilion, Ossa), which presumably will belong also to this new subspecies, but further studies are necessary to analyse the Variation
pattern of different character levels and the evolutionary history of Green Lizards of mainland Greece.
Rykena, S. & Nettmann, H.K. & Günther, R. (1996) -
Sacchi, R. & Scali, S. & Cavirani, V. & Pupin, F. & Pelitteri-Rosa, D. & Zuffi, M.A.L. (2011) -
The present study reports the morphology of leukocytes of 12 European lacertid lizards (Podarcis sicula, P. tiliguerta, P. melisellensis, P. bocagei, P. muralis, Algyroides nigropunctatus, Lacerta viridis, L. bilineata, L. trilineata, L. oxycephala, Timon lepidus, and Zootoca vivipara) stained using May–Grünwald/Giemsa method. The morphology of white blood cells was very similar among species, suggesting a relative morphological uniformity within the lacertid lizards. For six species (i.e. P. sicula, P. tiliguerta, P. melisellensis, P. bocagei, P. muralis, and A. nigropunctatus), we determined the leukocyte differential counts, which may be considered representative of the normal values of the corresponding populations. These results may be useful either in clinical investigation to detect pathologies in wild individuals, as in management and conservation projects to assess the general health conditions of natural wild lizard populations.
Sagonas, K. (2014) -
The structural and functional features that animals develop in order to survive and thrive in their environment have long drawn the attention of the scientific community. Regarding insular ecosystems, the unique physical-natural conditions prevailing on them, the strictly defined by the seas boundaries and the more simplified systems induce the diversification and evolution of island biotas with a number of ways.
The main aim of the present research was first, to investigate the effect of natural selection on the ecology, physiology and general biology of ectothermic animals, such as lizards and second, to examine how natural selection can shape morphological, functional and behavioral traits. To this aim, we studied insular and mainland populations of the lizard species Lacerta trilineata (Sauria: Lacertidae). The green lizards of the genus Lacerta comprises nine allopatric species, four of which occur in Greece, while only L. trilineata is distributed in both continental and insular Greek region. The latter feature makes L. trilineata an ideal organism to study the phenotypic plasticity of physiological and morphological traits. How and with what adaptations was its current distribution formed? How did insular and mainland populations have diversified to the different environmental conditions? Are there historical or ecological causes that led to this diversification? These are some of the subjects that this PhD Thesis was dealt with. Through a comparative framework, that contained several L. trilineata populations we tried to address these issues.
The resolved phylogeny revealed that the first branch-off of the Greek green lizards occurred during the middle Miocene (13.91 Mya) and led to the separation of the L. viridis/bilineata group from the species L. agilis and L. trilineata. The next major cladogenetic event took place at late Miocene (11.65 Mya) and led to the separation of the latter two species. Regarding the clade of L. trilineata our results support the existence of six distinct lineages. The high intraspecific genetic divergences between these lineages, which are comparable to that recorded among lacertid species, raises questions regarding its taxonomic status and whether or not it is a single species. L. trilineata seems to originate and diverge in western Anatolia. Given the phylogeny of L. trilineata in the Aegean and the geological history of the Greek area, we assume that the ancestral form of this species invaded the Greek area from Anatolia before the complete formation of the MAT (~9 Mya). The forming of this barrier gave the two groups of L. trilineata lineages (west and east of the trench). Within each group, some other vicariant and dispersal events as well as the raise of the Mediterranean Sea at the end of the last glacial period during Holocene have resulted in the present distribution of the six evolutionary lineages of L. trilineata.
In order to approach the thermal biology of this species, we studied two mainland and two island populations and determined three different thermal values for each population: lizard`s temperature under normal conditions in the field (body temperature), the temperature that a lizard may achieve in a special designed thermal gradient in the lab (selective temperature) and the potential temperatures that an animal could reach in its biotope (operative temperatures). From the correlation of these three values we tried to describe the strategy of thermoregulation that each population has adopted. The comparison between mainland and island populations revealed that both populations have adapted to their thermal environment, supporting the `labile` view on the evolution of thermal physiology for this species. In particular, insular lizards thermoregulate less effectively because of the more benign, in terms of thermal quality, environment and have lower thermal preferenda. Mainland lizards on the other hand, showed higher effectiveness as a result of the more demanding environment. However, predation regime seems to restrict the ability of the latter to achieve body temperatures close to their set-point range.
To investigate the trophic ecology of the Balkan green lizard, we removed the digestive track of preserved specimens as well as collected the fecal material from live lizards, and we correlated the trophic data with morphological and functional traits. Our findings support that L. trilineata is a widely foraging predator, feeding on numerous invertebrate taxa, while Coleoptera and Orthoptera represent the predominant prey group. Ontogeny, sex, season and habitat affect the feeding ecology of this species. The seasonal variation in the diet of L. trilineata corroborate that the species is an opportunistic predator. However, juveniles followed a discrete feeding pattern, which indicates an ontogenetic shift. During their growth, lacertids undergo significant changes in the size, shape and performance of their feeding apparatus. A complementary underlying reason should be sought in the way adults exploit their environment and the areas that usually occupy. Finally, regarding the observed differences in diet composition between sexes as well as island and mainland populations, these probably reflect adaptations through sexual and natural selection. The more robust heads of male lizards allows them to develop a greater bite force and consequently to feed on harder prey items. In addition, the food scarcity prevailing in the Mediterranean islands offers little choice to insular lizards. Thus islanders have to take advantage of every available food resource in order to survive even plant material, which they achieved by increasing the head depth and width as well as bite force, compared to their mainland counterparts.
Differences on feeding ecology usually affect several aspects of the digestive system such as physiology and morphology. In the study of the digestive procedure we tried to obtain a qualitative approach of the digestion of the main organic compounds (lipids, sugars and proteins). Islanders deviated from their mainland peers increasing the digestive tract length and the frequency of cecal valves in the hindgut. However, an increase in the digestive tract length and the frequency of cecal valves might cause an increase of gut passage time and, thus, food retention times. In other words, enzymes could have more time to act, which maximize the rate of energy intake and the digestive efficiency. We believe that these changes on the digestive procedure could be interpreted as adaptations for the limited food availability prevailing on islands.
Finally, given that the ability of an animal to successfully colonize new habitats is mainly determined by its ability to cope with pathogens of the environment, we studied the immune response in association with the genetic diversity of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. For the study of cell-mediated response we used two methodological approaches: (a) the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and (b) the phytohemagglutinin-induced skin swelling test (PHA). Our finding revealed that the genetic boundaries of islands and the food scarcity prevailing on them caused decline in the genetic divergence at the MHC genes and in parasite tolerance. Nonetheless, the significant importance of balancing selection against genetic drift, in shaping MHC polymorphism, has lead to an increase on the nucleotide diversity of the remaining MHC alleles. As a result and besides the reduce parasite tolerance of islanders, the latter demonstrated high cell mediated response, which is comparable to their mainland peers.
To sum up, it appears that island populations of L. trilineata have adapted to the different biotic and abiotic environmental conditions of islands, which have lead to the development of unique morphological, physiological and behavioral traits.
ΣΑΓΩΝΑΣ, Κ. (2014) -
Sagonas, K. & Poulakakis, N. & Lymberakis, P. & Parmakelis, A. & Pafilis, P. & Valakos, E.D. (2014) -
The green lizards of the genus Lacerta (Sauria, Lacertidae) comprise nine recognized species, which in Europe are mainly restricted to the southern peninsulas. Four of them (L. trilineata, L. viridis, L. bilineata and L. agilis) occur in Greece. The uncertainty of morphological diversification renders the taxonomic assignment into species and subspecies problematic. In this study sequence data derived from two mito- chondrial (cytochrome b and 16S rRNA) genes and one nuclear (NKTR) gene were used to (a) evaluate the taxonomic status of the genus Lacerta in Greece with emphasis on L. trilineata group and (b) investigate the evolutionary history of the genus through the application of phylogenetic and phylogeographic anal- yses, using Gallotia and Timon as outgroups. The phylogenetic analyses revealed the existence of four major clades. The first clade corresponds to L. trilineata group, the second to L. media, the third to L. agilis and the fourth to a complex of L. viridis and L. bilineata. However, the produced phylogenetic relationships are not congruent with the current taxonomy, especially in the first clade in which L. trilineata appeared to be paraphyletic in regard to L. pamphylica. Six distinct lineages were inferred within L. trilineata, despite the current recognition of nine morphological subspecies, the genetic differentiation of which exceeds that of other Lacerta species, imposing a thorough taxonomic revision of the species. Our results suggested a rapid diversification of L. trilineata group during the late Miocene. We believe that the pres- ent distribution of the genus in Greece is the result of several dispersal and vicariant events that took place during the late Miocene and early Pliocene.
Sagonas, K. & Runemark, A. & Antoniou, A. & Lymbwerakis, P. & Pafilis, P. & Valakos, E.D. & Poulakakis, N. & Hansson, B. (2018) -
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has long served as a model for the evolution of adaptive genetic diversity in wild populations. Pathogen-mediated selection is thought to be a main driver of MHC diversity, but it remains elusive to what degree selection shapes MHC diversity in complex biogeographical scenarios where other evolutionary processes (e.g. genetic drift and introgression) may also be acting. Here we focus on two closely related green lizard species, Lacerta trilineata and L. viridis, to address the evolutionary forces acting on MHC diversity in populations with different biogeographic structure. We characterized MHC class I exon 2 and exon 3, and neutral diversity (microsatellites), to study the relative importance of selection, drift, and introgression in shaping MHC diversity. As expected, positive selection was a significant force shaping the high diversity of MHC genes in both species. Moreover, introgression significantly increased MHC diversity in mainland populations, with a primary direction of gene flow from L. viridis to L. trilineata. Finally, we found significantly fewer MHC alleles in island populations, but maintained MHC sequence and functional diversity, suggesting that positive selection counteracted the effect of drift. Overall, our data support that different evolutionary processes govern MHC diversity in different biogeographical scenarios: positive selection occurs broadly while introgression acts in sympatry and drift when the population sizes decrease.
Sagonas, K. & Valakos, E.D. & Lymberakis, P. & Pafilis, P. (2018) -
Die Autoren machen Angaben zur Nahrungsökologie und Reproduktion der Östlichen Smaragdeidecse, Lacerta viridis (LAURENTI 1768) des griechischen Festlandes, dem Südrand ihres Verbreitungsareals. Insgesamt wurden 86 Exemplare aus der herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturkundemuseums von Kreta untersucht. Die aufgenommene Nahrung wurde zu der Jahreszeit ihrer Aufnahme sowie dem Geschlecht und Alter der Smaragdeidechsen in Bezug gesetzt. Die Östliche Smaragdeidechse erwies sich als ein Nahrungsgeneralist, bei dem Coleoptera (Käfer) und Orthoptera (Springschrecken) mehr als 50 % des Mageninhalts ausmachten. Während sich die Jahreszeit nicht auf die Art der ausgenommenen Nahrung auswirkte, bestanden diesbezüglich Unterschiede zwischen den Geschlechtern und Altersklassen. Im Laufe der Ontogenese veränderte sich die Nahrungspräferenz in Richtung zu größerer und härterer Beute hin. Zudem waren Männchen vielseitiger in der Wahl der Beute und bevorzugten deutlich härtere Beute als Weibchen. Geschlechtsreife erlangten beide Geschlechter nicht unter einer Kopf-Rumpf-Länge von 70 mm. Die Fortpflanzungsaktivität beider Geschlechter erstreckte sich vom Frühling bis zu Mitte des Sommers. Die Gelegegröße variierte starke und korrelierte negative mit dem mittleren Eivolumen des Geleges.
Sahin, M.K. & Afsar, M. (2018) -
The present study investigated the reptilian fauna in Amasya Province, Turkey. Reptile species were identified from collections made during field studies or recorded in literature, with some new locality records obtained. Field studies were undertaken over two consecutive years (2016 and 2017). Two lacertid species, one skink species, two colubrid species and one viper species were officially recorded for the first time or their information was updated. In addition to species locality records, chorotypical and habitat selection were also assessed and the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species criteria included. Data on the distribution and locality information for each taxon is also provided. Our findings demonstrate that Amasya might be an ecotone zone between the Mediterranean, Caucasian, and European ecosystems. Although there are some concerns for the sustainable dynamics of reptilian fauna, relatively rich and different European nature information system habitat types provide basic survival conditions for reptilian fauna in the province.
Saint Girons, H. & Bradshaw, S.D. (1989) -
Saint Girons, H. & Castanet, J. & Bradshaw, D.S. & Baron, J.-P. (1989) -
Etude de la structure des populations de L.v. ainsi que la croissance staturo-pondérale dans deux stations soumises à des climats différents: une au centre Nord de la Loire Atlantique, l`autre en Vendée
Saint Girons, M.-C. (1977) -
The activity cycle, social dominance and their interela- tionships in captive populations of Lacerta viridis kept in open- air enclosures have been studied for four consecutive years in South Brittany. Green lizards are very sedentary, seldom moving very far from their shelters. However adult males and dominant females move more frequently than submissive females. Throughout their yearly period of activity, green lizards of all sexes, ages and ranks spent much time basking in the sun to increase their internal temperature, especially during prolonged periods of cool weather. In such conditions submissive females tend to « sun bath » for a shorter time than dominant ones ; they also climb bushes more often. Yearly egg production is also greater in dominant females.
Šalamon, D. & Sterijovki, B. & Šilić, T. (2005) -
Salvador, A. (1974) -
Sapovaliv, P. (1987) -
A local population of Green Lizard, Lacerta v. viridis, from Middle Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) has been investigated both morphometrically and morphologically. Comparing this population with data on lizards from northwestern Europe, some minor differences have been found which, however, do not deviate from the variation range of character of the nominale subspecies. In addition to obtained results, many imperfections and arrors in so far published comparative papers have been evidenced. Further, comparing two isolated subpopulations of the population in question with published data, the presence of genetic drift has been found. This fact, i.e. the possibility of the occurrence of genetic drift in local subpopulations should always be considered in the conservation practice by introducing new individuals and by founding new populations of reptiles.
Šapovaliv, P. (1988) -
Sauer, F. (1989) -
Sauerzopf, F. (1956) -
Sayer, P. (1953) -
Schäberle, C. & Schäberle, A. (2020) -
Schausten, H. & Sound, P. & Twelbeck, R. (1993) -
Schedl, H. (2001) -
Schedl, H. & Klepsch, R. (2002) -
Scherer, Jos. (1904) -
Schermer, E. (1934) -
Schetty, P. (1950) -
Schinz, H.R. (1837) -
Schinz, K.R. (1833) -
Schliewen, U. (1988) -
Schlüter, U. (2003) -
Schlüter, U. (2005) -
Two species of Walllizards are occuring in the Dobruja of Romania and Bulgaria: the Balkan walllizard (Podarcis muralis albanica) and the Taurican or Crimean lizard (Podarcis taurica taurica). A short description of these species is followed by information on distribution, ecology, threats and conservation.